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THE NATIONAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE: AGENDA FOR ACTION TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary Tab A The NII: Agenda for Action Tab B Benefits and Application Examples Tab C Information Infrastructure Task Force Tab D U.S. Advisory Council on the NII Tab E NII Accomplishments to Date Tab F Key Contacts Tab G TAB A THE NATIONAL INFORMATION INFRASTR AGENDA FOR ACTION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY All Americans have a stake in the construction of an advanced National Information Infrastructure (NII), a seamless web of communications networks, computers, databases, and consumer electronics that will put vast amounts of information at users' fingertips. Development of the NII can help unleash an information revolution that will change forever the way people live, work, and interact with each other: o People could live almost anywhere they wanted, without foregoing opportunities for useful and fulfilling employment, by "telecommuting" to their offices through an electronic highway; o The best schools, teachers, and courses would be available to all students, without regard to geography, distance, resources, or disability; o Services that improve America's health care system and respond to other important social needs could be available on-line, without waiting in line, when and where you needed them. Private sector firms are already developing and deploying that infrastructure today. Nevertheless, there remain essential roles for government in this process. Carefully crafted government action will complement and enhance the efforts of the private sector and assure the growth of an information infrastructure available to all Americans at reasonable cost. In developing our policy initiatives in this area, the Administration will work in close partnership with business, labor, academia, the public, Congress, and state and local government. Our efforts will be guided by the following principles and objectives: o Promote private sector investment, through appropriate tax and regulatory policies. o Extend the "universal service" concept to ensure that information resources are available to all at affordable prices. Because information means empowerment--and employment--the government has a duty to ensure that all Americans have access to the resources and job creation potential of the Information Age. o Act as a catalyst to promote technological innovation and new applications. Commit important government research programs and grants to help the private sector develop and demonstrate technologies needed for the NII, and develop the applications and services that will maximize its value to users. o Promote seamless, interactive, user-driven operation of the NII. As the NII evolves into a "network of networks," government will ensure that users can transfer information across networks easily and efficiently. To increase the likelihood that the NII will be both interactive and, to a large extent, user- driven, government must reform regulations and policies that may inadvertently hamper the development of interactive applications. o Ensure information security and network reliability. The NII must be trust- worthy and secure, protecting the privacy of its users. Government action will also ensure that the overall system remains reliable, quickly repairable in the event of a failure and, perhaps most importantly, easy to use. o Improve management of the radio frequency spectrum, an increasingly critical resource. o Protect intellectual property rights. The Administration will investigate how to strengthen domestic copyright laws and international intellectual property treaties to prevent piracy and to protect the integrity of intellectual property. o Coordinate with other levels of government and with other nations. Because information crosses state, regional, and national boundaries, coordination is critical to avoid needless obstacles and prevent unfair policies that handicap U.S. industry. o Provide access to government information and improve government procurement. The Administration will seek to ensure that Federal agencies, in concert with state and local governments, use the NII to expand the information available to the public, ensuring that the immense reservoir of government information is available to the public easily and equitably. Additionally, Federal procurement policies for telecommunications and information services and equipment will be designed to promote important technical developments for the NII and to provide attractive incentives for the private sector to contribute to NII development. The time for action is now. Every day brings news of change: new technologies, like hand-held computerized assistants; new ventures and mergers combining businesses that not long ago seemed discrete and insular; new legal decisions that challenge the separation of computer, cable, and telephone companies. These changes promise substantial benefits for the American people, but only if government understands fully their implications and begins working with the private sector and other interested parties to shape the evolution of the communications infrastructure. The benefits of the NII for the nation are immense. An advanced information infrastructure will enable U.S. firms to compete and win in the global economy, generating good jobs for the American people and economic growth for the nation. As importantly, the NII can transform the lives of the American people -- ameliorating the constraints of geography, disability, and economic status -- giving all Americans a fair opportunity to go as far as their talents and ambitions will take them. INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE: THE ADMINISTRATION'S AGENDA FOR ACTION Version 1.0 I. The Promise of the NII Imagine you had a device that combined a telephone, a TV, a camcorder, and a personal computer. No matter where you went or what time it was, your child could see you and talk to you, you could watch a replay of your team's last game, you could browse the latest additions to the library, or you could find the best prices in town on groceries, furniture, clothes -- whatever you needed. Imagine further the dramatic changes in your life if: o The best schools, teachers, and courses were available to all students, without regard to geography, distance, resources, or disability; o The vast resources of art, literature, and science were available everywhere, not just in large institutions or big-city libraries and museums; o Services that improve America's health care system and respond to other important social needs were available on-line, without waiting in line, when and where you needed them; o You could live in many places without foregoing opportunities for useful and fulfilling employment, by "telecommuting" to your office through an electronic highway instead of by automobile, bus or train; o Small manufacturers could get orders from all over the world electronically -- with detailed specifications -- in a form that the machines could use to produce the necessary items; o You could see the latest movies, play the hottest video games, or bank and shop from the comfort of your home whenever you chose; o You could obtain government information directly or through local organizations like libraries, apply for and receive government benefits electronically, and get in touch with government officials easily; and o Individual government agencies, businesses and other entities all could exchange information electronically -- reducing paperwork and improving service. Information is one of the nation's most critical economic resources, for service industries as well as manufacturing, for economic as well as national security. By one estimate, two- thirds of U.S. workers are in information-related jobs, and the rest are in industries that rely heavily on information. In an era of global markets and global competition, the technologies to create, manipulate, manage and use information are of strategic importance for the United States. Those technologies will help U.S. businesses remain competitive and create challenging, high- paying jobs. They also will fuel economic growth which, in turn, will generate a steadily-increasing standard of living for all Americans. That is why the Administration has launched the National Information Infrastructure initiative. We are committed to working with business, labor, academia, public interest groups, Congress, and state and local government to ensure the development of a national information infrastructure (NII) that enables all Americans to access information and communicate with each other using voice, data, image or video at anytime, anywhere. By encouraging private sector investment in the NII's development, and through government programs to improve access to essential services, we will promote U.S. competitiveness, job creation and solutions to pressing social problems. II. What Is the NII? The phrase "information infrastructure" has an expansive meaning. The NII includes more than just the physical facilities used to transmit, store, process, and display voice, data, and images. It encompasses: o A wide range and ever-expanding range of equipment including cameras, scanners, keyboards, telephones, fax machines, computers, switches, compact disks, video and audio tape, cable, wire, satellites, optical fiber transmission lines, microwave nets, switches, televisions, monitors, printers, and much more. The NII will integrate and interconnect these physical components in a technologically neutral manner so that no one industry will be favored over any other. Most importantly, the NII requires building foundations for living in the Information Age and for making these technological advances useful to the public, business, libraries, and other nongovernmental entities. That is why, beyond the physical components of the infrastructure, the value of the National Information Infrastructure to users and the nation will depend in large part on the quality of its other elements: o The information itself, which may be in the form of video programming, scientific or business databases, images, sound recordings, library archives, and other media. Vast quantities of that information exist today in government agencies and even more valuable information is produced every day in our laboratories, studios, publishing houses, and