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1







                        The Official Phreaker's Manual











































                     The Official Phreaker's Manual   V1.1

                                Updated 2/14/87

                 Compiled, Wordprocessed, and Distributed by:

                                  The Jammer

                                      and

                                Jack the Ripper



































































                                    Page 1









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



                                 Introduction



   What precedes this introduction is what I have termed "The Official

Phreakers Manual", while it may not be.  Many times I have been on a BBS, which

has files claiming to have summed up all the ways to phreak in the U.S. and

abroad, well those were pretty lame and a couple pages long.  Now after many

relentless hours of work, I have done it.  This is an informative file and the

authors of this and the authors from which I have gathered information, take

absolutely NO responsibility and are not liable for, under any circumstances

for damage, direct, indirect, incidental, or consequential.



    Warning: Use of this material may shorten your life in the free world!



   Ok enough of the bullshit, I readily admit that this is mainly a compilation

of available phreak material and public resources.  What I have done is to

gather it all together and edit, compile, check for errors, put in a readable

form, and finally to write what I know without echoing what others have said.

I have set this up that it is good for all levels of phreaks, going from novice

to advanced, and references and tables for easy reference in the back.

   This manual is constantly being updated!  If you have any contributions or

corrections or comments, please leave messages to me (Jack the Ripper) on any

BBS's I am on (probably where you got it).  Thanks!











































































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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



    **********************************************************************



                               Table of Contents



    **********************************************************************





I....... 005 Chapter 1

I.1..... 006 Glossary of Phreaking terms

I.2..... 010 Glossary of Phreaking terms cont.

I.3..... 017 Boxes and Electronic Toll Fraud

I.4..... 020 How to be a Real Phreak

I.5..... 026 Basic Telecommunications I, A Phreaks guide



II...... 031 Chapter 2

II.1.... 033 Secrets of the Little Blue Box. Part 1

II.2.... 041 Secrets of the Little Blue Box. Part 2

II.3.... 050 Secrets of the Little Blue Box. Part 3

II.4.... 058 Secrets of the Little Blue Box. Part 4

II.5.... 062 The History of ESS

II.6.... 064 History of British Phreaking

II.7.... 067 Bad as Shit, an adventure story



III..... 069 Chapter 3

III.1... 070 Phreaking Cosmos

III.2... 072 Cosmos Revamped

III.3... 073 Telenet

III.4... 075 Phreaking AT&T Cards

III.5... 076 AT&T Forgery

III.6... 078 Dealing with Operators

III.7... 079 How to set up a Conference Call

III.8... 081 Fone tapping

III.9... 083 Fone tapping cont.

III.10.. 085 Tracing, how dangerous is it

III.11.. 086 How to avenge yourself

III.12.. 088 Interesting things to do on Step lines

III.13.. 089 Busted, An account of the Private Sector bust



IV...... 092 Chapter 4

IV.1.... 093 Basic Telecommunications II, Special #'s, Loops, Ani

IV.2.... 101 Basic Telecommunications III, Direct Dialing, International

IV.3.... 106 Basic Telecommunications IV, Telefone Hierarchy

IV.4.... 113 Basic Telecommunications V, Subscriber fone electronics

IV.5.... 120 Basic Telecommunications VI, Fortress fones



V....... 123 Chapter 5

V.1..... 124 Basic Telecommunications VII, Blue Boxing

V.2..... 132 Better Homes & Blue Boxing, Part 1

V.3..... 136 Better Homes & Blue Boxing, Part 2

V.4..... 141 Better Homes & Blue Boxing, Part 3

V.5..... 145 More on Blue Boxing by Fred Stienbeck

V.6..... 146 Verification, Remob, etc., Is it possible?

V.7..... 148 Equal Access and the American Dream, Another great article

V.8..... 160 Equal access and Autodialing Modems

V.9..... 161 ISDN, it will change telecommunications for ever

V.10.... 163 ISDN, an article from Proto

V.11.... 165 MCI Services what they are and how they are useful





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    **********************************************************************



                                  Appendixes



    **********************************************************************





Appendix I...... 170 Reference tables and access lists

Appendix I.1.... 171 Country Codes

Appendix I.2.... 173 Country Codes cont.

Appendix I.3.... 176 Country Codes cont.

Appendix I.4.... 181 Max Access ports (Dialups)

Appendix I.5.... 182 Metro Fone Access ports

Appendix I.6.... 183 Area Codes

Appendix I.7.... 185 Tac Dialups around the country

Appendix I.8.... 193 Test numbers around the country

Appendix I.9.... 196 What a TSPS operators console looks like



Appendix II..... 197 Box plans

Appendix II.1... 198 How to make an Infinity transmitter

Appendix II.2... 203 How to make a silver box



                 204 Protection Page









































































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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



                                   Chapter 1



   Ok this chapter will cover the basic vocabulary of phreaking, it is a fairly

long list, though not totally complete.  After the vocab, will be some of the

general rules for phreaking.  Most of the rules are protection from the police

and AT&T, but others are grammatical rules.  These are not as important to your

freedom, but many a phreak will think you are a twelve year old if you start

talking like, "Hey dudz!^$(&, just got the latest warez! trade u for some

soft/docs. Checkul8r".  Well you get the point, here's your vocab list...





































































































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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



    ......................................................................

    ......................................................................

    .                        The Bell Glossary -                        ..

    .                               by                                  ..

    .                         /X<X     /X<X                             ..

    .                        </X>X>ad </X>X>arvin                       ..

    ......................................................................

    ......................................................................



ACD: Automatic Call Distributor - A system that automatically distributes calls

to operator pools (providing services such as intercept and directory

assistance), to airline ticket agents, etc.



Administration: The tasks of record-keeping, monitoring, rearranging,

prediction need for growth, etc.



AIS: Automatic Intercept System - A system employing an audio-response unit

under control of a processor to automatically provide pertinent info to callers

routed to intercept.



Alert: To indicate the existence of an incoming call, (ringing).



ANI: Automatic Number Identification - Often pronounced "Annie," a facility for

automatically identify the number of the calling party for charging purposes.



Appearance: A connection upon a network terminal, as in "the line has two

network appearances."



Attend: The operation of monitoring a line or an incoming trunk for off-hook or

seizure, respectively.



Audible: The subdued "image" of ringing transmitted to the calling party during

ringing; not derived from the actual ringing signal in later systems.



Backbone Route: The route made up of final-group trunks between end offices in

different regional center areas.



BHC: Busy Hour Calls - The number of calls placed in the busy hour.



Blocking: The ratio of unsuccessful to total attempts to use a facility;

expresses as a probability when computed a priority.



Blocking Network: A network that, under certain conditions, may be unable to

form a transmission path from one end of the network to the other. In general,

all networks used within the Bell Systems are of the blocking type.



Blue Box: Equipment used fraudulently to synthesize signals, gaining access to

the toll network for the placement of calls without charge.



BORSCHT Circuit: A name for the line circuit in the central office. It

functions as a mnemonic for the functions that must be performed by the

circuit: Battery, Overvoltage, Ringing, Supervision, Coding, Hybrid, and

Testing.



Busy Signal: (Called-line-busy) An audible signal which, in the Bell System,

comprises 480hz and 620hz interrupted at 60IPM.



Bylink: A special high-speed means used in crossbar equipment for routing calls



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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



incoming from a step-by-step office. Trunks from such offices are often

referred to as "bylink" trunks even when incoming to noncrossbar offices; they

are more properly referred to as "dc incoming trunks." Such high-speed means

are necessary to assure that the first incoming pulse is not lost.



Cable Vault: The point which phone cable enters the Central Office building.



CAMA: Centralized Automatic Message Accounting - Pronounced like Alabama.



CCIS: Common Channel Interoffice Signaling - Signaling information for trunk

connections over a separate, nonspeech data link rather that over the trunks

themselves.



CCITT: International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee- An

International committee that formulates plans and sets standards for

intercountry communication means.



CDO: Community Dial Office - A small usually rural office typically served by

step-by-step equipment.



CO: Central Office - Comprises a switching network and its control and support

equipment. Occasionally improperly used to mean "office code."



Centrex: A service comparable in features to PBX service but implemented with

some (Centrex CU) or all (Centrex CO) of the control in the central office. In

the later case, each station's loop connects to the central office.



Customer Loop: The wire pair connecting a customer's station to the central

office.



DDD: Direct Distance Dialing - Dialing without operator assistance over the

nationwide intertoll network.



Direct Trunk Group: A trunk group that is a direct connection between a given

originating and a given terminating office.



EOTT: End Office Toll Trunking - Trunking between end offices in different toll

center areas.



ESB: Emergency Service Bureau - A centralized agency to which 911 "universal"

emergency calls are routed.



ESS: Electronic Switching System - A generic term used to identify as a class,

stored-program switching systems such as the Bell System's No.1 No.2, No.3,

No.4, or No.5.



ETS: Electronic Translation Systems - An electronic replacement for the card

translator in 4A Crossbar systems. Makes use of the SPC 1A Processor.



False Start: An aborted dialing attempt.



Fast Busy: (often called reorder) - An audible busy signal interrupted at twice

the rate of the normal busy signal; sent to the originating station to indicate

that the call blocked due to busy equipment.



Final Trunk Group: The trunk group to which calls are routed when available

high-usage trunks overflow; these groups generally "home" on an office next

highest in the hierarchy.



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Full Group: A trunk group that does not permit rerouting off-contingent foreign

traffic; there are seven such offices.



Glare: The situation that occurs when a two-way trunk is seized more or less

simultaneously at both ends.



High Usage Trunk Group: The appellation for a trunk group that has alternate

routes via other similar groups, and ultimately via a final trunk group to a

higher ranking office.



Intercept: The agency (usually an operator) to which calls are routed when made

to a line recently removed from a service, or in some other category requiring

another station, such as an Emergence Interrupt.



Junctor: A wire or circuit connection between networks in the same office. The

functional equivalent to an intraoffice trunk.



MF: Multifrequency - The method of signaling over a trunk making use of the

simultaneous application of two out of six possible frequencies.



NPA: Numbering Plan Area.



ONI: Operator Number Identification - The use of an operator in a CAMA office

to verbally obtain the calling number of a call originating in an office not

equipped with ANI.



PBX: Private Branch Exchange - (PABX: Private Automatic Branch Exchange) An

telephone office serving a private customer, Typically , access to the outside

telephone network is provided.



Permanent Signal: A sustained off-hook condition without activity (no dialing

or ringing or completed connection); such a condition tends to tie up

equipment, especially in earlier systems. Usually accidental, but sometimes

used intentionally by customers in high-crime-rate areas to thwart off

burglars.



POTS: Plain Old Telephone Service - Basic service with no extra "frills".



ROTL: Remote Office Test Line - A means for remotely testing trunks.



RTA: Remote Trunk Arrangement - An extension to the TSPS system permitting its

services to be provided up to 200 miles from the TSPS site.



SF: Single Frequency. A signaling method for trunks: 2600hz is impressed upon

idle trunks.



Supervise: To monitor the status of a call.



SxS: (Step-by-Step or Strowger switch) - An electromechanical office type

utilizing a gross-motion stepping switch as a combination network and

distributed control.



Talkoff: The phenomenon of accidental synthesis of a machine-intelligible



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signal by human voice causing an unintended response. "whistling a tone".



Trunk: A path between central offices; in general 2-wire for interlocal, 4-wire

for intertoll.



TSPS: Traffic Service Position System - A system that provides, under stored-

program control, efficient operator assistance for toll calls. It does not

switch the customer, but provides a bridge connection to the operator.



X-bar: (Crossbar) - An electromechanical office type utilizing a "fine-motion"

coordinate switch and a multiplicity of central controls (called markers).

There are four varieties:

        No.1 Crossbar: Used in large urban office application; (1938)

        No 3 Crossbar: A small system started in (1974).

        No.4A/4M Crossbar: A 4-wire toll machine; (1943).

        No.5 Crossbar: A machine originally intended for relatively small

suburban applications; (1948)

        Crossbar Tandem: A machine used for interlocal office switching.



















































































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         ============================================================

                               _  _        _______

                              | X/ |      / _____/

                              |_||_|etal / /hop

                              __________/ /

                             /___________/

                                 (314) 432-0756



                               Proudly Presents



                      The MCI Telecommunications Glossary



                            Part I Volume I (A - D)



                           Typed by Knight Lightning



         ============================================================



- A -



A & B LEADS: Designation of leads derived from the midpoints of the two 2-wire

pairs comprising a 4-wire circuit.



ABBREVIATED DIALING: The ability of a telephone user to reach frequently called

numbers by using less than seven digits. Synonym:   Speed Dialing



ACCESS CHARGE: A fee paid for the use of local lines.



ACCESS CODE: A digit or number of digits required to be connected to a private

line arranged for dial access.



ACCESS LINE: A telephone circuit which connects a customer location to a

network switching center.



AIRLINE MILEAGE: Calculated point-to-point mileage between terminal

facilities.



ALL TRUNKS BUSY (ATB): A single tone interrupted at a 120 ipm (impulses per

minute) rate to indicate all lines or trunks in a routing group are busy.



ALTERNATE ROUTE: A secondary communications path used to reach a destination if

the primary path is unavailable.