elsewhere. o Applications and software that allow users to access, manipulate, organize, and digest the proliferating mass of information that the NII's facilities will put at their fingertips. o The network standards and transmission codes that facilitate interconnection and interoperation between networks, and ensure the privacy of persons and the security of the information carried, as well as the security and reliability of the networks . o The people -- largely in the private sector -- who create the information, develop applications and services, construct the facilities, and train others to tap its potential. Many of these people will be vendors, operators, and service providers working for private industry. Every component of the information infrastructure must be developed and integrated if America is to capture the promise of the Information Age. The Administration's NII initiative will promote and support full development of each component. Regulatory and economic policies will be adopted that encourage private firms to create jobs and invest in the applications and physical facilities that comprise the infrastructure. The Federal government will assist industry, labor, academia, and state and local governments in developing the information resources and applications needed to maximize the potential of those underlying facilities. Moreover, and perhaps most importantly, the NII initiative will help educate and train our people so that they are prepared not only to contribute to the further growth of the NII, but also to understand and enjoy fully the services and capabilities that it will make available. III. Need for Government Action To Complement Private Sector Leadership The foregoing discussion of the transforming potential of the NII should not obscure a fundamental fact -- the private sector is already developing and deploying such an infrastructure today. The United States communications system -- the conduit through which most information is accessed or distributed -- is second to none in speed, capacity, and reliability. Each year the information resources, both hardware and software, available to most Americans are substantially more extensive and more powerful than the previous year. The private sector will lead the deployment of the NII. In recent years, U.S. companies have invested more than $50 billion annually in telecommunications infrastructure -- and that figure does not account for the vast investments made by firms in related industries, such as computers. In contrast, the Administration's ambitious agenda for investment in critical NII projects (including computing) amounts to $1-2 billion annually. Nonetheless, while the private sector role in NII development will predominate, the government has an essential role to play. In particular, carefully crafted government action can complement and enhance the benefits of these private sector initiatives. Accordingly, the Administration's NII initiative will be guided by the following nine principles and goals, which are discussed in more detail below: 1) Promote private sector investment, through tax and regulatory policies that encourage innovation and promote long- term investment, as well as wise procurement of services. 2) Extend the "universal service" concept to ensure that information resources are available to all at affordable prices. Because information means empowerment, the government has a duty to ensure that all Americans have access to the resources of the Information Age. 3) Act as catalyst to promote technological innovation and new applications. Commit important government research programs and grants to help the private sector develop and demonstrate technologies needed for the NII. 4) Promote seamless, interactive, user-driven operation of the NII. As the NII evolves into a "network of networks," government will ensure that users can transfer information across networks easily and efficiently. 5) Ensure information security and network reliability. The NII must be trustworthy and secure, protecting the privacy of its users. Government action will also aim to ensure that the overall system remains reliable, quickly repairable in the event of a failure and, perhaps most importantly, easy to use. 6) Improve management of the radio frequency spectrum, an increasingly critical resource. 7) Protect intellectual property rights. The Administration will investigate how to strengthen domestic copyright laws and international intellectual property treaties to prevent piracy and to protect the integrity of intellectual property. 8) Coordinate with other levels of government and with other nations. Because information crosses state, regional, and national boundaries, coordination is important to avoid unnecessary obstacles and to prevent unfair policies that handicap U.S. industry. 9) Provide access to government information and improve government procurement. As described in the National Performance Review, the Administration will seek to ensure that Federal agencies, in concert with state and local governments, use the NII to expand the information available to the public, so that the immense reservoir of government information is available to the public easily and equitably. Additionally, Federal procurement policies for telecommunications and information services and equipment will be designed to promote important technical developments for the NII and to provide attractive incentives for the private sector to contribute to NII development. The time for action is now. Every day brings news of change: new technologies, like hand-held computerized assistants; new ventures and mergers combining businesses that not long ago seemed discrete and insular; new legal decisions that challenge the separation of computer, cable and telephones. These changes promise substantial benefits for the American people, but only if government understands fully the implications of these changes and to work with the private sector and other interested parties to shape the evolution of the communications infrastructure. IV. Managing Change/ Forging Partnerships We will help to build a partnership of business, labor, academia, the public, and government that is committed to deployment of an advanced, rapid, powerful infrastructure accessible and accountable to all Americans. Forging this partnership will require extensive inter- governmental coordination to ensure that Administration, Congressional, state and local government policy regarding the NII is consistent, coherent, and timely. It also requires the development of strong working alliances among industry groups and between government and the businesses responsible for creating and operating the NII. Finally, close cooperation will be needed between government, users, service providers, and public interest groups to ensure that the NII develops in a way that benefits the American people. Specifically, the Administration will: (1) Establish an interagency Information Infrastructure Task Force The President has convened a Federal inter-agency "Information Infrastructure Task Force" (IITF) that will work with Congress and the private sector to propose the policies and initiatives needed to accelerate deployment of a National Information Infrastructure. Activities of the IITF include coordinating government efforts in NII applications, linking government applications to the private sector, resolving outstanding disputes, and implementing Administration policies. Chaired by Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown and composed of high- level Federal agency representatives, the IITF's three committees focus on telecommunications policy, information policy, and applications. (2) Establish a private sector Advisory Council on the National Information Infrastructure To facilitate meaningful private sector participation in the IITF's deliberations, the President will sign an Executive Order creating the "United States Advisory Council on the National Information Infrastructure" to advise the IITF on matters relating to the development of the NII. The Council will consist of 25 members, who will be named by the Secretary of Commerce by December 1993. Nominations will be solicited from a variety of NII constituencies and interested parties. The IITF and its committees also will use other mechanisms to solicit public comment to ensure that it hears the views of all interested parties. (3) Strengthen and streamline Federal communications and information policy-making agencies In order to implement the ambitious agenda outlined in this document, the federal agencies most directly responsible for the evolution of the NII (such as NTIA, the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs at OMB, and the FCC) must be properly structured and adequately staffed to address many new and difficult policy issues. The Administration intends to ensure that these agencies have the intellectual and material resources they need. In addition, in accord with the Vice President's National Performance Review, these agencies will make the organizational and procedural changes needed to most effectively contribute to the NII initiative. V. Principles and Goals for Government Action The Task Force currently is undertaking a wide-ranging examination of all issues relevant to the timely development and growth of the National Information Infrastructure. Specific principles and goals in areas where government action is warranted have already been identified and work has begun on the following matters: 1. Promote Private Sector Investment One of the most effective ways to promote investments in our nation's information infrastructure is to introduce or further expand competition in communications and information markets. Vibrant competition in these markets will spur economic growth, create new businesses and benefit U.S. consumers. To realize this vision, however, policy changes will be necessary: Action: Passage of communications reform legislation. The Administration will work with Congress to pass legislation by the end of 1994 that will increase competition and ensure universal access in communications markets -- particularly those, such as the cable television and local telephone markets, that have been dominated by monopolies. Such legislation will explicitly promote private sector infrastructure investment -- both by companies already in the market and those seeking entry. Action: Revision of tax policies. Tax policies are important determinants of the amount of private sector investment in the NII. The President has signed into law tax incentives for private sector investment in R&D and new business formation, including a three-year extension of the R&D credit and a targeted capital gains reduction for investments in small businesses. Both of these tax incentives will help spur the private sector investment needed to develop the NII. 2. Extend the "Universal Service" Concept to Ensure that Information Resources Are Available to All at Affordable Prices The Communications Act of 1934 articulated in general terms a national goal of "Universal Service" for telephones -- widespread availability of a basic communications service at affordable rates. A major objective in developing the NII will be to extend the Universal Service concept to the information needs of the American people in the 21st Century. As a matter of fundamental fairness, this nation cannot accept a division of our people among telecommunications or information "haves" and "have- nots." The Administration is committed to developing a broad, modern concept of Universal Service -- one that would emphasize giving all Americans who desire it easy, affordable access to advanced communications and information services, regardless of income, disability, or location. Devising and attaining a new goal for expanded Universal Service is consistent with efforts to spur infrastructure development by increasing competition in communications and information markets. As noted above, competition can make low cost, high quality services and equipment widely available. Policies promoting greater competition in combination with targeted support for disadvantaged users or especially high cost or rural areas would advance both rapid infrastructure modernization and expanded Universal Service. Action: Develop a New Concept of Universal Service. To gather information on the best characteristics of an expanded concept of Universal Service, the Commerce Department's National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) will hold a series of public hearings on Universal Service and the NII, beginning by December 1993. The Administration will make a special effort to hear from public interest groups. Building on the knowledge gained from these activities, the IITF will work with the Advisory Council on the National Information Infrastructure, as well as with state regulatory commissions, to determine how the Universal Service concept should be applied in the 21st Century. 3. Promote Technological Innovation and New Applications Government regulatory, antitrust, tax, and intellectual property policies all affect the level and timing of new offerings in services and equipment -- including the technology base that generates innovations for the marketplace. But technological innovations ultimately depend upon purposeful investment in research and development, by both the private sector and government. R&D investment helps firms to create better products and services at lower costs. As noted in the Administration's February 22, 1993 technology policy statement: "We are moving to accelerate the development of technologies critical for long-term growth but not receiving adequate support from private firms, either because the returns are too distant or because the level of funding required is too great for individual firms to bear." Government research support already has helped create basic information technologies in computing, networking and electronics. We will support further NII-related research and technology development through research partnerships and other mechanisms to accelerate technologies where market mechanisms do not adequately reflect the nation's return on investment. In particular, these government research and funding programs will focus on the development of beneficial public applications in the fields of education, health care, manufacturing, and provision of government services. Action: Continue the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program. Established by the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991, the HPCC Program funds R&D designed to create more powerful computers, faster computer networks, and more sophisticated software. In addition, the HPCC Program is providing scientists and engineers with the tools and training they need to solve "Grand Challenges," research problems -- like designing new drugs -- that cannot be solved without the most powerful computers. The Administration has requested $1 billion for the HPCC Program in fiscal year 1994, and is in the process of forming a "High-Performance Computing Advisory Committee," to provide private sector input on the Program. We have also requested an additional $96 million in the FY 1994 budget to create a new component of the HPCC Program -- Information Infrastructure Technologies and Applications (IITA). The Administration is working with Congress to obtain authorization to fund this effort, which will develop and apply high-performance computing and high-speed networking technologies for use in the fields of health care, education, libraries, manufacturing, and provision of government information. Action: Implement the NII Pilot Projects Program. In its FY 94 budget, the Administration has requested funding from the Congress for NII networking pilot and demonstration projects. Under NTIA's direction, this pilot program will provide matching grants to state and local governments, health care providers, school districts, libraries, universities, and other non-profit entities. The grants will be awarded after a competitive merit review process and will be used to fund projects to connect institutions to existing networks, enhance communications networks that are currently operational, and permit users to interconnect among different networks. Funded projects will demonstrate the potential of the NII and provide tangible benefits to their communities. Equally important, they will help leverage the resources and creativity of the private sector to devise new applications and uses of the NII. The successes of the these pilot projects will create an iterative process that will generate more innovative approaches each year. Action: Inventory NII Applications Projects. Many insights can be gained by sharing information about how government can effectively use the NII. By the end of January 1994, the IITF will complete an inventory of current and planned government activities and will widely disseminate the results through electronic and printed means. An electronic forum is being established to encourage government and private sector contributions and comments about government applications projects. 4. Promote Seamless, Interactive, User-Driven Operation Because the NII will be a network of networks, information must be transferable over the disparate networks easily, accurately, and without compromising the content of the messages. Moreover, the NII will be of maximum value to users if it is sufficiently "open" and interactive so that users can develop new services and applications or exchange information among themselves, without waiting for services to be offered by the firms that operate the NII. In this way, users will develop new "electronic communities" and share knowledge and experiences that can improve the way that they learn, work, play, and participate in the American democracy. To assure interoperability and openness of the many components of an efficient, high-capacity NII, standards for voice, video, data, and multi-media services must be developed. Those standards also must be compatible with the large installed base of communications technologies, and flexible and adaptable enough to meet user needs at affordable costs. The United States has long relied on a consensus-based, voluntary standards-setting process in communications. Particularly in the area of information and communications technology, where product cycles are often measured in months, not years, the standards process is critical and has not always worked to speed technological innovation and serve end-users well. Government can catalyze this industry-driven process by participating more actively in private-sector standards-writing bodies and by working with industry to address strategic technical barriers to interoperability and adoption of new technologies. To increase the likelihood that the NII will be both interactive and, to a large extent, user-driven, government also must reform regulations and policies that may inadvertently hamper the development of interactive applications. For example, government regulations concerning the lack of reimbursement of health care procedures may deter the growth of distance medicine applications. Action: Review and clarify the standards process to speed NII applications. By October 15, 1993 the Commerce Department's National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) will establish a panel and work with other appropriate agencies to review the government's involvement in establishing network requirements and standards with domestic and international partners. The panel, with input from the private sector and other levels of government, will consider the role of the government in the standards process and will identify opportunities for accelerating the deployment of the NII. Action: Review and reform government regulations that impede development of interactive services and applications. The Administration will work closely with the private sector, as well as state and local governments, to identify government policies and regulations that may hinder the growth of interactive services and applications. The IITF will determine how those regulations should be changed. 