ALTERNATE USE: The ability to switch communications facilities from one type of

service to another, i.e., voice to data, etc.



ALTERNATE VOICE DATA (AVD): A single transmission facility which can be used

for either voice or data.



AMERICAN STANDARD CODE

FOR INFORMATION INTERCHANGE

(ASCII): An 8 level code developed for the interchange of information between

data processing and communications systems.



ANALOG SIGNAL: A signal in the form of a continuous varying physical quantity,

e.g., voltage which reflects variations in some quantity, e.g., loudness in the

human voice.





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ANNUNICATOR: An audible intercept device that states the condition or

restrictions associated with circuits or procedures.



ANSWER BACK: An electrical and/or visual indication to the calling or sending

end that the called or received station is on the line.



ANSWER SUPERVISION: An off-hook signal transmitted toward the calling end of a

switched connection when the called party answers.



AREA CODE: Synonym: Numbering Plan Area (NPA). A three digit number identifying

more than 150 geographic areas of the United States and Canada which permits

direct distance dialing on the telephone system. A similar global numbering

plan has been established for international subscriber dialing.



ATTENDANT POSITION: A telephone switchboard operator's position. It provides

either automatic (cordless) or manual (plug and jack) operator controls for

incoming and/or outgoing telephone calls.



ATTENUATION: A general term used to denote the decrease in power between that

transmitted and that received due to loss through equipment, lines, or other

transmission devices. It is usually expressed as a ration in db (decibel).





(B) ENTRANCE INTO THE DDD TOLL NETWORK MAY BE EFFECTED BY A PRETEXT CALL TO ANY

OTHER TOLL-FREE # SUCH AS UNIVERSAL DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE (555-1212) OR ANY # IN

THE INWATS NETWORK, EITHER INTER-STATE OR INTRA-STATE, WORKING OR NON-WORKING.



(C) ENTRANCE INTO THE DDD TOLL NETWORK MAY ALSO BE IN THE FORM OF "SHORT HAUL"

CALLING. A "SHORT HAUL" CALL IS A CALL TO ANY # WHICH WILL RESULT IN A LESSER

AMOUNT OF TOLL CHARGES THAN THE CHARGES FOR THE CALL TO BE COMPLETED BY THE

BLUE BOX. FOR EXAMPLE, A CALL TO  BIRMINGHAM FROM ATLANTA MAY COST $.80 FOR THE

FIRST 3 MINUTES WHILE A CALL FROM ATLANTA TO LOS ANGELES IS $1.85 FOR 3

MINUTES. THUS, A SHORT HAUL, 3-MINUTE CALL TO BIRMINGHAM FROM ATLANTA, SWITCHED

BY USE OF A BLUE BOX TO LOS ANGELES, WOULD RESULT IN A NET FRAUD OF $2.65 FOR A

3 MINUTE CALL.



(D) A BLUE BOX MAY BE WIRED INTO THE TELEPHONE LINE OR ACOUSTICALLY CONNECTED

TO THE HANDSET. THE BLUE BOX MAY EVEN BE BUILT INSIDE A REGULAR TOUCH-TONE

PHONE, USING THE PHONE'S PUSH BUTTONS FOR THE BLUE BOX'S SIGNALLING TONES.



(E) A MAGNETIC TAPE RECORDING MAY BE USED TO RECORD THE BLUE BOX TONES

REPRESENTATIVE OF SPECIFIC PHONE #'S. SUCH A TAPE RECORDING COULD BE USED IN

LIEU OF

A BLUE BOX TO FRAUDULENTLY PLACE CALLS TO THE PHONE #'S RECORDED ON THE

MAGNETIC TAPE.



     ALL BLUE BOXES, EXCEPT "DIAL PULSE" OR "ROTARY SF" BLUE BOXES, MUST HAVE

THE FOLLOWING 4 COMMON OPERATING CAPABILITIES:



(A) IT MUST HAVE SIGNALLING CAPABILITY IN THE FORM OF A 2600HZ TONE. THE TONE

IS USED BY THE TOLL NETWORK TO INDICATE, EITHER BY ITS PRESENCE OR ITS ABSENCE,

AN "ON HOOK" (IDLE) OR "OFF HOOK" (BUSY) CONDITION OF THE TRUNK.



(B) THE BLUE BOX MUST HAVE A "KP" TONES THAT UNLOCKS OR READIES THE

MULTI-FREQUENCY RECEIVER AT THE CALLED END TO RECEIVE THE TONES CORRESPONDING

TO THE CALLED PHONE #.



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(C) THE TYPICAL BLUE BOX MUST BE ABLE TO EMIT MF TONES WHICH ARE USED TO

TRANSMIT PHONE #'S OVER THE TOLL NETWORK. EACH DIGIT OF A PHONE # IS

REPRESENTED BY A COMBINATION OF 2 TONES. FOR EXAMPLE, THE DIGIT 2 IS X-MITTED

BY A COMBINATION OF 700HZ AND 1100HZ.



(D) THE BLUE BOX MUST HAVE AN "ST" KEY WHICH CONSISTS OF A COMBINATION OF 2

TONES THAT TELL THE EQUIPMENT AT THE CALLED END THAT ALL DIGITS HAVE BEEN SENT

AND THAT THE EQUIPMENT SHOULD START SWITCHING THE CALL TO THE CALLED NUMBER.



   THE "DIAL PULSER" OR "ROTARY SF" BLUE BOX REQUIRES ONLY A DIAL WITH A

SIGNALLING CAPABILITY TO PRODUCE A 2600HZ TONE.



*BLACK BOX*

-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-



     THIS ETF DEVICE IS SO-NAMED BECAUSE OF THE COLOR OF THE FIRST ONE FOUND.

IT VARIES IN SIZE AND USUALLY HAS ONE OR TWO SWITCHES OR BUTTONS.  ATTACHED TO

THE TELEPHONE LINE OF A CALLED PARTY, THE BLACK BOX PROVIDES TOLL-FREE CALLING

*TO* THAT PARTY'S LINE. A BLACK BOX USER INFORMS OTHER PERSONS BEFOREHAND THAT

THEY WILL NOT BE CHARGED FOR ANY CALL PLACED TO HIM. THE USER THEN OPERATES THE

DEVICE CAUSING A "NON-CHARGE" CONDITION  ("NO ANSWER" OR "DISCONNECT") TO BE

RECORDED ON THE TELEPHONE COMPANY'S BILLING EQUIPMENT. A BLACK BOX IS

RELATIVELY SIMPLE TO CONSTRUCT AND IS MUCH LESS SOPHISTICATED THAN A BLUE BOX.



*CHEESE BOX*

-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-



  ITS DESIGN MAY BE CRUDE OR VERY SOPHISTICATED. ITS SIZE VARIES; ONE WAS FOUND

THE SIZE OF A HALF-DOLLAR.  A CHEESE BOX IS USED MOST OFTEN BY BOOKMAKERS OR

BETTERS TO PLACE WAGERS WITHOUT DETECTION FROM A REMOTE LOCATION. THE DEVICE

INTER-CONNECTS 2 PHONE LINES, EACH HAVING DIFFERENT #'S BUT EACH TERMINATING AT

THE SAME LOCATION. IN EFFECT, THERE ARE 2 PHONES AT THE SAME LOCATION WHICH ARE

LINKED TOGETHER THROUGH A CHEESE BOX. IT IS USUALLY FOUND IN AN UNOCCUPIED

APARTMENT CONNECTED TO A PHONE JACK OR CONNECTING BLOCK. THE BOOKMAKER, AT SOME

REMOTE LOCATION, DIALS ONE OF THE NUMBERS AND STAYS ON THE LINE. VARIOUS

BETTORS DIAL THE OTHER NUMBER BUT ARE AUTOMATICALLY CONNECTED WITH THE

BOOKMAKER BY MEANS OF THE CHEESE BOX INTER-CONNECTION. IF, IN ADDITION TO A

CHEESE BOX, A BLACK BOX IS INCLUDED IN THE ARRANGEMENT, THE COMBINED EQUIPMENT

WOULD PERMIT TOLL-FREE CALLING ON EITHER LINE TO THE OTHER LINE. IF A POLICE

RAID WERE CONDUCTED AT THE TERMINATING POINT OF THE CONVERSATIONS -THE LOCATION

OF THE CHEESE BOX- THERE WOULD BE NO EVIDENCE OF GAMBLING ACTIVITY. THIS DEVICE

IS SOMETIMES DIFFICULT TO IDENTIFY. LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS HAVE BEEN ADVISED

THAT WHEN UNUSUAL DEVICES ARE FOUND ASSOCIATED WITH TELEPHONE CONNECTIONS THE

PHONE COMPANY SECURITY REPRESENTATIVES SHOULD BE CONTACTED TO ASSIST IN

IDENTIFICATION. (THIS PROBABLY WOULD BE GOOD FOR A BBS , ESPECIALLY WITH THE

BLACK BOX SET UP. AND IF YOU EVER DECIDED TO TAKE THE BOARD DOWN, YOU WOULDN'T

HAVE TO CHANGE YOUR PHONE #. IT ALSO MAKES IT SO YOU YOURSELF CANNOT BE TRACED.

I AM NOT SURE ABOUT CALLING OUT FROM ONE THOUGH)



*RED BOX*

-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-



  THIS DEVICE IT COUPLED ACOUSTICALLY TO THE HANDSET TRANSMITTER OF A

SINGLE-SLOT COIN TELEPHONE. THE DEVICE EMITS SIGNALS IDENTICAL TO THOSE TONES

EMITTED WHEN COINS ARE DEPOSITED. THUS, LOCAL OR TOLL CALLS MAY BE PLACED

WITHOUT THE ACTUAL DEPOSIT OF COINS.





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                       /-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/

                       /-/                           /-/

                       /-/      Phreaker's           /-/

                       /-/       PhunHouse           /-/

                       /-/                           /-/

                       /-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/

                       /-/   By:                     /-/

                       /-/       The Traveler        /-/

                       /-/                           /-/

                       /-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/

                       /-/                           /-/

                       /-/  Call:                    /-/

                       /-/   Brainstorm BBS          /-/

                       /-/   612/345-2815 (300/1200) /-/

                       /-/                           /-/

                       /-/   Little America          /-/

                       /-/   507/289-8211 (300)      /-/

                       /-/                           /-/

                       /-/ Tell 'em Traveler sent ya /-/

                       /-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/-/



 The long awaited prequil to Phreaker's Guide has finally arrived. Conceived

from the boredom and loneliness that could only be derived from: The Traveler!

But now, he has returned in full strength (after a small vacation) and is here

to 'World Premiere' the new files everywhere.

 Stay cool. This is the prequil to the first one, so just relax. This is not

made to be an exclusive ultra elite file, so kinda calm down and watch in the

background if you are too cool for it...



/-/   Phreak Dictionary   /-/



 Here you will find some of the basic but necessary terms that should be known

by any phreak who wants to be respected at all...



 Phreak [fr'eek]:1.  The action of using mischevious and mostly illegal ways

in order to not pay for some sort of telecommunications  bill, order, transfer,

or other service. It often involves usage of highly illegal boxes and machines

in order to defeat the security that is set up to avoid this sort of

happening.

 [fr'eaking]. v. 2.  A person who uses the above methods of destruction and

chaos in order to make a better life for all. A true phreaker will not not go

against his fellows or narc on people who have ragged on him or do anything

termed to be dishonorable to phreaks.

 [fr'eek]. n.    3.  A certain code or dialup useful in the action of being a

phreak. (Example: "I hacked a new metro phreak last night.")



 Switching System

 [Swich'ing sis'tem]: 1.  There are 3 main switching systems currently employed

in the US, and a few other systems will be mentioned as background.

A) SxS:  This system was invented in 1918 and was employed in over half of the

country until 1978. It is a very basic system that is a general waste of energy

and hard work on the linesman. A good way to identify this is that it requires

a coin in the phone booth before it will give you a dial tone, or that no call

waiting, call forwarding, or any other such service is available. Stands for:

Step by Step



B) XB:   This switching system was first employed in 1978 in order to take care

of most of the faults of SxS switching. Not only is it more efficient, but it



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also can support different services in various forms. XB1 is Crossbar Version

1. That is very limited and is hard to distinguish from SxS except by direct

view of the wiring involved. Next up was XB4, Crossbar Version 4. With this

system, some of the basic things like DTMF that were not available with SxS can

be accomplished. For the final stroke of XB, XB5 was created. This is a service

that can allow DTMF plus most 800 type services (which were not always

available...) Stands for: Crossbar.

C) ESS:  A nightmare in telecom. In vivid color, ESS is a pretty bad thing to

have to stand up to. It is quite simple to identify. Dialing 911 for

emergencies, and ANI [see ANI below] are the most common facets of the dread

system. ESS has the capability to list in a person's caller log what number was

called, how long the call took, and even the status of the conversation (modem

or otherwise.) Since ESS has been employed, which has been very recently, it

has gone through many kinds of revisions. The latest system to date is ESS 11a,

that is employed in Washington D.C. for security reasons. ESS is truly trouble

for any phreak, because it is 'smarter' than the other systems. For instance,

if on your caller log they saw 50 calls to 1-800-421-9438, they would be able

to do a CN/A [see Loopholes below] on your number and determine whether you are

subscribed to that service or not. This makes most calls a hazard, because

although 800 numbers appear to be free, they are recorded on your caller log

and then right before you receive your bill it deletes the billings for them.