5. Ensure Information Security and Network Reliability The trustworthiness and security of communications channels and networks are essential to the success of the NII. Users must be assured that information transmitted over the infrastructure will go when and where it is intended to go. Electronic information systems can create new vulnerabilities. For example, electronic files can be broken into and copied from remote locations, and cellular phone conversations can be monitored easily. Yet these same systems, if properly designed, can offer greater security than less advanced communications channels. Through the use of information systems, gathering, sending, and receiving a wide variety of personal information is now simple, quick, and relatively inexpensive. The use of information technologies to access, modify, revise, repackage, and resell information can benefit individuals, but unauthorized use can encroach on their privacy. While media reports often emphasize the role of modern information technology in invading privacy, technology advances and enhanced management oversight also offer the opportunity for privacy protection. This protection is especially important to businesses that increasingly transmit sensitive proprietary data through electronic means. In a climate of tough global competitiveness to gain market advantage, the confidentiality of this information can spell the difference between business success or failure. In addition, it is essential that the Federal government work with the communications industry to reduce the vulnerability of the nation's information infrastructure. The NII must be designed and managed in a way that minimizes the impact of accident or sabotage. The system must also continue to function in the event of attack or catastrophic natural disaster. Action: Review privacy concerns of the NII. The IITF has developed a work plan to investigate what policies are necessary to ensure individual privacy, while recognizing the legitimate societal needs for information, including those of law enforcement. The IITF has also developed a work plan to investigate how the government will ensure that the infrastructure's operations are compatible with the legitimate privacy interests of its users. Action: Review of encryption technology. In April, the President announced a thorough review of Federal policies on encryption technology. In addition, Federal agencies are working with industry to develop new technologies that protect the privacy of citizens, while enabling law enforcement agencies to continue to use court-authorized wiretaps to fight terrorism, drug rings, organized crime, and corruption. Federal agencies are working with industry to develop encryption hardware and software that can be used for this application. Action: Work with industry to increase network reliability. The National Communications System brings together 23 Federal agencies with industry to reduce the vulnerability of the nation's telecommunications systems to accident, sabotage, natural disaster, or military attack. And the Federal Communications Commission has an industry and user Network Reliability Council to advise it on ensuring the reliability of the nation's commercial telecommunications networks. These efforts are increasingly important as the threat posed by terrorism and computing hacking grows. The NCS will continue its work and will coordinate with the IITF. In addition, the National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee, which advises the President in coordination with the NCS, as well as the FCC's Network Reliability Council, will coordinate with and complement the work of the Advisory Council on the National Information Infrastructure. 6. Improve Management of the Radio Frequency Spectrum Many of the dramatic changes expected from the development of the information infrastructure will grow out of advances in wireless technologies. The ability to access the resources of the NII at any time, from anywhere in the country, will be constrained, however, if there is inadequate spectrum available. To ensure that spectrum scarcity does not impede the development of the NII, the Administration places a high priority on streamlining its procedures for the allocation and use of this valuable resource. Action: Streamline allocation and use of spectrum. The Administration is working with Congress to fully implement the spectrum management provisions of the Omnibus Budget and Reconciliation Act of 1993, to streamline government use of spectrum and to get spectrum to the public efficiently. These provisions will provide greater flexibility in spectrum allocation, including increased sharing of spectrum between private sector and government users, increased flexibility in technical and service standards, and increased choices for licensees in employing their assigned spectrum. Action: Promote market principles in spectrum distribution. Further, the Administration will continue to support policies that place a greater reliance on market principles in distributing spectrum, particularly in the assignment process, as a superior way to apportion this scarce resource among the widely differing wireless services that will be a part of the NII. At the same time, the Administration will develop policies to ensure that entrepreneurs and small, rural, minority- and women-owned businesses are able to participate in spectrum auctions. 7. Protect Intellectual Property Rights Development of an advanced information infrastructure will create unprecedented market opportunities and new challenges for our world-preeminent media and information industries. The broad public interest in promoting the dissemination of information to our citizens must be balanced with the need to ensure the integrity of intellectual property rights and copyrights in information and entertainment products. This protection is crucial if these products -- whether in the form of text, images, computer programs, databases, video or sound recordings, or multimedia formats -- are to move in commerce using the full capability of the NII. Action: Examine the adequacy of copyright laws. The IITF will investigate how to strengthen domestic copyright laws and international intellectual property treaties to prevent piracy and to protect the integrity of intellectual property. To ensure broad access to information via the NII, the IITF will study how traditional concepts of fair use should apply with respect to new media and new works. Action: Explore ways to identify and reimburse copyright owners. The IITF will explore the need for standards for the identification of copyright ownership of information products in electronic systems (e.g., electronic headers, labels or signature techniques). The Task Force will also evaluate the need to develop an efficient system for the identification, licensing, and use of work, and for the payment of royalties for copyrighted products delivered or made available over electronic information systems. 8. Coordinate with Other Levels of Governmental and With Other Bodies Domestic: Many of the firms that will likely participate in the NII are now subject to regulation by Federal, state, and local government agencies. If the information infrastructure is to develop quickly and coherently, there must be close coordination among the various government entities, particularly with respect to regulatory policy. It is crucial that all government bodies -- particularly Congress, the FCC, the Administration, and state and local governments -- work cooperatively to forge regulatory principles that will promote deployment of the NII. Action: Seek ways to improve coordination with state and local officials. The IITF will meet with state and local officials to discuss policy issues related to development of the NII. The Task Force will also seek input from the private sector and non-federal agencies as it devises proposals for regulatory reform. The Administration is committed to working closely with state and local governments in developing its telecommunications policies. International: The NII also will develop in the context of evolving global networks. Because customers typically demand that U.S. communications providers offer services on a global basis, it is critical that the infrastructure within this country can meet international, as well as domestic, requirements. Action: Open up overseas markets. The Administration has shown its willingness to work directly on behalf of U.S. firms to ensure that they have an equal opportunity to export telecommunications-related goods and services to potential overseas customers. For example, the Commerce Department is developing new export control policies governing computers and telecommunications equipment manufactured by U.S. firms. These changes will remove export restrictions on many of these products and permit U.S. manufacturers to enter new markets not previously available to them. The Administration will continue to work to open overseas markets for U.S. services and products. Action: Eliminate barriers caused by incompatible standards. Equally important is the need to avoid trade barriers raised by incompatible U.S. and foreign standards or -- more subtly -- between the methods used to test conformance to standards. Through its participation in international standards committees, the Administration is working to eliminate or avert such barriers. Action: Examine international and U.S. trade regulations. The IITF will coordinate the Administration's examination of policy issues related to the delivery of telecommunications services to and from the U.S., including claims by some U.S. companies that regulatory practices in foreign countries -- including denial of market access for U.S. carriers and the imposition of excessive charges for completing calls from the United States -- are harming the competitiveness of the industry and the costs charged to U.S. customers for service. The IITF also will reexamine U.S. regulation of international telecommunications services. 9. Provide Access to Government Information and Improve Government Procurement Thomas Jefferson said that information is the currency of democracy. Federal agencies are among the most prolific collectors and generators of information that is useful and valuable to citizens and business. Improvement of the nation's information infrastructure provides a tremendous opportunity to improve the delivery of government information to the taxpayers who paid for its collection; to provide it equitably, at a fair price, as efficiently as possible. The Federal government is improving every step of the process of information collection, manipulation, and dissemination. The Administration is funding research programs that will improve the software used for browsing, searching, describing, organizing, and managing information. But it is committed as well to applying those tools to the distribution of information that can be useful to the public in their various roles as teachers, researchers, businesspeople, consumers, etc. The key questions that must be addressed are: What information does the public want? What information is in electronic form? By what means can it be distributed? How can all Americans have access to it? A secondary question is: How can government itself improve through better information management? Action: Improve the accessibility of government information. IITF working groups will carefully consider the problems associated with making government information broadly accessible to the public electronically. Additionally, several inter-agency efforts have been started to ensure that the right information is stored and available. Finally, to help the public find government information, an inter-agency project has been formed to develop a virtual card catalogue that will indicate the availability of government information in whatever form it takes. Action: Upgrade the infrastructure for the delivery of government information. The Federal government has already taken a number of steps to promote wider distribution of its public reports. Legislation has been enacted to improve electronic dissemination of government documents by the Government Printing Office. A number of Federal agencies have moved aggressively to convert their public information into electronic form and disseminate it over the Internet, where it will be available to many more people than have previously had access to such information. In the future, substantial improvements will be made to "FedWorld," an electronic bulletin board established by the Department of Commerce's National Technical Information Service (NTIS), which links the public with more than 100 Federal bulletin boards and information centers. These improvements will enhance FedWorld's ability to distribute to the public scientific, technical, and business-related information generated by the U.S. Government and other sources. Finally, a conference will be held in the Fall of 1993 to begin teaching Federal employees how they can use these distribution mechanisms. Action: Enhance citizen access to government information. In June 1993, OMB prescribed new polices pertaining to the acquisition, use, and distribution of government information by Federal agencies. Among other things, the policies mandate that, in distributing information to the public, Federal agencies should recoup only those costs associated with the dissemination of that information, not with its creation or collection. Moreover, a number of inter-agency efforts are under way to afford greater public access to government information. One project seeks to turn thousands of local and field offices of various Federal agencies into Interactive Citizen Participation Centers, at which citizens can communicate with the public affairs departments of all Federal agencies. Action: Strengthen inter-agency coordination through the use of electronic mail. To implement the National Performance Review's recommendation on expanded use of electronic mail within the Federal government, an inter- agency coordinating body has been established to incorporate electronic mail into the daily work environment of Federal workers. The group is also sponsoring three pilot projects to expand connectivity that will build a body of experience that other Federal agencies can draw on when they begin to use electronic mail. Action: Reform the Federal procurement process to make government a leading-edge technology adopter. The Federal government is the largest single buyer of high technology products. The government has played a key role in developing emerging markets for advanced technologies of military significance; it can be similarly effective for civilian technologies. The Administration will implement the procurement policy reforms set forth in the National Performance Review report. VI. America's Destiny is Linked to our Information Infrastructure The principles and goals outlined in this document provide a blueprint for government action on the NII. Applying them will ensure that government provides constructive assistance to U.S. industry, labor, academia and private citizens as they develop, deploy and use the infrastructure. The potential benefits for the nation are immense. The NII will enable U.S. firms to compete and win in the global economy, generating good jobs for the American people and economic growth for the nation. As importantly, the NII promises to transform the lives of the American people. It can ameliorate the constraints of geography and economic status, and give all Americans a fair opportunity to go as far as their talents and ambitions will take them. TAB C BE NATIONAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE The development of the National Information Infrastructure is not an end in itself; it is a means by which the United States can achieve a broad range of economic and social goals. Although the NII is not a "silver bullet" for all of the problems we face, it can make an important contribution to our most pressing economic and social challenges. This infrastructure can be used by all Americans, not just by scientists and engineers. As entrepreneurs, factory workers, doctors, teachers, federal employees, and citizens, Americans can harness this technology to: o Create jobs, spur growth, and foster U.S. technological leadership; o Reduce health care costs while increasing the quality of service in underserved areas; o Deliver higher-quality, lower-cost government services; o Prepare our children for the fast-paced workplace of the 21st century; and o Build a more open and participatory democracy at all levels of government. This is not a far-fetched prediction. As shown below, our current information infrastructure is already making a difference in the lives of ordinary Americans, and we have just begun to tap its potential. ECONOMIC BENEFITS The National Information Infrastructure will help create high-wage jobs, stimulate economic growth, enable new products and services, and strengthen America's technological leadership. Whole new industries will be created, and the infrastructure will be used in ways we can only begin to imagine. Below are some of the potential benefits to the U.S. economy: 1. Increased economic growth and productivity o The Computer Systems Policy Project estimates that the NII will "create as much as $300 billion annually in new sales across a range of industries." o The Economic Strategy Institute concluded that accelerated deployment of the NII would increase GDP by $194 - $321 billion to GNP by the year 2007, and increase productivity by 20 to 40 percent. 2. Job creation Although there are no definitive estimates for the total number of U.S. jobs the deployment of the NII will create, it is clear that it has the potential to create hundreds of thousands of jobs. For example: o Industry experts believe that the Personal Communications Services industry, a new family of wireless services, could create as many as 300,000 jobs in the next 10-15 years. The development of this industry will be accelerated by the Emerging Telecommunications Technology Act, which was signed by President Clinton as part of the budget package. 3. Technological leadership The NII will serve as the driver for a wide variety of technologies, such as semiconductors, high-speed networking, advanced displays, software, and human/computer interfaces such as speech recognition. This technology will be used to create exciting new products and services, strengthening U.S. leadership in the electronics and information technology sector. For example, experts envision the production of powerful computers that will be held in the palm of our hand, "as mobile as a watch and as personal as a wallet, ... [they] will recognize speech, navigate streets, take notes, keep schedules, collect mail, manage money, open the door and start the car, among other computer functions we cannot imagine today."4. Regional, state, and local economic development In today's knowledge-based, global economy in which capital and technology are increasingly mobile, the quality of America's information infrastructure will help determine whether companies invest here or overseas. States and regions increasingly recognize that development of their information infrastructure is key to creating jobs and attracting new businesses: o In May 1993, Governor Jim Hunt announced the creation of the North Carolina Information Highway, a network of fiber optics and advanced switches capable of transmitting the entire 33-volume Encyclopedia Britannica in 4.7 seconds. This network, which will be deployed in cooperation with BellSouth, GTE, and Carolina Telephone, is a key element of North Carolina's economic development strategy. o In California's Silicon Valley, academics, business executives, government officials, and private citizens are working together to build an "advanced information infrastructure and the collective ability to use it." A non-profit organization, Smart Valley Inc., will help develop the information infrastructure and its applications. Many business applications are envisioned, including desktop videoconferencing, rapid delivery of parts designs to fabrication shops, design of chips on remote supercomputers, electronic commerce, and telecommuting. o The Council of Great Lakes Governors has developed a regional telecommunications initiative, which includes creating an open data network as a first step towards creation of a Great Lakes Information Highway, promoting access in rural areas, developing a set of telecommunications service goals and a time table for achieving them, and developing a computerized inventory of each state's advanced telecommunications infrastructure. 