But before that they are open to inspection, which is one reason why extended

use of any code is dangerous under ESS. Some of the boxes [see Boxing below]

are unable to function in ESS. It is generally a menace to the true phreak.

Stands For: Electronic Switching System. because they could appear on a filter

somewhere or maybe it is just nice to know them any ways.

             A) SSS: Strowger Switching System. First non-operator system

available.

             B) WES: Western Electronics Switching. Used about 40 years ago

with some minor places out west.

  Boxing [Boks'-ing]: 1)  The use of personally designed boxes that emit or

cancel electronical impulses that allow simpler acting while phreaking. Through

the use of separate boxes, you can accomplish most feats possible with or

without the control of an operator.

                      2)  Some boxes and their functions are listed below. Ones

marked with '*' indicate that they are not operatable in ESS.

    *Black Box: Makes it seem to the phone company that the phone was never

picked up.



      Blue Box:  Emits a 2600hz tone that allows you to do such things as stack

a trunk line, kick the operator off line, and others.



       Red Box:  Simulates the noise of a quarter, nickel, or dime being

dropped into a payphone.



    Cheese Box:  Turns your home phone into a pay phone to throw off traces (a

red box is usually needed in order to call out.)



    *Clear Box:  Gives you a dial tone on some of the old SxS payphones without

putting in a coin.



into phone lines and extract by eavesdropping, or crossing wires, etc.

    Purple Box:  Makes all calls made out from your house seem to be local

calls.

 ANI [ANI]: 1)  Automatic Number Identification. A service available on ESS

that allows a phone service [see Dialups below] to record the number that any

certain code was dialed from along with the number that was called and print



                                    Page 21









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



both of these on the customer bill. 950 dialups [see Dialups below] are all

designed just to use ANI. Some of the services do not have the proper equipment

to read the ANI impulses yet, but it is impossible to see which is which

without being busted or not busted first.

 Dialups

 [dy'l'ups]: 1)  Any local or 800 extended outlet that allows instant access to

any service such as MCI, Sprint, or AT&T that from there can be used by

handpicking or using a program to reveal other peoples codes which can then be

used moderately until they find out about it and you must switch to another

code (preferably before they find out about it.)

             2)  Dialups are extremely common on both senses. Some dialups

reveal the company that operates them as soon as you hear the tone. Others are

much harder and some you may never be able to identify. A small list of

dialups:

                   1-800-421-9438 (5 digit codes)

                   1-800-547-6754 (6 digit codes)

                   1-800-345-0008 (6 digit codes)

                   1-800-734-3478 (6 digit codes)

                   1-800-222-2255 (5 digit codes)

             3)  Codes: Codes are very easily accessed procedures when you call

a dialup. They will give you some sort of tone. If the tone does not end in 3

seconds, then punch in the code and immediately following the code, the number

you are dialing but strike the '1' in the beginning out first. If the tone does

end, then punch in the code when the tone ends. Then, it will give you another

tone. Punch in the number you are dialing, or a '9'. If you punch in a '9' and

the tone stops, then you messed up a little. If you punch in a tone and the

tone continues, then simply dial then number you are calling without the '1'.

             4)  All codes are not universal. The only type that I know of that

is truly universal is Metrophone. Almost every major city has a local Metro

dialup (for Philadelphia, (215)351-0100/0126) and since the codes are

universal, almost every phreak has used them once or twice. They do not employ

ANI in any outlets that I know of, so feel free to check through your books and

call 555-1212 or, as a more devious manor, subscribe yourself. Then, never use

your own code. That way, if they check up on you due to your caller log, they

can usually find out that you are subscribed. Not only that but you could set a

phreak hacker around that area and just let it hack away, since they usually

group them, and, as a bonus, you will have their local dialup.

             5)  950's. They seem like a perfectly cool phreakers dream. They

are free from your house, from payphones, from everywhere, and they host all of

the major long distance companies (950-1044 <MCI>, 950-1077 <Sprint>, 950-1088

<Skylines>, 950-1033 <Us Telecom>.) Well, they aren't. They were designed for

ANI. That is the point, end of discussion.



 A phreak dictionary. If you remember all of the things contained on that file

up there, you may have a better chance of doing whatever it is you do. This

next section is maybe a little more interesting...



Blue Box Plans:

---------------



   These are some blue box plans, but first, be warned, there have been 2600hz

tone detectors out on operator trunk lines since XB4. The idea behind it is to

use a 2600hz tone for a few very naughty functions that can really make your

day lighten up. But first, here are the plans, or the heart of the file:



==============================================

700  :   1   :   2   :   4   :   7   :  11   :

900  :   +   :   3   :   5   :   8   :  12   :



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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



1100 :   +   :   +   :   6   :   9   :  KP   :

1300 :   +   :   +   :   +   :  10   :  KP2  :

1500 :   +   :   +   :   +   :   +   :  ST   :

     : 700   : 900   :1100   :1300   :1500   :

==============================================



 Stop! Before you diehard users start piecing those little tone tidbits

together, there is a simpler method. If you have an Apple-Cat with a program

like Cat's Meow IV, then you can generate the necessary tones, the 2600hz tone,

the KP tone, the KP2 tone, and the ST tone through the dial section. So if you

have that I will assume you can boot it up and it works, and I'll do you the

favor of telling you and the other users what to do with the blue box now that

you have somehow constructed it.

 The connection to an operator is one of the most well known and used ways of

having fun with your blue box. You simply dial a TSPS (Traffic Service

Positioning Station, or the operator you get when you dial '0') and blow a

2600hz tone through the line. Watch out! Do not dial this direct! After you

have done that, it is quite simple to have fun with it. Blow a KP tone to start

a call, a ST tone to stop it, and a 2600hz tone to hang up. Once you have

connected to it, here are some fun numbers to call with it:



0-700-456-1000  Teleconference (free, because you are the operator!)

(Area code)-101 Toll Switching

(Area code)-121 Local Operator (hehe)

(Area code)-131 Information

(Area code)-141 Rate & Route

(Area code)-181 Coin Refund Operator

(Area code)-11511 Conference operator (when you dial 800-544-6363)



 Well, those were the tone matrix controllers for the blue box and some other

helpful stuff to help you to start out with. But those are only the functions

with the operator. There are other k-fun things you can do with it...

 More advanced Blue Box Stuff:

   Oops. Small mistake up there. I forgot tone lengths. Um, you blow a tone

pair out for up to 1/10 of a second with another 1/10 second for silence

between the digits. KP tones should be sent for 2/10 of a second. One way to

confuse the 2600hz traps is to send pink noise over the channel (for all of you

that have decent BSR equalizers, there is major pink noise in there...)

Using the operator functions is the use of the 'inward' trunk line. That is

working it from the inside. From the 'outward' trunk, you can do such things as

make emergency breakthrough calls, tap into lines, busy all of the lines in any

trunk (called 'stacking'), enable or disable the TSPS's, and for some 4a

systems you can even re-route calls to anywhere.



 All right. The one thing that every complete phreak guide should not be

without is blue box plans, since they were once a vital part of phreaking.

Another thing that every complete file needs is a complete listing of all of

the 800 numbers around so you can have some more fun.



/-/   800 Dialup Listings  /-/



1-800-345-0008 (6)   1-800-547-6754 (6)

1-800-245-4890 (4)   1-800-327-9136 (4)

1-800-526-5305 (8)   1-800-858-9000 (3)

1-800-437-9895 (7)   1-800-245-7508 (5)

1-800-343-1844 (4)   1-800-322-1415 (6)

1-800-437-3478 (6)   1-800-325-7222 (6)





                                    Page 23









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 All right, set Cat Hacker 1.0 on those numbers and have a fuck of a day. That

is enough with 800 codes, by the time this gets around to you I dunno what

state those codes will be in, but try them all out anyways and see what you

get. On some 800 services now, they have an operator who will answer and ask

you for your code, and then your name. Some will switch back and forth between

voice and tone verification, you can never be quite sure which you will be up

against.

 Armed with this knowledge you should be having a pretty good time phreaking

now. But class isn't over yet, there are still a couple important rules that

you should know. If you hear continual clicking on the line, then you should

assume that an operator is messing with something, maybe even listening in on

you. It is a good idea to call someone back when the phone starts doing that.

If you were using a code, use a different code and/or service to call him

back.

 A good way to detect if a code has gone bad or not is to listen when the

number has been dialed. If the code is bad you will probably hear the phone

ringing more clearly and more quickly than if you were using a different code.

If someone answers voice to it then you can immediately assume that it is an

operative for whatever company you are using. The famed '311311' code for Metro

is one of those. You would have to be quite stupid to actually respond, because

whoever you ask for the operator will always say 'He's not in right now, can I

have him call you back?' and then they will ask for your name and phone number.

Some of the more sophisticated companies will actually give you a carrier on a

line that is supposed to give you a carrier and then just have garbage flow

across the screen like it would with a bad connection. That is a feeble effort

to make you think that the code is still working and maybe get you to dial

someone's voice... a good test for the carrier trick is to dial a number that

will give you a carrier that you have never dialed with that code before, that

will allow you to determine whether the code is good or not.

 For our next section, a lighter look at some of the things that a phreak

should not be without. A vocabulary. A few months ago, it was a quite strange

world for the modem people out there. But now, a phreaker's vocabulary is

essential if you wanna make a good impression on people when you post what you

know about certain subjects.



/-/    Vocabulary    /-/



 - Do not misspell except certain exceptions:

      phone -> fone

      freak -> phreak

 - Never substitute 'z's for 's's. (i.e. codez -> codes)

 - Never leave many characters after a post (i.e. Hey Dudes!#[email protected]#@!#[email protected])

 - NEVER use the 'k' prefix (k-kool, k-rad, k-whatever)

 - Do not abbreviate. (I got lotsa wares w/ docs)

 - Never substitute '0' for 'o' (r0dent, l0zer).

 - Forget about ye old upper case, it looks ruggyish.



 All right, that was to relieve the tension of what is being drilled into your

minds at the moment.. now, however, back to the teaching course. Here are some

things you should know about phones and billings for phones, etc.



 LATA:  Local Access Transference Area. Some people who live in large cities or

areas may be plagued by this problem. For instance, let's say you live in the

215 area code under the 542 prefix (Ambler, Fort Washington). If you went to

dial in a basic Metro code from that area, for instance, 351-0100, that might

not be counted under unlimited local calling because it is out of your LATA.

For some LATA's, you have to dial a '1' without the area code before you can

dial the phone number. That could prove a hassle for us all if you didn't



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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



realize you would be billed for that sort of call. In that way, sometimes, it

is better to be safe than sorry and phreak.

 The Caller Log: In ESS regions, for every household around, the phone company

has something on you called a Caller Log. This shows every single number that

you dialed, and things can be arranged so it showed every number that was

calling to you. That's one main disadvantage of ESS, it is mostly computerized

so a number scan could be done like that quite easily. Using a dialup is an

easy way to screw that, and is something worth remembering. Anyways, with the

caller log, they check up and see what you dialed. Hmm... you dialed 15

different 800 numbers that month. Soon they find that you are subscribed to

none of those companies. But that is not the only thing. Most people would

imagine "But wait! 800 numbers don't show up on my phone bill!". To those

people, it is a nice thought, but 800 numbers are picked up on the caller log

until right before they are sent off to you. So they can check right up on you

before they send it away and can note the fact that you fucked up slightly and

called one too many 800 lines.



Right now, after all of that, you should have a pretty good idea of how to grow

up as a good phreak. Follow these guidelines, don't show off, and don't take

unnecessary risks when phreaking or hacking.



File Level:5



  /-/    Credits   /-/



 To The Videosmith- for setting me straight on some shit.

 To The Linesman- for telling me to upload it to his AE line.

 To Modern Mutant- for making me into a phreaking freak.

 To Jack the Nibbler- for the basis of the blue box plans.



 By using your new k-koool (hehe) phreaking knowledge, call a couple of these

BBS's around the country:



 /---------------------------------X

 |      Bulletin Board List        |

 |     ---------------------       |

 |     215/844-8836                |

 | 7 Cities of Gold (3/12) 10megs  |

 |     307/382-4006                |

 | Brainstorm BBS  (3/12)          |

 |     612/345-2815                |

 | Metal Shop  (3/12)              |

 |     314/432-0756                |

 X---------------------------------/



 Stay free! And watch out soon for Deep Thought, somewhere in 215, that will be

a nice BBS that Ace of Spades and I will run. You will be the first to find out

about it, trust me...