5. Electronic commerce Electronic commerce (e.g., on-line parts catalogues, multi- media mail, electronic payment, brokering services, collaborative engineering) can dramatically reduce the time required to design, manufacture, and market new products. "Time to market" is a critical success factor in today's global marketplace. commerce will also strengthen the relationships between manufacturer, suppliers, and joint developers. In today's marketplace, it is not unusual to have 12 or more companies collaborating to develop and manufacture new products. HEALTH CARE The NII can help solve America's health care crisis. The Clinton Administration is committed to health care reform that will ensure that Americans will never again lose their health care coverage and that controls skyrocketing health care costs. The costs of doing nothing are prohibitive: o Since 1980, our nation's health care costs have quadrupled. Between 1980 and 1992, health expenditures shot up from 9 percent to 14 percent of GDP; under current policies, they will hit 19 percent by the year 2000. Health care cost increases will eat up more than half of the new federal revenue expected over the next four years. o Twenty-five cents out of every dollar on a hospital bill goes to administrative costs and does not buy any patient care. The number of health care administrators is increasing four times faster than the number of doctors. These problems will not be solved without comprehensive health care reform. Better use of information technology and the development of health care applications for the NII, however, can make an important contribution to reform. Experts estimate that telecommunications applications could reduce health care costs by $36 to $100 billion each year while improving quality and increasing access. Below are some of the existing and potential applications: 1. Telemedicine: By using telemedicine, doctors and other care givers can consult with specialists thousands of miles away; continually upgrade their education and skills; and share medical records and x-rays. Example: In Texas, over 70 hospitals, primarily in rural areas, have been forced to close since 1984. The Texas Telemedicine Project in Austin, Texas offers interactive video consultation to primary care physicians in rural hospitals as a way of alleviating the shortage of specialists in rural areas. This trial is increasing the quality of care in rural areas and providing at least 14 percent savings by cutting patient transfer costs and provider travel. 2. Unified Electronic Claims: More than 4 billion health care claims are submitted annually from health care providers to reimbursement organizations such as insurance companies, Medicare, Medicaid, and HMOs. Moreover, there are 1500 different insurance companies in the United States using many different claims forms. The administrative costs of the U.S. health care system could be dramatically reduced by moving towards standardized electronic submission and processing of claims. 3. Personal Health Information Systems: The United States can use computers and networks to promote self care and prevention by making health care information available 24 hours a day in a form that aids decision making. Most people do not have the tools necessary to become an active and informed participant in their own health care. As a result, far too many people (estimates range from 50 to 80 percent) entering the health care system do not really need a physician's care. Many improperly use the system by, for example, using the emergency room for a cold or back strain. Many of those who end up with serious health problems enter the health care system too late, and thus require more extensive and costly therapy. Michael McDonald, chairman of the Communications and Computer Applications in Public Health (CCAPH), estimates that even if personal health information systems were used only 25 to 35 percent of the time, $40 to $60 billion could be saved. Example: InterPractice Systems, a joint venture of Harvard Community Health Plan in Boston and Electronic Data Systems, has placed terminals in the homes of heavy users of health care, such as the elderly, pregnant women, and families with young children. Based on a patient's symptoms and their medical history, an electronic advice system makes recommendations to HCHP's members about using self care, talking with a doctor, or scheduling an appointment. In one instance, "an 11-year old who regularly played with the terminal heard his father complain one day of chest pains and turned to the system for help; it diagnosed the symptoms as a probable heart attack. The diagnosis was correct." 4. Computer-Based Patient Records: The Institute of Medicine has concluded that Computer-Based Patient Records are critical to improving the quality and reducing the cost of health care. Currently: o 11 percent of laboratory tests must be re-ordered because of lost results; o 30 percent of the time, the treatment ordered is not documented at all; o 40 percent of the time a diagnosis isn't recorded; and o 30 percent of the time a medical record is completely unavailable during patient visits. CIVIC NETWORKING TECHNOLOGY IN THE PUBLIC INTEREST The benefits of the NII extend far beyond economic growth. As the Center for Civic Networking observed, "A country that works smarter; enjoys efficient, less costly government, guided by a well-informed citizenry; that produces high quality jobs and educated citizens to fill them; that paves a road away from poverty; that promotes life-long learning, public life and the cultural life of our communities. This is the promise of the National Information Infrastructure." The NII could be used to create an "electronic commons" and promote the public interest in the following ways: 1. Community Access Networks: Grass-roots networks are springing up all over the country, providing citizens with a wide range of information services. The National Information Infrastructure should expand a citizen's capacity for action in local institutions, as it must honor regional differences and the cultural diversity of America's heritage. Example: The Heartland FreeNet in Peoria, Illinois provides a wide range of community information to the citizens of Central Illinois 24 hours a day. Topics covered include 113 areas of social services; a year long community calendar; the American Red Cross; current listings from the Illinois Job Service; resources for local businesses; and local government information. Experts in all fields from law to the Red Cross to chemical dependency volunteer their time and expertise to answer questions anonymously asked by the public. Example: The Big Sky Telegraph began operation in 1988 as an electronic bulletin board system linking Montana's 114 one-room schools to each other and to Western Montana College. Today, the Big Sky Telegraph enables the formation of "virtual communities" -- linking schools, libraries, county extension services, women's centers, and hospitals. Montana's high-school students learning Russian can now communicate with Russian students, and science students are participating in a course on "chaos theory" offered by MIT. 2. Dissemination of government information: The free flow of information between the government and the public is essential to a democratic society. Improvements in the National Information Infrastructure provide a tremendous opportunity to improve the delivery of government information to the taxpayers who paid for its collection; to provide it equitably, at a fair price, as equitably as possible. Example: Some of the most powerful examples of the power inherent in information collection and dissemination come from the experience of Federal agencies. For example, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 established a Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), which required industries to report their estimated total releases of toxic chemicals to the environment. The Environmental Protection Agency has used a variety of means for making the data available to the public, including a collaborative effort involving the agency, the nonprofit community, and philanthropy. This effort involved making the TRI available through an online service called RTK NET (the Right-to-Know Computer Network), operated by OMB Watch and Unison Institute. As a result of the TRI program, EPA and industry developed the "33/50" program, in which CEOs set a goal of reducing their pollution by 33 percent by 1992 and 50 percent by 1995. Because of RTK NET's success, EPA is seeking to expand the information available on the service. 3. Universal access: The NII must be used to bring Americans together, as opposed to allowing a further polarization between information "haves" and "have nots." Example: As part of a recent cable franchise negotiation, fiber optic cable was deployed in Harlem, where 40 percent of the residents live below the poverty line. New York City is exploring the use of interactive video conferencing between community rooms in housing projects and government offices, schools, and New York corporations. These facilities could be used to teach parenting to teenage mothers, and promote mentoring programs between inner city youth and employees of New York corporations. RESEARCH One of the central objectives of the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative (HPCCI) is to increase the productivity of the research community and enable scientists and engineers to tackle "Grand Challenges," such as forecasting the weather, building more energy-efficient cars, designing life- saving drugs, and understanding how galaxies are formed. As a result of advances in computing and networking technologies promoted by the HPCCI, America's scientists and engineers (and their colleagues and peers around the world) are able to solve fundamental problems that would have been impossible to solve in the past. U.S. researchers will continue to benefit from the HPCCI and the emerging National Information Infrastructure. Below are just a few of the ways in which this technology is being used by U.S. researchers: 1. Solving Grand Challenges: As a result of investments in high performance computers, software, and high-speed networks, researchers have access to more and more computational resources. As a result, scientists and engineers have been able to more accurately model the Earth's climate; design and simulate next-generation aircraft (the High Speed Civil Transport); improve detection of breast cancer by turning two-dimensional MRI images into three-dimensional views; and enhance the recovery of oil and gas from America's existing reservoirs. 2. Enabling remote access to scientific instruments: Because of advancements in networks and visualization software, scientists can control and share remote electron microscopes, radio telescopes, and other scientific instruments. 3. Supporting scientific collaboration: The Internet has allowed scientists in the United States and around the world to access databases, share documents, and communicate with colleagues. For example, one computer language was developed by 60 people in industry, government and academia over a period of 3 years with only two days of face-to-face meetings. Instead, project participants sent 3,000 e-mail messages to each other, dramatically reducing the time required to develop the language. As scientific research becomes increasingly complex and interdisciplinary, scientists see the need to develop "collaboratories," centers without walls in which "the nations' researchers can perform their research without regard to geographical location -- interacting with colleagues, access instrumentation, sharing data and computational resources, [and] accessing information in digital libraries." LIFE-LONG LEARNING Increasingly, what we earn depends on what we learn. Americans must be well-educated and well-trained if we are compete internationally and enjoy a healthy democracy. The magnitude of the challenge we face is well-known: o 25 percent of students nation-wide no longer complete high-school, a figure which rises to 57 percent in some large cities. o Currently, 90 million adults in the United States do not have the literacy skills they need to function in our increasingly complex society. The Clinton Administration has set ambitious national goals for lifelong learning. The "Goals 2000: Educate America Act" would make six education goals part of national policy: 90 percent high school graduation rate; U.S. dominance in math and science; total adult literacy; safe and drug-free schools; increased competency in challenging subjects; and having every child enter school "ready to learn." Secretary of Labor Robert Reich also has emphasized the need to move towards "new work." New work requires problem-solving as opposed to rote repetition, upgrading worker skills, and empowering front-line workers to continuously improve products and services. All of the Administration's policy initiatives (national skill standards, school-to-work transition, training for displaced workers) are aimed at promoting the transition towards high-wage, higher-value "new work." Although technology alone can not fix what is wrong with America's education and training system, the NII can help. Studies have shown that computer-based instruction is cost- effective, enabling 30% percent more learning in 40% less time at 30% less cost. Fortune recently reported that: "From Harlem to Honolulu, electronic networks are sparking the kind of excitement not seen in America's classrooms since the space race ... In scores of programs and pilot projects, networks are changing the way teachers teach and students learn." The United States has just begun to exploit the educational applications of computers and networks. Students and teachers can use the NII to promote collaborative learning between students, teachers, and experts; access on-line "digital libraries"; and take "virtual" field trips to museums and science exhibits without leaving the classroom. Example: Headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts and funded by the National Science Foundation, the Global Laboratory Project links students from over 101 schools in 27 states and 17 foreign countries, including Japan, Saudi Arabia, Russia and Argentina. All over the world, students establish environmental monitoring stations to study climate change, monitor pollutants such as pesticides and heavy metals, and measure ultraviolet radiation. Students share their data over the Global Lab telecommunications network with each other and with scientists to make comparisons, conduct analyses, and gain a global perspective on environmental problems. Example: In Texas, the Texas Education Network (TENET) now serves over 25,000 educators, and is making the resources of the Internet available to classrooms. One Texas educator from a small school district described the impact it was having on the learning experiences of children: "The smaller districts can now access NASA, leave messages for the astronauts, browse around in libraries larger than ever they will ever be able to visit, discuss the Superconducting Supercollider project with the physicist in charge, discuss world ecology with students in countries around the world, read world and national news that appears in newspapers that are not available in their small towns, work on projects as equals and collaborators with those in urban areas, and change the way they feel about the size of their world. This will create students that we could not create otherwise. This is a new education and instruction." As computers become more powerful and less expensive, students may eventually carry hand-held, computer-based "intelligent tutors," or learn in elaborate simulated environments. One expert predicted the following educational use of virtual reality: "Imagine a biology student entering an immersive virtual laboratory environment that includes simulated molecules. The learner can pick up two molecules and attempt to fit them together, exploring docking sites. In addition to the three-dimensional images in the head-mounted display, the gesture gloves on his hands press back to provide feedback to his sense of touch. Alternatively, the student can expand a molecule to the size of a large building and fly around in it, examining the internal structure." CREATING A GOVERNMENT THAT WORKS BETTER & COSTS LESS The Vice President Gore's National Performance Review (NPR) provides a bold vision of a federal government which is effective, efficient and responsive. Moving from red tape to results will require sweeping changes: emphasizing accountability for achieving results as opposed to following rules; putting customers first; empowering employees; and reengineering how government agencies do their work. As part of this vision, the NPR emphasizes the importance of information technology as a tool for reinventing government: "With computers and telecommunications, we need not do things as we have in the past. We can design a customer- driven electronic government that operates in ways that, 10 years ago, the most visionary planner could not have imagined." The NPR has identified a number of ways in which "electronic government" can improve the quality of government services while cutting costs, some of which are described below: 1. Develop a nationwide system to deliver government benefits electronically: The government can cut costs through "electronic benefits transfer" for programs such as federal retirement, social security, unemployment insurance, AFDC, and food stamps. For example, 3 billion Food Stamps are printed and distributed to over 10 million households. Estimates suggest that $1 billion could be saved over five years once electronic benefits for food stamps is fully implemented. 2. Develop integrated electronic access to government information and services: Currently, citizen access to federal government information is uncoordinated and not customer-friendly. Electronic kiosks and computer bulletin boards can result in quick response, complete information, and an end to telephone tag. Example: Info/California is a network of kiosks in places like libraries and shopping malls. Californians can use these touch-screen computers to renew vehicle registration, register for employment openings, and get information on 90 different subjects, such as applying for student loans or resolving tenant-landlord disputes. These kiosks have reduced the cost of job- match services from $150 to $40 per person.3. Establish Whether responding to natural or technological disasters, or performing search and rescue or interdiction activities, federal, state, and local law enforcement and public safety workers must be able to communicate with each other effectively, efficiently, and securely. Currently, federal, state and local law enforcement agencies have radio systems which can not communicate with each other because they occupy different parts of the spectrum. 4. Demonstrate and Provide Governmentwide Electronic Mail: Government-wide e-mail can provide rapid communications among individuals and groups, break down barriers to information flows between and within agencies, allow better management of complex interagency projects, and permit more communication between government officials and the public. TAB D THE INFORMATION INFRAST Mission While the private sector will build and run virtually all of the National Information Infrastructure (NII), the President and the Vice President have stated clearly that the Federal government has a key leadership role to play in its development. Accordingly, the White House formed the Information Infrastructure Task Force (IITF) to articulate and implement the Administration's vision for the NII. The task force consists of high-level representatives of the Federal agencies that play a major role in the development and application of information technologies. Working together with the private sector, the participating agencies will develop comprehensive telecommunications and information policies that best meet the needs of both the agencies and the country. By helping build consensus on thorny policy issues, the IITF will enable agencies to make and implement policy more quickly and effectively. A high-level Advisory Council on the National Information Infrastructure has been established by Executive Order to provide advice to the IITF. It will consist of representatives of the many different stakeholders in the NII, including industry, labor, academia, public interest groups, and state and local governments. The Secretary of Commerce will appoint the 25 members of the advisory committee. The IITF is working closely with the High Performance Computing, Communications, and Information Technology (HPCCIT) Subcommittee of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET), which is chaired by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. The HPCCIT Subcommittee provides technical advice to the IITF and coordinates Federal research activities that support development of the National Information Infrastructure. Membership All the key agencies involved in telecommunications and information policy are represented on the task force. The task force operates under the aegis of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and the National Economic Council. Ron Brown, the Secretary of Commerce, chairs the IITF, and much of the staff work for the task force will be done by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) of the Department of Commerce. Structure To date, three committees of the IITF have been established: (1) Telecommunications Policy Committee, which will formulate a consistent Administration position on key telecommunications issues, is chaired by Larry Irving, head of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration of the