Later,



The Traveler

Zer0-g













                                    Page 25









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



          ************ << BIOC AGENT 003'S COURSE IN >> ************

          *                                                        *

          *            $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$           *

          *            %$  BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS   $%           *

          *            $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$           *

          *                        PART I                          *

          *                                                        *

          **********************************************************





HOW TO BE A REAL PHREAK

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    IN THE PHONE PHREAK SOCIETY THERE ARE CERTAIN VALUES THAT EXIST IN ORDER TO

BE A TRUE PHREAK, THESE ARE BEST SUMMED UP BY THE MAGICIAN:



       "MANY PEOPLE THINK OF PHONE PHREAKS AS SLIME, OUT TO RIP OFF BELL FOR

ALL SHE IS WORTH. NOTHING COULD BE FURTHER FROM THE TRUTH!  GRANTED, THERE ARE

SOME WHO GET THEIR KICKS BY MAKING FREE CALLS; HOWEVER, THEY ARE NOT TRUE PHONE

PHREAKS. REAL PHONE PHREAKS ARE 'TELECOMMUNICATIONS HOBBYISTS' WHO EXPERIMENT,

PLAY WITH AND LEARN FROM THE PHONE SYSTEM. OCCASIONALLY THIS EXPERIMENTING, AND

A NEED TO COMMUNICATE WITH OTHER PHREAKS ( WITH-OUT GOING BROKE), LEADS TO FREE

CALLS. THE FREE CALLS ARE BUT A SMALL SUBSET OF A TRUE PHONE PHREAKS

ACTIVITIES."



THE PHONE PHREAK'S TEN COMMANDMENTS

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



REPRINTED FROM TAP ISSUE #86. (TAP, ROOM 603, 147 W 42 STREET, NEW YORK, NY

10036) SEND A SASE FOR THEIR INFO SHEET AND TELL THEM THAT BIOC AGENT 003 TOLD

YOU ABOUT IT.)





I.     BOX THOU NOT OVER THINE HOME TELEPHONE WIRES, FOR THOSE WHO DOEST MUST

SURELY BRING THE WRATH OF THE CHIEF SPECIAL AGENT DOWN UPON THY HEADS.



II.    SPEAKEST THOU NOT OF IMPORTANT MATTERS OVER THINE HOME TELEPHONE WIRES,

FOR TO DO SO IS TO RISK THINE RIGHT OF FREEDOM.



III.   USE NOT THINE OWN NAME WHEN SPEAKING TO OTHER PHREAKS, FOR THAT EVERY

THIRD PHREAK IS AN FBI AGENT IS WELL KNOWN.



IV.    LET NOT OVERLY MANY PEOPLE KNOW THAT THY BE A PHREAK, AS TO DO SO IS TO

USE THINE OWN SELF AS A SACRIFICIAL LAMB.



V.     IF THOU BE IN SCHOOL, STRIVE TO GET THIN SELF GOOD GRADES, FOR THE

AUTHORITIES WELL KNOW THAT SCHOLARS NEVER BREAK THE LAW.



VI.    IF THOU WORKEST, TRY TO BE A EMPLOYEE, AND IMPRESSEST THINE BOSS WITH

THINE ENTHUSIASM, FOR IMPORTANT EMPLOYEES ARE OFTEN SAVED BY THEIR OWN BOSSES.



VII.   STOREST THOU NOT THINE STOLEN GOODS IN THINE OWN HOME, FOR THOSE WHO DO

ARE SURELY NON-BELIEVERS IN THE BELL SYSTEM SECURITY FORCES, AND ARE NOT LONG

FOR THIS WORLD.



VIII.  ATTRACTEST THOU NOT THE ATTENTION OF THE AUTHORITIES, AS THE LESS

NOTICEABLE THOU ART, THE BETTER.





                                    Page 26









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



IX.    MAKEST SURE THINE FRIENDS ARE INSTANT AMNESIACS AND WILL NOT REMEMBER

THAT THOU HAVE CALLED ILLEGALLY, FOR THEIR COOPERATION WITH THE AUTHORITIES

WILL SURELY LESSEN THINE TIME FOR FREEDOM ON THIS EARTH.



X.     SUPPORTEST THOU TAP, AS IT IS THINE NEWSLETTER, AND WITHOUT IT, THY WORK

WILL BE FAR MORE LIMITED.



CN/A NUMBERS

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    CUSTOMER NAME & ADDRESS BUREAUS EXIST SO THAT AUTHORIZED BELL EMPLOYEES MAY

OBTAIN THE NAME & ADDRESS OF ANY CUSTOMER IN THE BELL SYSTEM BY GIVING THE CN/A

OPERATOR THE CUSTOMER'S TEL-#. ALL CUSTOMERS ARE MAINTAINED ON FILE INCLUDING

UNLISTED #'S. THESE BUREAUS HAVE MANY USES FOR PHREAKS.

    HERE IS HOW AN EMPLOYEE MIGHT GO ABOUT CALLING CN/A:

"HI, THIS IS JOHN DOE FROM THE MIAMI RESIDENTIAL SERVICE CENTER, CAN I HAVE THE

CUSTOMERS NAME AT (123) 555-1212."



    THE EMPLOYEES USUALLY USE THESE FOR CHECKING WHO BELONGS TO A # THAT

SOMEONE CLAIMED THEY DIDN'T CALL.IF YOU SOUND CHEERY AND NATURAL THE OPERATOR

WILL NEVER ASK ANY QUESTIONS. IF YOU DON'T SOUND LIKE A MATURE ADULT, DON'T USE

IT!  ALWAYS PRACTICE FIRST & SO YOU DON'T SCREW UP AND MAKE THE OPERATOR

SUSPICIOUS.  USE NAME THAT SOUNDS REAL, NOT YOUR PIRATE NAME EITHER!  ALSO SAY

THAT YOU ARE FRO A CITY THAT IS FAR AWAY FROM THE ONE THAT YOU ARE CALLING.



    THE CN/A NUMBER FOR THE NY AREA & VICINITY (212, 315, 516, 518, 607, 716, &

914), IS 518/471-8111, AND IS OPEN DURING BUSINESS HOURS. DON'T ABUSE

IT!!!!!!!



AT&T NEWSLINES

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    AT&T NEWSLINES ARE NUMBERS AT AREA PHONE OFFICES THAT TELCO EMPLOYEES CALL

TO FIND OUT THE LATEST INFO ON NEW TECHNOLOGY, STOCKS, ETC.  THE RECORDED

REPORTS RANGE FROM VERY BORING TO VERY INTERESTING.



HERE ARE A FEW OF THE NUMBERS:



 *(201) 483-3800 NJ  (518) 471-2272 NY

  (203) 771-4920 CN  (717) 255-5555 PA

  (212) 393-2151 NY  (717) 787-1031 PA

  (516) 234-9941 NY *(914) 948-8100 NY



    SOME OF THESE NUMBERS ARE TOLL-FREE, BUT YOU CAN'T ALWAYS COUNT ON IT.



* THESE NUMBERS ARE NOT ALWAYS UP!



NUMBERS FROM OTHER AREAS ARE AVAILABLE BY REQUEST FROM F)BIOC  L)AGENT 003.



ANI NUMBERS

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    ANI NUMBERS IDENTIFY THE PHONE NUMBER THAT YOU ARE CALLING FROM. IT IS

USEFUL WHEN PLAYING IN CANS (THOSE BIG SILVER BOXES ON TELEPHONE POLES) TO FIND

OUT THE # OF THE LINE.  IT IS ALSO GOOD TO FIND OUT THE # OF A PHONE THAT

DOESN'T HAVE IT PRINTED ON IT.  IN THE 914 AREA CODE THE ANI # IS 990.  IF YOU

JUST HAVE TO DIAL THE LAST 4 DIGITS FOR A LOCAL #, IE CONGERS (268), DIAL

1-990-1111, WHERE 1111 ARE DUMMY DIGITS THERE IS ALSO A LESS USEFUL TYPE OF



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ANI# WHICH WILL IDENTIFY THE AREA CODE & EXCHANGE.  IT IS NXX-9901, WHERE 'NXX'

IS THE EXCHANGE.  IN THE 212 & 516 AREA CODES THE ANI # IS 958.



PHREAK NEWSLETTER

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    TAP IS THE "OFFICIAL" PHONE PHREAK NEWSLETTER, AND HAS EXISTED SINCE 1971.

EACH 4 PAGE ISSUE IS CRAMMED FULL OF INFORMATION ON PHONE PHREAKING, COMPUTER

PHREAKING, FREE GAS, FREE ELECTRICITY, FREE POSTAGE, BREAKING & ENTERING INFO,

ETC.  IT IS LARGELY PHONE PHREAK ORIENTED, HOWEVER.



    A 10 ISSUE SUBSCRIPTION COSTS $8.00, IF YOU GET A BULK RATE SEALED ENVELOPE

SUBSCRIPTION.  I WOULD RECOMMEND THE FIRST CLASS SUBSCRIPTION, WHICH IS $10.



    AS OF THIS WRITING (7-16-83), THE CURRENT ISSUE IS #86, AND ISSUE #50 IS 8

PAGES INSTEAD OF THE USUAL 4. BACK ISSUES ARE $0.75 EACH, AND ISSUE #50 IS

$1.50.  A BRIEF INDEX TO THE FIRST 80 ISSUES IS AVAILABLE FOR A SASE, OR FREE

WITH A SUBSCRIPTION ORDER. TAP IS NON-PROFIT, AND IN DESPERATE NEED OF MATERIAL

(ARTICLES), MONEY, AND VOLUNTEERS.



TAP

ROOM 603

147 WEST 42ND STREET

NEW YORK, NY 10036



BELIEVE ME:  IT WILL BE THE BEST $10 YOU WILL EVER SPEND...



BLACK BOX

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    THE  BLACK  BOX  IS  A  DEVICE  THAT ATTACHED TO A CALLED PARTIES PHONE

THAT ALLOWS  HIM/HER  TO  RECEIVE  FREE LONG DISTANCE CALLS FROM FRIENDS WHO

CALL.



    YOU ONLY NEED  2 PARTS:  A SPST  TOGGLE SWITCH  AND  A 10,000  OHM (10  K),

1/2 WATT,  10%  RESISTOR.  ANY  ELECTRONICS PLACE SHOULD HAVE THESE.



    NOW, CUT TWO PIECES OF WIRE, ABOUT 6 INCHES, AND ATTACH THESE TO THE TWO

SCREWS ON THE SWITCH. TURN YOUR NORMAL DDSIDE DOWN AND UNSCREW THE 2 SCREWS.

LOCATE THE "F" AND "RR" SCREWS ON THE NETWORK BOX. WRAP THE RESISTOR BETWEEN

THESE 2 SCREWS AND MAKE SURE THAT THE WIRES TOUCH ONLY THE PROPER TERMINALS!

NOW CONNECT ONE WIRE FROM THE SWITCH TO THE RR TERMINAL. FINALLY, ATTACH THE

REMAINING WIRE TO THE GREEN WIRE (DISCONNECT IT FROM ITS TERMINAL). NOW BRING

THE SWITCH OUT THE REAR OF THE PHONE AND CLOSE IT UP. PUT THE SWITCH IN A

POSITION WHERE YOU GET A DIAL TONE, MARK THIS NORMAL. MARK THE OTHER SIDE

FREE.



  WHEN YOUR FRIENDS CALL (AT A PREARRANGED TIME), QUICKLY LIFT &  DROP THE

RECEIVER AS FAST AS POSSIBLE. THIS WILL STOP THE RINGING, IF NOT TRY AGAIN. IT

IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT YOU DO IT FAST! NOW PUT THE SWITCH IN THE FREE POSITION

AND PICK UP THE PHONE. KEEP ALL CALLS SHORT & UNDER  15 MINUTES.



   WHEN SOMEONE CALLS YOU LONG-DISTANCE, THEY ARE BILLED FROM THE MOMENT YOU

ANSWER. THE TELCO KNOWS WHEN YOU ANSWER DUE TO A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF VOLTAGE THAT

FLOWS WHEN YOU PICK UP THE PHONE. HOWEVER, THE RESISTOR CUTS DOWN ON THE

VOLTAGE SO IT IS BELOW THE BILLING RANGE BUT SUFFICIENT ENOUGH TO OPERATE THE

MOUTHPIECE. ANSWERING THE PHONE FOR A FRACTION OF A SECOND STOPS THE RING BUT

IT IS NOT ENOUGH FOR BILLING TO START. IF THE PHONE IS ANSWERED FOR EVEN ONE



                                    Page 28









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



FULL SECOND, BILLING WILL START AND YOU WILL BE CUT OFF WHEN YOU HANG UP AND

SWITCH TO FREE.



WARNING:  BELL CAN RANDOMLY LOOK FOR BLACK BOXES SO BE CAREFUL!



 _____________________________________

|                                     |

---BLUE WIRE-->>F<                    |

|              | |                    |

--WHITE WIRE---/ |                    |

|                |                    |

|            RESISTOR                 |

|                |                    |

|                |                    |

|              >RR<-------SWITCH--X   |

|                                 |   |

----GREEN WIRE--------------------/   |

|                                     |

|_____________________________________|



DIAL LOCKS

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    HAVE YOU EVER BEEN IN AN OFFICE OR SOMEWHERE AND WANTED TO MAKE A FREE FONE

CALL BUT SOME ASSHOLE PUT A LOCK ON THE FONE TO PREVENT OUT-GOING CALLS? FRET

KNOWLEDGE!