Department of Commerce. Recently, the Committee created: The Working Group on Universal Service, which will work to ensure that all Americans have access to and can enjoy the benefits of the National Information Infrastructure. (2) Information Policy Committee, which is addressing critical information policy issues that must be addressed if the National Information Infrastructure is to be fully deployed and utilized. Sally Katzen, head of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs at the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), chairs the Committee. The Committee has created three working groups: The Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights, to develop proposals for protecting copyrights and other IPR in an electronic world. Bruce Lehman, head of the Patent and Trademark Office of the Department of Commerce, chairs this group. The Working Group on Privacy, to design Administration policies to protect individual privacy despite the rapid increase in the collection, storage, and dissemination of personal data in electronic form. It is chaired by Pat Faley, Acting Director of the Office of Consumer Affairs, Department of Health and Human Services. The Working Group on Government Information focuses on ways to promote dissemination of government data in electronic form. Bruce McConnell, OMB's Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, chairs this group. (3) Applications Committee, which coordinates Administration efforts to develop, demonstrate, and promote applications of information technology in manufacturing, education, health care, government services, libraries, and other areas. This group works closely with the High-Performance Computing and Communications Program, which is funding development of new applications technologies, to determine how Administration policies can best promote the deployment of such technologies. Arati Prabhakar, Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, chairs the committee. This committee is responsible for implementing many of the recommendations of the Vice President's National Performance Review that pertain to information technology. So far, the Committee has created one working group: The Working Group on Government Information Technology Services (GITS) will coordinate efforts to improve the application of information technology by Federal agencies. TAB E UNITED STATES ADVISOR ON THE NATIONAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE o The President will sign an Executive Order creating the "United States Advisory Council on the National Information Infrastructure" to facilitate private sector input to the Information Infrastructure Task Force. The IITF, which is chaired by the Secretary of Commerce, will work with Congress and the private sector to propose the policies and initiatives needed to accelerate deployment of the NII. o The Council will consist of not more than 25 senior-level individuals to be named by the Secretary of Commerce this year. A chair and/or vice chair will be appointed by the Secretary from among the Council members. o Nominations will be solicited from a variety of NII constituencies and interest groups. The IITF and its committees also will use other mechanisms to solicit public input to ensure that it hears the views of all interested parties. o The Council will be broadly representative of the key constituencies impacted by the NII, including business, labor, academia, public interest groups, and state and local governments. o The Council shall advise the IITF on matters related to the development of the NII, such as: the appropriate roles of the private and public sectors in NII development; a vision for the evolution of the NII and its public and commercial applications; the impact of current and proposed regulatory regimes on the evolution of the NII; privacy, security, and copyright issues; national strategies for maximizing interconnection and interoperability of communications networks; and universal access. o The Council is expected to invite experts to submit information to the Council and form subcommittees of the Council to review specific issues. o The Department of Commerce will act as "secretariat" for the Council, providing administrative services, facilities, staff and other support services. o The Council will exist for two years unless its charter is extended. o The Council will be separate from, and complementary to, the High Performance Computing Advisory Committee, which will be established to provide private sector input on the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative. NII ACCOMPLISHMENTS During its first seven months, the Clinton-Gore Administration has taken major steps to make its vision of the National Information Infrastructure a reality: 1. Freeing up spectrum to create information "skyways": o The President recently signed the Emerging Telecommunications Technology Act, which directs the Secretary of Commerce to transfer, over a ten-year period, at least 200 MHz of spectrum now used by federal agencies to the FCC for subsequent licensing to the private sector. It allows the FCC to use competitive bidding to grant new license assignments for spectrum. o This will create high-tech jobs and accelerate the development of new wireless industries such as Personal Communications Services. The entire cellular industry, which has created 100,000 jobs, was created by licensing only 50 MHz of spectrum. 2. Reinventing Government: o The Administration is committed to using "electronic government" to ensure that the federal government works better and costs less. o As part of the National Performance Review, the Vice President has identified a number of concrete ways to use information technology to cut costs and improve services, such as electronic benefits transfer; access to government information and services through electronic "kiosks"; a national law enforcement/public safety network; and electronic procurement. 3. Investing in technology: The President's FY 1994 budget includes: o $1.1 billion for the High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative, including a new $100 million program to develop applications in areas such as education, manufacturing, health, and digital libraries. The House has passed legislation which would authorize these new programs; Senate action is expected in the fall of 1993. o $50 million for NTIA grants to demonstrate the applications of the NII for non-profit institutions such as schools, hospitals, and libraries. o $40 million for research by the Department of Energy's National Labs on the information infrastructure. The ARPA-led Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), funded at $472 million in FY 1993, has generated almost 3,000 proposals from the private sector, requesting a total of $8.5 billion. Many of these proposals are for technology development for the National Information Infrastructure and its applications in health care, manufacturing, electronic commerce, and education and training. The President recently endorsed increasing the funding of the TRP to $600 million for FY 1994. 4. Making government information more available to citizens: o The Office of Management and Budget issued a new policy in June (OMB Circular A-130) to encourage agencies to increase citizen access to public information. o Also in June, the President and Vice President announced that the White House would be accessible to the public via electronic mail. The Administration is using on-line information services and the Internet to make available speeches, press briefings, executive orders, and a summary of the budget. 5. Creating the right environment for private sector investment in the National Information Infrastructure: o The President has signed into law tax incentives for private sector investment in R&D and new business formation, including a three-year extension of the R&D credit and a targeted capital gains reduction for investments in small businesses. Both of these tax incentives will help spur the private sector investment needed to develop the National Information Infrastructure. TAB G ADMINISTRATION NII INFORMATI To submit comments on "The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action" or to request additional copies of this package: Write: NTIA NII Office 15th Street and Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20230 Call: 202-482-1840 Fax: 202-482-1635 Internet: [email protected] To obtain copies of this package electronically see instructions on next page. Key Administration Contacts: Ronald H. Brown, Secretary of Commerce Chair, Information Infrastructure Task Force 15th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20230 phone: 202-482-3934 fax: 202-482-4576 internet: [email protected] Larry Irving, Assisant Secretary for Communications and Information, Director, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Chair, IITF Telecommuni-cations Policy Committee 15th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20230 phone: 202-482-1840 fax: 202-482-1635 internet: [email protected] Arati Prabhakar, Director, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Chair, IITF Applications Committee NIST, Administration Building, Room A1134 Gaithersburg, MD. 20899 phone: 301-975-2300 fax: 301-869-8972 internet: [email protected] Sally Katzen, Administrator, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, Chair, IITF Information Policy Committee New Executive Office Building, Room 350 Washington, D.C. 20503 phone: 202-395-4852 fax: 202-395-3047 Mike Nelson, Special Assistant, Information Technology, Office of Science and Technology Old Executive Office Building, Room 423 Washington, D.C. 20500 phone: 202-395-6175 fax: 202-395-4155 internet: [email protected] Tom Kalil, Director of Science and Technology National Economic Council Old Executive Office Building, Room 233 Washington, D.C. 20500 phone: 202-456-2801 fax: 202-456-2223 internet: [email protected] Donald Lindberg, Director, HPCC National Coordination Office National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD. 20894 phone: 301-402-4100 fax: 301-402-4080 internet: [email protected] Press contact: Carol Hamilton, Deputy Director, Office of Public Affairs, Department of Commerce phone: 202-482-6001 fax: 202-482-6027 internet: [email protected] The package is available in ASCII format from a variety of electronic sources including the following: 1. 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