    THERE ARE TWO WAYS TO BEAT THIS OBSTACLE, FIRST PICK THE LOCK, I DON'T HAVE

THE TIME TO TEACH LOCKSMITHING SO WE GO TO THE SECOND METHOD WHICH TAKES

ADVANTAGE OF TELEPHONE ELECTRONICS.



    TO BE AS SIMPLE AS POSSIBLE, WHEN YOU PICK UP THE FONE YOU COMPLETE A

CIRCUIT KNOW AS A LOCAL LOOP.  WHEN YOU HANG-UP YOU BREAK THE CIRCUIT.  WHEN

YOU DIAL (PULSE) IT ALSO BREAKS THE CIRCUIT BUT NOT LONG ENOUGH TO HANG UP!  SO

YOU CAN "PUSH-DIAL."  TO DO THIS YOU >>> RAPIDLY <<< DEPRESS THE SWITCHHOOK.

FOR EXAMPLE, TO DIAL AN OPERATOR (AND THEN GIVE HER THE NUMBER YOU WANT CALLED)

>>> RAPIDLY <<< & >>> EVENLY <<< DEPRESS THE SWITCHHOOK 10 TIMES.  TO DIAL

634-1268, DEPRESS 6 X'S PAUSE, THEN 3 X'S, PAUSE, THEN 4X'S, ETC.  IT TAKES A

LITTLE PRACTICE BUT YOU'LL GET THE HANG OF IT.  TRY  PRACTICING WITH YOUR OWN #

SO YOU'LL GET A BUSY TONE WHEN RIGHT.  IT'LL ALSO WORK ON TOUCH-TONE(TM) SINCE

A DTMF LINE WILL ALSO ACCEPT PULSE.  ALSO, NEVER DEPRESS THE SWITCHHOOK FOR

MORE THAN A SECOND OR IT'LL HANG-UP!



    FINALLY, REMEMBER THAT YOU HAVE JUST AS MUCH RIGHT TO THAT FONE AS THE

ASSHOLE WHO PUT THE LOCK ON IT!



EXCHANGE SCANNING

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    ALMOST EVERY EXCHANGE IN THE BELL SYSTEM HAS TEST #'S AND OTHER "GOODIES"

SUCH AS LOOPS WITH DIAL-UPS. THESE "GOODIES" ARE USUALLY FOUND BETWEEN 9900 AND

9999 IN YOUR LOCAL EXCHANGE.  IF YOU HAVE THE TIME AND INITIATIVE, SCAN YOUR

EXCHANGE AND YOU MAY BECOME LUCKY!



HERE ARE MY FINDINGS IN THE 914-268 EXCHANGE:







                                    Page 29









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



9900 - ANI (SEE SEPARATE BULLETIN)

9901 - ANI (SEE SEPARATE BULLETIN)

9927 - OSC. TONE (POSSIBLE TONE SIDE OF A LOOP)

9936 - VOICE # TO THE TELCO CENTRAL OFFICE

9937 - VOICE # TO THE TELCO CENTRAL OFFICE

9941 - COMPUTER (DIGITAL VOICE TRANSMISSION?)

9960 - OSC. TONE (TONE SIDE LOOP) MAY ALSO BE A COMPUTER IN SOME EXCHANGES

9961 - NO RESPONSE (OTHER END OF LOOP?)

9962 - NO RESPONSE (OTHER END OF LOOP?)

9963 - NO RESPONSE (OTHER END OF LOOP?)

9966 - COMPUTER (SEE 9941)

9968 - TONE THAT DISAPPEARS--RESPONDS TO CERTAIN TOUCH-TONE KEYS



    MOST OF THE NUMBERS BETWEEN 9900 & 9999 WILL RING OR GO TO A "WHAT #,

PLEASE?" OPERATOR.



HAVE PHUN AND REMEMBER IT'S ONLY A LOCAL CALL!



TOUCH-TONE & FREE CALLS

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



THERE ARE SEVERAL WAYS TO MAKE FREE CALLS (SPRINT, MCI, ETC.) USING A ROTARY

PHONE.  THEY ARE:



1.  USE A NUMBER THAT ACCEPTS VOICE AS WELL AS DTMF. SUCH A # IS (800)

521-8400. AS OF WRITING THIS, A CODE WAS 00717865.



  A) IF USING VOICE, WAIT FOR THE COMPUTER TO SAY, "AUTHORIZATION #, PLEASE."

THEN SAY EACH DIGIT SLOWLY, IT WILL BEEP AFTER EACH DIGIT IS  SAID. AFTER EVERY

GROUP OF DIGITS, IT WILL REPEAT WHAT YOU HAVE SAID, THEN SAY YES IF IT IS

CORRECT, OTHERWISE SAY NO. IF THE ACCESS CODE IS CORRECT, IT WILL THANK YOU AND

ASK FOR THE DESTINATION #, THEN SAY THE AREA CODE + NUMBER AS ABOVE. ANOTHER

SUCH # IS (800) 245-8173, WHICH HAS A 6 DIGIT ACCESS CODE. (NOTE: IF USING

TOUCH-TONE ON THIS #, ENTER THE CODE IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE TONE STOPS.)



2.  HOOK UP A TOUCH-TONE FONE INTO YOUR ROTARY FONE. ATTACH THE RED WIRE FROM

THE TOUCH-TONE FONE TO THE "R" TERMINAL INSIDE THE FONE ON THE NETWORK BOX.

THEN HOOK THE GREEN WIRE TO THE "B" TERMINAL. TO USE THIS DIAL THE # USING

ROTARY & THEN USE THE TOUCH-TONE FOR THE CODES. (DON'T HANG UP THE ROTARY FONE

WHILE DOING THIS THOUGH!) IF THIS DOESN'T WORK THEN REVERSE THE 2  WIRES.

(NOTE:IF YOUR LINE CAN ACCEPT TOUCH-TONE BUT YOU HAVE A ROTARY FONE THEN YOU

CAN HOOK UP A TONE FONE DIRECTLY FOR ALL CALLS BUT THIS USUALLY ISN'T THE

CASE.) SUCH AS RADIO SHACK'S 43-138.



OTHER ALTERNATIVES

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



4.  USE A CHARGE-A-CALL FONE.  (THESE ALSO MAKE GREAT EXTENSIONS IF YOU REMOVE

IT USING A HEX WRENCH WITH A HOLE IN THE MIDDLE ON THE CENTER SCREW!)--(THESE

FONES, FOR THE BENEFIT OF THOSE WHO DON'T KNOW, ARE BLUE WITH NO COIN SLOTS).



5.  USE A PAY FONE THAT WANTS YOUR MONEY BEFORE THE DIAL TONE. PUT IN YOUR

DIME, DIAL THE #; IF IT'S AN 800 # THEN YOUR DIME WILL COME BACK, IMMEDIATELY

PUT A DIME BACK IN (IT'LL COME BACK WHEN YOU HANG UP!) IF IT IS A TONE FIRST

FONE AND IT DISCONNECTS THE KEYPAD (SOME DON'T) THEN FIND ANOTHER FONE.









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                                   Chapter 2



   Well now we know a little vocabulary, and now its into history, Phreak

history.  Back at MIT in 1964 arrived a student by the name of Stewart Nelson,

who was extremely interested in the telephone.  Before entering MIT, he had

built autodialers, cheese boxes, and many more gadgets.  But when he came to

MIT he became even more interested in "fone-hacking" as they called it.  After

a little while he naturally started using the PDP-1, the schools computer at

that time, and from there he decided that it would be interesting to see

whether the computer could generate the frequencies required for blue boxing.

The hackers at MIT were not interested in ripping off Ma Bell, but just

exploring the telephone network.  Stew (as he was called) wrote a program to

generate all the tones and set off into the vast network.

   Now there were more people phreaking than the ones at MIT.  Most people have

heard of Captain Crunch (No not the cereal), he also discovered how to take

rides through the fone system, with the aid of a small whistle found in a

cereal box (can we guess which one?).  By blowing this whistle, he generated

the magical 2600hz and into the mouthpiece it sailed, giving him complete

control over the system.  I have heard rumors that at one time he made about

1/4 of the calls coming out of San Francisco.  He got famous fast.  He made the

cover of people magazine and was interviewed several times (as you'll soon

see).  Well he finally got caught after a long adventurous career.  After he

was caught he was put in jail and was beaten up quite badly because he would

not teach other inmates how to box calls.  After getting out, he joined Apple

computer and is still out there somewhere.

   Then there was Joe the Whistler, blind form the day he was born.  He could

whistle a perfect 2600hz tone.  It was rumored phreaks used to call him to tune

their boxes.

   Well that was up to about 1970, then from 1970 to 1979, phreaking was mainly

done by college students, businessmen and anyone who knew enough about

electronics and the fone company to make a 555 Ic to generate those magic

tones.  Businessmen and a few college students mainly just blue box to get free

calls.  The others were still there, exploring 800#'s and the new ESS systems.

ESS posed a big problem for phreaks then and even a bigger one now.  ESS was

not widespread, but where it was, blue boxing was next to impossible except for

the most experienced phreak.  Today ESS is installed in almost all major cities

and blue boxing is getting harder and harder.

   1978 marked a change in phreaking, the Apple ][, now a computer that was

affordable, could be programmed, and could save all that precious work on a

cassette.  Then just a short while later came the Apple Cat modem.  With this

modem, generating all blue box tones was easy as writing a program to count

form one to ten (a little exaggerated).  Pretty soon programs that could

imitate an operator just as good as the real thing were hitting the community,

TSPS and Cat's Meow, are the standard now and are the best.

   1982-1986: LD services were starting to appear in mass numbers.  People now

had programs to hack LD services, telephone exchanges, and even passwords.  By

now many phreaks were getting extremely good and BBS's started to spring up

everywhere, each having many documentations on phreaking for the novice.  Then

it happened, the movie War Games was released and mass numbers of sixth grade

to all ages flocked to see it.  The problem wasn't that the movie was bad, it

was that now EVERYONE wanted to be a hacker/phreak.  Novices came out in such

mass numbers, that bulletin boards started to be busy 24 hours a day.  To this

day, they still have not recovered.  Other problems started to occur, novices

guessed easy passwords on large government computers and started to play

around...  Well it wasn't long before they were caught, I think that many

people remember the 414-hackers.  They were so stupid as to say "yes" when the

computer asked them whether they'd like to play games.  Well at least it takes

the heat off the real phreaks/hacker/krackers.



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   After a little history, how about a little thrill?  I don't know if this

story is true but it sure is as bad as shit!



















































































































                                    Page 32









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         ***** The AAG Proudly Presents The AAG Proudly Presents *****

         *                                                           *

         *      +----------------------------------------------+     *

         *                                                           *

         *              Secrets of the Little Blue Box               *

         *                                                           *

         *                     by Ron Rosenbaum                      *

         *                 Typed by One Farad Cap/AAG                *

         *                                                           *

         *        -A story so incredible it may even make you        *

         *             feel sorry for the phone company-             *

         *                                                           *

         *                  (First of four files)                    *

         *                                                           *

         *      +----------------------------------------------+     *

         *                                                           *

         ***** The AAG Proudly Presents The AAG Proudly Presents *****



Dudes... These four files contain the story, "Secrets of the Little Blue Box",

by Ron Rosenbaum.



-A story so incredible it may even make you feel sorry for the phone company-



Printed in the October 1971 issue of Esquire Magazine.  If you happen to be in

a library and come across a collection of Esquire magazines, the October 1971

issue is the first issue printed in the smaller format.  The story begins on

page 116 with a picture of a blue box.

                                      --One Farad Cap, Atlantic Anarchist Guild





The Blue Box Is Introduced: Its Qualities Are Remarked



I am in the expensively furnished living room of Al Gilbertson (His real name

has been changed.), the creator of the "blue box." Gilbertson is holding one of

his shiny black-and-silver "blue boxes" comfortably in the palm of his hand,

pointing out the thirteen little red push buttons sticking up from the console.

He is dancing his fingers over the buttons, tapping out discordant beeping

electronic jingles.  He is trying to explain to me how his little blue box does

nothing less than place the entire telephone system of the world, satellites,

cables and all, at the service of the blue-box operator, free of charge.



"That's what it does.  Essentially it gives you the power of a super operator.

You seize a tandem with this top button," he presses the top button with his

index finger and the blue box emits a high-pitched cheep, "and like that" --

cheep goes the blue box again -- "you control the phone company's long-distance

switching systems from your cute little Princes phone or any old pay phone.

And you've got anonymity.  An operator has to operate from a definite location:

the phone company knows where she is and what she's doing.  But with your

beeper box, once you hop onto a trunk, say from a Holiday Inn 800 (toll-free)

number, they don't know where you are, or where you're coming from, they don't

know how you slipped into their lines and popped up in that 800 number.  They

don't even know anything illegal is going on.  And you can obscure your origins

through as many levels as you like.  You can call next door by way of White

Plains, then over to Liverpool by cable, and then back here by satellite.  You

can call yourself from one pay phone all the way around the world to a pay

phone next to you.  And you get your dime back too."



"And they can't trace the calls?  They can't charge you?"



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"Not if you do it the right way.  But you'll find that the free-call thing

isn't really as exciting at first as the feeling of power you get from having

one of these babies in your hand.  I've watched people when they first get hold

of one of these things and start using it, and discover they can make

connections, set up crisscross and zigzag switching patterns back and forth

across the world.  They hardly talk to the people they finally reach.  They say

hello and start thinking of what kind of call to make next.  They go a little

crazy."  He looks down at the neat little package in his palm.  His fingers are

still dancing, tapping out beeper patterns.



"I think it's something to do with how small my models are.  There are lots of

blue boxes around, but mine are the smallest and most sophisticated

electronically.  I wish I could show you the prototype we made for our big

syndicate order."



He sighs.  "We had this order for a thousand beeper boxes from a syndicate

front man in Las Vegas.  They use them to place bets coast to coast, keep lines

open for hours, all of which can get expensive if you have to pay.  The deal

was a thousand blue boxes for $300 apiece. Before then we retailed them for

$1500 apiece, but $300,000 in one lump was hard to turn down.  We had a

manufacturing deal worked out in the Philippines.  Everything ready to go.

Anyway, the model I had ready for limited mass production was small enough to

fit inside a flip-top Marlboro box.  It had flush touch panels for a keyboard,

rather than these unsightly buttons, sticking out.  Looked just like a tiny

portable radio.  In fact, I had designed it with a tiny transistor receiver to

get one AM channel, so in case the law became suspicious the owner could switch

on the radio part, start snapping his fingers, and no one could tell anything

illegal was going on. I thought of everything for this model -- I had it lined

with a band of thermite which could be ignited by radio signal from a tiny

button transmitter on your belt, so it could be burned to ashes instantly in

case of a bust.  It was beautiful.  A beautiful little machine.  You should

have seen the faces on these syndicate guys when they came back after trying it

out.  They'd hold it in their palm like they never wanted to let it go, and

they'd say, 'I can't believe it.  I can't believe it.'  You probably won't

believe it until you try it."



The Blue Box Is Tested: Certain Connections Are Made



About eleven o'clock two nights later Fraser Lucey has a blue box in the palm

of his left hand and a phone in the palm of his right.  He is standing inside a

phone booth next to an isolated shut-down motel off Highway 1.  I am standing

outside the phone booth.



Fraser likes to show off his blue box for people.  Until a few weeks ago when

Pacific Telephone made a few arrests in his city, Fraser Lucey liked to bring

his blue box (This particular blue box, like most blue boxes, is not blue.

Blue boxes have come to be called "blue boxes" either because 1) The first blue

box ever confiscated by phone-company security men happened to be blue, or 2)

To distinguish them from "black boxes."  Black boxes are devices, usually a

resistor in series, which, when attached to home phones, allow all incoming

calls to be made without charge to one's caller.) to parties.  It never failed:

a few cheeps from his device and Fraser became the center of attention at the

very hippest of gatherings, playing phone tricks and doing request numbers for

hours.  He began to take orders for his manufacturer in Mexico.  He became a

dealer.



Fraser is cautious now about where he shows off his blue box.  But he never



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gets tired of playing with it.  "It's like the first time every time," he tells

me.



Fraser puts a dime in the slot.  He listens for a tone and holds the receiver

up to my ear.  I hear the tone. Fraser begins describing, with a certain

practiced air, what he does while he does it. "I'm dialing an 800 number now.

Any 800 number will do.  It's toll free. Tonight I think I'll use the ----- (he

names a well-know rent-a-car company) 800 number.  Listen, It's ringing.  Here,

you hear it?  Now watch."  He places the blue box over the mouthpiece of the

phone so that the one silver and twelve black push buttons are facing up toward

me.  He presses the silver button -- the one at the top -- and I hear that

high-pitched beep. "That's 2600 cycles per second to be exact," says Lucey.

"Now, quick. listen."  He shoves the earpiece at me.  The ringing has vanished.

The line gives a slight hiccough, there is a sharp buzz, and then nothing but

soft white noise.



"We're home free now," Lucey tells me, taking back the phone and applying the

blue box to its mouthpiece once again.  "We're up on a tandem, into a

long-lines trunk.  Once you're up on a tandem, you can send yourself anywhere

you want to go."  He decides to check out London first.  He chooses a certain

pay phone located in Waterloo Station.  This particular pay phone is popular

with the phone-phreaks network because there are usually people walking by at

all hours who will pick it up and talk for a while.



of the box. "That's Key Pulse.  It tells the tandem we're ready to give it

instructions.  First I'll punch out KP 182 START, which will slide us into the

overseas sender in White Plains."  I hear a neat clunk-cheep.  "I think we'll

head over to England by satellite. Cable is actually faster and the connection

is somewhat better, but I like going by satellite.  So I just punch out KP Zero

44.  The Zero is supposed to guarantee a satellite connection and 44 is the

country code for England.  Okay... we're there.  In Liverpool actually.  Now

all I have to do is punch out the London area code which is 1, and dial up the

pay phone.  Here, listen, I've got a ring now."



I hear the soft quick purr-purr of a London ring.  Then someone picks up the

phone.



"Hello," says the London voice.



"Hello.  Who's this?" Fraser asks.



"Hello.  There's actually nobody here.  I just picked this up while I was

passing by.  This is a public phone.  There's no one here to answer actually."



"Hello.  Don't hang up.  I'm calling from the United States."



"Oh.  What is the purpose of the call?  This is a public phone you know."



"Oh.  You know.  To check out, uh, to find out what's going on in London.  How

is it there?"



"Its five o'clock in the morning.  It's raining now."



"Oh.  Who are you?"



The London passerby turns out to be an R.A.F. enlistee on his way back to the

base in Lincolnshire, with a terrible hangover after a thirty-six-hour pass.



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He and Fraser talk about the rain.  They agree that it's nicer when it's not

raining.  They say good-bye and Fraser hangs up.  His dime returns with a nice

clink.



"Isn't that far out," he says grinning at me.  "London, like that."



Fraser squeezes the little blue box affectionately in his palm.  "I told ya

this thing is for real.  Listen, if you don't mind I'm gonna try this girl I

know in Paris.  I usually give her a call around this time.  It freaks her out.

This time I'll use the ------ (a different rent-a-car company) 800 number and

we'll go by overseas cable, 133; 33 is the country code for France, the 1 sends

you by cable.  Okay, here we go.... Oh damn.  Busy.  Who could she be talking

to at this time?"



A state police car cruises slowly by the motel.  The car does not stop, but

Fraser gets nervous.  We hop back into his car and drive ten miles in the

opposite direction until we reach a Texaco station locked up for the night.  We

pull up to a phone booth by the tire pump. Fraser dashes inside and tries the

Paris number.  It is busy again.



"I don't understand who she could be talking to.  The circuits may be busy.

It's too bad I haven't learned how to tap into lines overseas with this thing

yet."



Fraser begins to phreak around, as the phone phreaks say.  He dials a leading

nationwide charge card's 800 number and punches out the tones that bring him

the time recording in Sydney, Australia.  He beeps up the weather recording in

Rome, in Italian of course.  He calls a friend in Boston and talks about a

certain over-the-counter stock they are into heavily.  He finds the Paris

number busy again.  He calls up "Dial a Disc" in London, and we listen to

Double Barrel by David and Ansil Collins, the number-one hit of the week in

London.  He calls up a dealer of another sort and talks in code.  He calls up

Joe Engressia, the original blind phone-phreak genius, and pays his respects.

There are other calls.  Finally Fraser gets through to his young lady in

Paris.



They both agree the circuits must have been busy, and criticize the Paris

telephone system.  At two-thirty in the morning Fraser hangs up, pockets his

dime, and drives off, steering with one hand, holding what he calls his "lovely

little blue box" in the other.



You Can Call Long Distance For Less Than You Think



"You see, a few years ago the phone company made one big mistake," Gilbertson

explains two days later in his apartment.  "They were careless enough to let

some technical journal publish the actual frequencies used to create all their

multi-frequency tones.  Just a theoretical article some Bell Telephone

Laboratories engineer was doing about switching theory, and he listed the tones

in passing.  At ----- (a well-known technical school) I had been fooling around

with phones for several years before I came across a copy of the journal in the

engineering library.  I ran back to the lab and it took maybe twelve hours from

the time I saw that article to put together the first working blue box.  It was

bigger and clumsier than this little baby, but it worked."



It's all there on public record in that technical journal written mainly by

Bell Lab people for other telephone engineers.  Or at least it was public.

"Just try and get a copy of that issue at some engineering-school library now.

Bell has had them all red-tagged and withdrawn from circulation," Gilbertson



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tells me.



"But it's too late.  It's all public now.  And once they became public the

technology needed to create your own beeper device is within the range of any

twelve-year-old kid, any twelve-year-old blind kid as a matter of fact.  And he

can do it in less than the twelve hours it took us.  Blind kids do it all the

time.  They can't build anything as precise and compact as my beeper box, but

theirs can do anything mine can do."



"How?"



"Okay.  About twenty years ago A.T.&T. made a multi-billion-dollar decision to

operate its entire long-distance switching system on twelve electronically

generated combinations of twelve master tones. Those are the tones you

sometimes hear in the background after you've dialed a long-distance number.

They decided to use some very simple tones -- the tone for each number is just

two fixed single-frequency tones played simultaneously to create a certain beat

frequency.  Like 1300 cycles per second and 900 cycles per second played

together give you the tone for digit 5.  Now, what some of these phone phreaks

have done is get themselves access to an electric organ.  Any cheap family

home-entertainment organ.  Since the frequencies are public knowledge now --

one blind phone phreak has even had them recorded in one of the talking books

for the blind -- they just have to find the musical notes on the organ which

correspond to the phone tones.  Then they tape them.  For instance, to get Ma

Bell's tone for the number 1, you press down organ keys FD5 and AD5 (900 and

700 cycles per second) at the same time.  To produce the tone for 2 it's FD5

and CD6 (1100 and 700 c.p.s).  The phone phreaks circulate the whole list of

notes so there's no trial and error anymore."



He shows me a list of the rest of the phone numbers and the two electric organ

keys that produce them.



"Actually, you have to record these notes at 3 3/4 inches-per-second tape speed

and double it to 7 1/2 inches-per-second when you play them back, to get the

proper tones," he adds.



"So once you have all the tones recorded, how do you plug them into the phone

system?"



"Well, they take their organ and their cassette recorder, and start banging out

entire phone numbers in tones on the organ, including country codes, routing

instructions, 'KP' and 'Start' tones.  Or, if they don't have an organ, someone

in the phone-phreak network sends them a cassette with all the tones recorded,

with a voice saying 'Number one,' then you have the tone, 'Number two,' then

the tone and so on.  So with two cassette recorders they can put together a

series of phone numbers by switching back and forth from number to number. Any

idiot in the country with a cheap cassette recorder can make all the free calls

he wants."



"You mean you just hold the cassette recorder up the mouthpiece and switch in a

series of beeps you've recorded?  The phone thinks that anything that makes

these tones must be its own equipment?"



"Right.  As long as you get the frequency within thirty cycles per second of

the phone company's tones, the phone equipment thinks it hears its own voice

talking to it.  The original granddaddy phone phreak was this blind kid with

perfect pitch, Joe Engressia, who used to whistle into the phone.  An operator

could tell the difference between his whistle and the phone company's



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electronic tone generator, but the phone company's switching circuit can't tell

them apart.  The bigger the phone company gets and the further away from human

operators it gets, the more vulnerable it becomes to all sorts of phone

phreaking."



A Guide for the Perplexed



"But wait a minute," I stop Gilbertson.  "If everything you do sounds like

phone-company equipment, why doesn't the phone company charge you for the call

the way it charges its own equipment?"



"Okay.  That's where the 2600-cycle tone comes in.  I better start from the

beginning."



The beginning he describes for me is a vision of the phone system of the

continent as thousands of webs, of long-line trunks radiating from each of the

hundreds of toll switching offices to the other toll switching offices.  Each

toll switching office is a hive compacted of thousands of long-distance tandems

constantly whistling and beeping to tandems in far-off toll switching offices.



The tandem is the key to the whole system.  Each tandem is a line with some

relays wih the capability of signalling any other tandem in any other toll

switching office on the continent, either directly one-to-one or by programming



a roundabout route through several other tandems if all the direct routes are

busy.  For instance, if you want to call from New York to Los Angeles and

traffic is heavy on all direct trunks between the two cities, your tandem in

New York is programmed to try the next best route, which may send you down to a

tandem in New Orleans, then up to San Francisco, or down to a New Orleans

tandem, back to an Atlanta tandem, over to an Albuquerque tandem and finally up

to Los Angeles.



When a tandem is not being used, when it's sitting there waiting for someone to

make a long-distance call, it whistles.  One side of the tandem, the side

"facing" your home phone, whistles at 2600 cycles per second toward all the

home phones serviced by the exchange, telling them it is at their service,

should they be interested in making a long-distance call.  The other side of

the tandem is whistling 2600 c.p.s. into one or more long-distance trunk lines,

telling the rest of the phone system that it is neither sending nor receiving a

call through that trunk at the moment, that it has no use for that trunk at the

moment.



"When you dial a long-distance number the first thing that happens is that you

are hooked into a tandem.  A register comes up to the side of the tandem facing

away from you and presents that side with the number you dialed.  This sending

side of the tandem stops whistling 2600 into its trunk line.  When a tandem

stops the 2600 tone it has been sending through a trunk, the trunk is said to

be "seized," and is now ready to carry the number you have dialed -- converted

into multi-frequency beep tones -- to a tandem in the area code and central

office you want.



Now when a blue-box operator wants to make a call from New Orleans to New York

he starts by dialing the 800 number of a company which might happen to have its

headquarters in Los Angeles.  The sending side of the New Orleans tandem stops

sending 2600 out over the trunk to the central office in Los Angeles, thereby

seizing the trunk.  Your New Orleans tandem begins sending beep tones to a

tandem it has discovered idly whistling 2600 cycles in Los Angeles.  The

receiving end of that L.A. tandem is seized, stops whistling 2600, listens to

the beep tones which tell it which L.A. phone to ring, and starts ringing the



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800 number.  Meanwhile a mark made in the New Orleans office accounting tape

notes that a call from your New Orleans phone to the 800 number in L.A. has

been initiated and gives the call a code number. Everything is routine so far.



But then the phone phreak presses his blue box to the mouthpiece and pushes the

over the line again and

assumes that New Orleans has hung up because the trunk is whistling as if idle.

The L.A. tandem immediately ceases ringing the L.A. 800 number.  But as soon as

the phreak takes his finger off the 2600 button, the L.A. tandem assumes the

trunk is once again being used because the 2600 is gone, so it listens for a

new series of digit tones - to find out where it must send the call.



Thus the blue-box operator in New Orleans now is in touch with a tandem in L.A.

which is waiting like an obedient genie to be told what to do next.  The

blue-box owner then beeps out the ten digits of the New York number which tell

the L.A. tandem to relay a call to New York City.  Which it promptly does.  As

soon as your party picks up the phone in New York, the side of the New Orleans

tandem facing you stops sending 2600 cycles to you and stars carrying his voice

to you by way of the L.A. tandem.  A notation is made on the accounting tape

that the connection has been made on the 800 call which had been initiated and

noted earlier.  When you stop talking to New York a notation is made that the

800 call has ended.



At three the next morning, when the phone company's accounting computer starts

reading back over the master accounting tape for the past day, it records that

a call of a certain length of time was made from your New Orleans home to an

L.A. 800 number and, of course, the accounting computer has been trained to

ignore those toll-free 800 calls when compiling your monthly bill.



"All they can prove is that you made an 800 toll-free call," Gilbertson the

inventor concludes.  "Of course, if you're foolish enough to talk for two hours

on an 800 call, and they've installed one of their special anti-fraud computer

programs to watch out for such things, they may spot you and ask why you took

two hours talking to Army Recruiting's 800 number when you're 4-F.



But if you do it from a pay phone, they may discover something peculiar the

next day -- if they've got a blue-box hunting program in their computer -- but

you'll be a long time gone from the pay phone by then.  Using a pay phone is

almost guaranteed safe."



"What about the recent series of blue-box arrests all across the country -- New

York, Cleveland, and so on?" I asked.  "How were they caught so easily?"



"From what I can tell, they made one big mistake: they were seizing trunks

using an area code plus 555-1212 instead of an 800 number. Using 555 is easy to

detect because when you send multi-frequency beep tones of 555 you get a charge

for it on your tape and the accounting computer knows there's something wrong

when it tries to bill you for a two-hour call to Akron, Ohio, information, and

it drops a trouble card which goes right into the hands of the security agent

if they're looking for blue-box user.



"Whoever sold those guys their blue boxes didn't tell them how to use them

properly, which is fairly irresponsible.  And they were fairly stupid to use

them at home all the time.



"But what those arrests really mean is than an awful lot of blue boxes are

flooding into the country and that people are finding them so easy to make that



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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



they know how to make them before they know how to use them.  Ma Bell is in

trouble."



And if a blue-box operator or a cassette-recorder phone phreak sticks to pay

phones and 800 numbers, the phone company can't stop them?



"Not unless they change their entire nationwide long-lines technology, which

will take them a few billion dollars and twenty years.  Right now they can't do

a thing.  They're screwed."



+-- End first file of four --+

































































































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         ***** The AAG Proudly Presents The AAG Proudly Presents *****

         *                                                           *

         *      +----------------------------------------------+     *

         *                                                           *

         *              Secrets of the Little Blue Box               *

         *                                                           *

         *                     by Ron Rosenbaum                      *

         *                 Typed by One Farad Cap/AAG                *

         *                                                           *

         *        -A story so incredible it may even make you        *

         *             feel sorry for the phone company-             *

         *                                                           *

         *                  (Second of four files)                   *

         *                                                           *

         *      +----------------------------------------------+     *

         *                                                           *

         ***** The AAG Proudly Presents The AAG Proudly Presents *****



Captain Crunch Demonstrates His Famous Unit



There is an underground telephone network in this country.  Gilbertson

discovered it the very day news of his activities hit the papers. That evening

his phone began ringing.  Phone phreaks from Seattle, from Florida, from New

York, from San Jose, and from Los Angeles began calling him and telling him

about the phone-phreak network.  He'd get a call from a phone phreak who'd say

nothing but, "Hang up and call this number."



When he dialed the number he'd find himself tied into a conference of a dozen

phone phreaks arranged through a quirky switching station in British Columbia.

They identified themselves as phone phreaks, they demonstrated their homemade

blue boxes which they called "M-Fers" (for "multi-frequency," among other

things) for him, they talked shop about phone-phreak devices.  They let him in

on their secrets on the theory that if the phone company was after him he must

be trustworthy.  And, Gilbertson recalls, they stunned him with their technical

sophistication.



I ask him how to get in touch with the phone-phreak network.  He digs around

through a file of old schematics and comes up with about a dozen numbers in

three widely separated area codes.



"Those are the centers," he tells me.  Alongside some of the numbers he writes

in first names or nicknames: names like Captain Crunch, Dr. No, Frank Carson

(also a code word for a free call), Marty Freeman (code word for M-F device),

Peter Perpendicular Pimple, Alefnull, and The Cheshire Cat.  He makes checks

alongside the names of those among these top twelve who are blind.  There are

five checks.



I ask him who this Captain Crunch person is.



"Oh.  The Captain.  He's probably the most legendary phone phreak.  He calls

himself Captain Crunch after the notorious Cap'n Crunch 2600 whistle."

(Several years ago, Gilbertson explains, the makers of Cap'n Crunch breakfast

cereal offered a toy-whistle prize in every box as a treat for the Cap'n Crunch

set.  Somehow a phone phreak discovered that the toy whistle just happened to

produce a perfect 2600-cycle tone.  When the man who calls himself Captain

Crunch was transferred overseas to England with his Air Force unit, he would

receive scores of calls from his friends and "mute" them -- make them free of

charge to them -- by blowing his Cap'n Crunch whistle into his end.)



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"Captain Crunch is one of the older phone phreaks," Gilbertson tells me.  "He's

an engineer who once got in a little trouble for fooling around with the phone,

but he can't stop.  Well, they guy drives across country in a Volkswagen van

with an entire switchboard and a computerized super-sophisticated M-F-er in the

back.  He'll pull up to a phone booth on a lonely highway somewhere, snake a

cable out of his bus, hook it onto the phone and sit for hours, days sometimes,

sending calls zipping back and forth across the country, all over the

world...."



Back at my motel, I dialed the number he gave me for "Captain Crunch" and asked

for G---- T-----, his real name, or at least the name he uses when he's not

dashing into a phone booth beeping out M-F tones faster than a speeding bullet

and zipping phantomlike through the phone company's long-distance lines.



When G---- T----- answered the phone and I told him I was preparing a story for

Esquire about phone phreaks, he became very indignant.



"I don't do that.  I don't do that anymore at all.  And if I do it, I do it for

one reason and one reason only.  I'm learning about a system.  The phone

company is a System.  A computer is a System, do you understand?  If I do what

I do, it is only to explore a system. Computers, systems, that's my bag.  The

phone company is nothing but a computer."



A tone of tightly restrained excitement enters the Captain's voice when he

starts talking about systems.  He begins to pronounce each syllable with the

hushed deliberation of an obscene caller.



"Ma Bell is a system I want to explore.  It's a beautiful system, you know, but

Ma Bell screwed up.  It's terrible because Ma Bell is such a beautiful system,

but she screwed up.  I learned how she screwed up from a couple of blind kids

who wanted me to build a device.  A certain device.  They said it could make

free calls.  I wasn't interested in free calls.  But when these blind kids told

me I could make calls into a computer, my eyes lit up.  I wanted to learn about

computers.  I wanted to learn about Ma Bell's computers.  So I build the little

device, but I built it wrong and Ma Bell found out.  Ma Bell can detect things

like that.  Ma Bell knows.  So I'm strictly rid of it now.  I don't do it.

Except for learning purposes."  He pauses. "So you want to write an article.

Are you paying for this call?  Hang up and call this number."  He gives me a

number in a area code a thousand miles away of his own.  I dial the number.



"Hello again.  This is Captain Crunch.  You are speaking to me on a toll-free

loop-around in Portland, Oregon.  Do you know what a toll-free loop around is?

I'll tell you.



He explains to me that almost every exchange in the country has open test

numbers which allow other exchanges to test their connections with it.  Most of

these numbers occur in consecutive pairs, such as 302 956-0041 and 302

956-0042.  Well, certain phone phreaks discovered that if two people from

anywhere in the country dial the two consecutive numbers they can talk together

just as if one had called the other's number, with no charge to either of them,

of course.



"Now our voice is looping around in a 4A switching machine up there in Canada,

zipping back down to me," the Captain tells me.  "My voice is looping around up

there and back down to you.  And it can't ever cost anyone money.  The phone

phreaks and I have compiled a list of many many of these numbers.  You would be

surprised if you saw the list.  I could show it to you.  But I won't.  I'm out



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of that now.  I'm not out to screw Ma Bell.  I know better.  If I do anything

it's for the pure knowledge of the System.  You can learn to do fantastic

things.  Have you ever heard eight tandems stacked up?  Do you know the sound

of tandems stacking and unstacking?  Give me your phone number.  Okay. Hang up

now and wait a minute."



Slightly less than a minute later the phone rang and the Captain was on the

line, his voice sounding far more excited, almost aroused.



"I wanted to show you what it's like to stack up tandems.  To stack up

tandems." (Whenever the Captain says "stack up" it sounds as if he is licking

his lips.)



"How do you like the connection you're on now?" the Captain asks me. "It's a

raw tandem.  A raw tandem.  Ain't nothin' up to it but a tandem.  Now I'm going

to show you what it's like to stack up.  Blow off.  Land in a far away place.

To stack that tandem up, whip back and forth across the country a few times,

then shoot on up to Moscow.



"Listen," Captain Crunch continues.  "Listen.  I've got line tie on my

switchboard here, and I'm gonna let you hear me stack and unstack tandems.

Listen to this.  It's gonna blow your mind."



First I hear a super rapid-fire pulsing of the flutelike phone tones, then a

pause, then another popping burst of tones, then another, then another.  Each

burst is followed by a beep-kachink sound.



"We have now stacked up four tandems," said Captain Crunch, sounding somewhat

remote.  "That's four tandems stacked up.  Do you know what that means?  That

means I'm whipping back and forth, back and forth twice, across the country,

before coming to you.  I've been known to stack up twenty tandems at a time.

Now, just like I said, I'm going to shoot up to Moscow."



There is a new, longer series of beeper pulses over the line, a brief silence,

then a ring.



"Hello," answers a far-off voice.



"Hello.  Is this the American Embassy Moscow?"



Moscow?"



"Okay?"



"Well, yes, how are things there?"



"Oh.  Well, everything okay, I guess."



"Okay.  Thank you."



They hang up, leaving a confused series of beep-kachink sounds hanging in

mid-ether in the wake of the call before dissolving away.



The Captain is pleased.  "You believe me now, don't you?  Do you know what I'd



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like to do?  I'd just like to call up your editor at Esquire and show him just

what it sounds like to stack and unstack tandems. I'll give him a show that

will blow his mind.  What's his number?



I ask the Captain what kind of device he was using to accomplish all his feats.

The Captain is pleased at the question.



"You could tell it was special, couldn't you?"  Ten pulses per second. That's

faster than the phone company's equipment.  Believe me, this unit is the most

famous unit in the country.  There is no other unit like it.  Believe me."



"Yes, I've heard about it.  Some other phone phreaks have told me about it."



"They have been referring to my, ahem, unit?  What is it they said? Just out of

curiosity, did they tell you it was a highly sophisticated computer-operated

unit, with acoustical coupling for receiving outputs and a switch-board with

multiple-line-tie capability?  Did they tell you that the frequency tolerance

is guaranteed to be not more than .05 percent?  The amplitude tolerance less

than .01 decibel?  Those pulses you heard were perfect.  They just come faster

than the phone company. Those were high-precision op-amps.  Op-amps are

instrumentation amplifiers designed for ultra-stable amplification, super-low

distortion and accurate frequency response.  Did they tell you it can operate

in temperatures from -55 degrees C to +125 degrees C?"



I admit that they did not tell me all that.



"I built it myself," the Captain goes on.  "If you were to go out and buy the

components from an industrial wholesaler it would cost you at least $1500.  I

once worked for a semiconductor company and all this didn't cost me a cent.  Do

you know what I mean?  Did they tell you about how I put a call completely

around the world?  I'll tell you how I did it.  I M-Fed Tokyo inward, who

connected me to India, India connected me to Greece, Greece connected me to

Pretoria, South Africa, South Africa connected me to South America, I went from

South America to London, I had a London operator connect me to a New York

operator, I had New York connect me to a California operator who rang the phone

next to me.  Needless to say I had to shout to hear myself.  But the echo was

far out.  Fantastic.  Delayed.  It was delayed twenty seconds, but I could hear

myself talk to myself."



"You mean you were speaking into the mouthpiece of one phone sending your voice

around the world into your ear through a phone on the other side of your head?"

I asked the Captain.  I had a vision of something vaguely autoerotic going on,

in a complex electronic way.



"That's right," said the Captain.  "I've also sent my voice around the world

one way, going east on one phone, and going west on the other, going through

cable one way, satellite the other, coming back together at the same time,

ringing the two phones simultaneously and picking them up and whipping my

voice both ways around the world back to me. Wow.  That was a mind blower."



"You mean you sit there with both phones on your ear and talk to yourself

around the world," I said incredulously.



"Yeah.  Um hum.  That's what I do.  I connect the phone together and sit there

and talk."



"What do you say?  What do you say to yourself when you're connected?"





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"Oh, you know.  Hello test one two three," he says in a low-pitched voice.



"Hello test one two three," he replied to himself in a high-pitched voice.



"Hello test one two three," he repeats again, low-pitched.



"Hello test one two three," he replies, high-pitched.



"I sometimes do this: Hello Hello Hello Hello, Hello, hello," he trails off and

breaks into laughter.



Why Captain Crunch Hardly Ever Taps Phones Anymore



Using internal phone-company codes, phone phreaks have learned a simple method

for tapping phones.  Phone-company operators have in front of them a board that

holds verification jacks.  It allows them to plug into conversations in case of

emergency, to listen in to a line to determine if the line is busy or the

circuits are busy.  Phone phreaks have learned to beep out the codes which lead

them to a verification operator, tell the verification operator they are

switchmen from some other area code testing out verification trunks. Once the

operator hooks them into the verification trunk, they disappear into the board

for all practical purposes, slip unnoticed into any one of the 10,000 to

100,000 numbers in that central office without the verification operator

knowing what they're doing, and of course without the two parties to the

connection knowing there is a phantom listener present on their line.



Toward the end of my hour-long first conversation with him, I asked the Captain

if he ever tapped phones.



"Oh no.  I don't do that.  I don't think it's right," he told me firmly.  "I

have the power to do it but I don't... Well one time, just one time, I have to

admit that I did.  There was this girl, Linda, and I wanted to find out... you

know.  I tried to call her up for a date. I had a date with her the last

weekend and I thought she liked me.  I called her up, man, and her line was

busy, and I kept calling and it was still busy.  Well, I had just learned about

this system of jumping into lines and I said to myself, 'Hmmm.  Why not just

see if it works. It'll surprise her if all of a sudden I should pop up on her

line. It'll impress her, if anything.'  So I went ahead and did it.  I M-Fed

into the line.  My M-F-er is powerful enough when patched directly into the

mouthpiece to trigger a verification trunk without using an operator the way

the other phone phreaks have to.



"I slipped into the line and there she was talking to another boyfriend.

Making sweet talk to him.  I didn't make a sound because I was so disgusted.

So I waited there for her to hang up, listening to her making sweet talk to the

other guy.  You know.  So as soon as she hung up I instantly M-F-ed her up and

all I said was, 'Linda, we're through.'  And I hung up.  And it blew her head

off.  She couldn't figure out what the hell happened.



"But that was the only time.  I did it thinking I would surprise her, impress

her.  Those were all my intentions were, and well, it really kind of hurt me

pretty badly, and... and ever since then I don't go into verification trunks."



Moments later my first conversation with the Captain comes to a close.



"Listen," he says, his spirits somewhat cheered, "listen.  What you are going

to hear when I hang up is the sound of tandems unstacking. Layer after layer of

tandems unstacking until there's nothing left of the stack, until it melts away



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into nothing.  Cheep, cheep, cheep, cheep," he concludes, his voice descending

to a whisper with each cheep.



He hangs up.  The phone suddenly goes into four spasms: kachink cheep. Kachink

cheep kachink cheep kachink cheep, and the complex connection has wiped itself

out like the Cheshire cat's smile.



The MF Boogie Blues



The next number I choose from the select list of phone-phreak alumni, prepared

for me by the blue-box inventor, is a Memphis number.  It is the number of Joe

Engressia, the first and still perhaps the most accomplished blind phone

phreak.



Three years ago Engressia was a nine-day wonder in newspapers and magazines all

over America because he had been discovered whistling free long-distance

connections for fellow students at the University of South Florida.  Engressia

was born with perfect pitch: he could whistle phone tones better than the

phone-company's equipment.



Engressia might have gone on whistling in the dark for a few friends for the

rest of his life if the phone company hadn't decided to expose him.  He was

warned, disciplined by the college, and the whole case became public.  In the

months following media reports of his talent, Engressia began receiving strange

calls.   There were calls from a group of kids in Los Angeles who could do some

very strange things with the quirky General Telephone and Electronics circuitry

in L.A. suburbs.  There were calls from a group of mostly blind kids in ----,

California, who had been doing some interesting experiments with Cap'n Crunch

whistles and test loops.  There was a group in Seattle, a group in Cambridge,

Massachusetts, a few from New York, a few scattered across the country.  Some

of them had already equipped themselves with cassette and electronic M-F

devices.  For some of these groups, it was the first time they knew of the

others.



The exposure of Engressia was the catalyst that linked the separate

phone-phreak centers together.  They all called Engressia.  They talked to him

about what he was doing and what they were doing.  And then he told them -- the

scattered regional centers and lonely independent phone phreakers -- about each

other, gave them each other's numbers to call, and within a year the scattered

phone-phreak centers had grown into a nationwide underground.



Joe Engressia is only twenty-two years old now, but along the phone-phreak

network he is "the old man," accorded by phone phreaks something of the

reverence the phone company bestows on Alexander Graham Bell.  He seldom needs

to make calls anymore.  The phone phreaks all call him and let him know what

new tricks, new codes, new techniques they have learned.  Every night he sits

like a sightless spider in his little apartment receiving messages from every

tendril of his web.  It is almost a point of pride with Joe that they call

him.



But when I reached him in his Memphis apartment that night, Joe Engressia was

lonely, jumpy and upset.



"God, I'm glad somebody called.  I don't know why tonight of all nights I don't

get any calls.  This guy around here got drunk again tonight and propositioned

me again.  I keep telling him we'll never see eye to eye on this subject, if

you know what I mean.  I try to make light of it, you know, but he doesn't get

it.  I can head him out there getting drunker and I don't know what he'll do



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next.  It's just that I'm really all alone here, just moved to Memphis, it's

the first time I'm living on my own, and I'd hate for it to all collapse now.

But I won't go to bed with him.  I'm just not very interested in sex and even

if I can't see him I know he's ugly.



"Did you hear that?  That's him banging a bottle against the wall outside.

He's nice.  Well forget about it.  You're doing a story on phone phreaks?

Listen to this.  It's the MF Boogie Blues.



Sure enough, a jumpy version of Muskrat Ramble boogies its way over the line,

each note one of those long-distance phone tones.  The music stops.  A huge

roaring voice blasts the phone off my ear: "AND THE QUESTION IS..." roars the

voice, "CAN A BLIND PERSON HOOK UP AN AMPLIFIER ON HIS OWN?"



The roar ceases.  A high-pitched operator-type voice replaces it. "This is

Southern Braille Tel. & Tel.  Have tone, will phone."



This is succeeded by a quick series of M-F tones, a swift "kachink" and a deep

reassuring voice: "If you need home care, call the visiting-nurses association.

First National time in Honolulu is 4:32 p.m."



Joe back in his Joe voice again: "Are we seeing eye to eye? 'Si, si,' said the

blind Mexican.  Ahem.  Yes.  Would you like to know the weather in Tokyo?"



This swift manic sequence of phone-phreak vaudeville stunts and blind-boy jokes

manages to keep Joe's mind off his tormentor only as long as it lasts.



"The reason I'm in Memphis, the reason I have to depend on that homosexual guy,

is that this is the first time I've been able to live on my own and make phone

trips on my own.  I've been banned from all central offices around home in

Florida, they knew me too well, and at the University some of my fellow

scholars were always harassing me because I was on the dorm pay phone all the

time and making fun of me because of my fat ass, which of course I do have,

it's my physical fatness program, but I don't like to hear it every day, and if

I can't phone trip and I can't phone phreak, I can't imagine what I'd do, I've

been devoting three quarters of my life to it.



"I moved to Memphis because I wanted to be on my own as well as because it has

a Number 5 crossbar switching system and some interesting little independent

phone-company districts nearby and so far they don't seem to know who I am so I

can go on phone tripping, and for me phone tripping is just as important as

phone phreaking."



Phone tripping, Joe explains, begins with calling up a central-office switch

room.  He tells the switchman in a polite earnest voice that he's a blind

college student interested in telephones, and could he perhaps have a guided

tour of the switching station?  Each step of the tour Joe likes to touch and

feel relays, caress switching circuits, switchboards, crossbar arrangements.



So when Joe Engressia phone phreaks he feels his way through the circuitry of

the country garden of forking paths, he feels switches shift, relays shunt,

crossbars swivel, tandems engage and disengage even as he hears -- with perfect

pitch -- his M-F pulses make the entire Bell system dance to his tune.



Just one month ago Joe took all his savings out of his bank and left home, over

the emotional protests of his mother.  "I ran away from home almost," he likes

to say.  Joe found a small apartment house on Union Avenue and began making

phone trips.  He'd take a bus a hundred miles south in Mississippi to see some



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old-fashioned Bell equipment still in use in several states, which had been

puzzling.  He'd take a bus three hundred miles to Charlotte, North Carolina, to

look at some brand-new experimental equipment.  He hired a taxi to drive him

twelve miles to a suburb to tour the office of a small phone company with some

interesting idiosyncrasies in its routing system.  He was having the time of

his life, he said, the most freedom and pleasure he had known.



In that month he had done very little long-distance phone phreaking from his

own phone.  He had begun to apply for a job with the phone company, he told me,

and he wanted to stay away from anything illegal.



"Any kind of job will do, anything as menial as the most lowly operator.

That's probably all they'd give me because I'm blind.  Even though I probably

know more than most switchmen.  But that's okay.  I want to work for Ma Bell.

I don't hate Ma Bell the way Gilbertson and some phone phreaks do.  I don't

want to screw Ma Bell.  With me it's the pleasure of pure knowledge.  There's

something beautiful about the system when you know it intimately the way I do.

But I don't know how much they know about me here.  I have a very intuitive

feel for the condition of the line I'm on, and I think they're monitoring me

off and on lately, but I haven't been doing much illegal.  I have to make a few

calls to switchmen once in a while which aren't strictly legal, and once I took

an acid trip and was having these auditory hallucinations as if I were trapped

and these planes were dive-bombing me, and all of sudden I had to phone phreak

out of there.  For some reason I had to call Kansas City, but that's all."



A Warning Is Delivered



At this point -- one o'clock in my time zone -- a loud knock on my motel-room

door interrupts our conversation.  Outside the door I find a uniformed security

guard who informs me that there has been an "emergency phone call" for me while

I have been on the line and that the front desk has sent him up to let me

know.



Two seconds after I say good-bye to Joe and hang up, the phone rings.



"Who were you talking to?" the agitated voice demands.  The voice belongs to

Captain Crunch.  "I called because I decided to warn you of something.  I

decided to warn you to be careful.  I don't want this information you get to

get to the radical underground.  I don't want it to get into the wrong hands.

What would you say if I told you it's possible for three phone phreaks to

saturate the phone system of the nation.  Saturate it.  Busy it out.  All of

it.  I know how to do this.  I'm not gonna tell.  A friend of mine has already

saturated the trunks between Seattle and New York.  He did it with a

computerized M-F-er hitched into a special Manitoba exchange.  But there are

other, easier ways to do it."



Just three people?  I ask.  How is that possible?



"Have you ever heard of the long-lines guard frequency?  Do you know about

stacking tandems with 17 and 2600?  Well, I'd advise you to find out about it.

I'm not gonna tell you.  But whatever you do, don't let this get into the hands

of the radical underground."



(Later Gilbertson, the inventor, confessed that while he had always been

skeptical about the Captain's claim of the sabotage potential of trunk-tying

phone phreaks, he had recently heard certain demonstrations which convinced him

the Captain was not speaking idly. "I think it might take more than three

people, depending on how many machines like Captain Crunch's were available.



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But even though the Captain sounds a little weird, he generally turns out to

know what he's talking about.")



"You know," Captain Crunch continues in his admonitory tone, "you know the

younger phone phreaks call Moscow all the time.  Suppose everybody were to call

Moscow.  I'm no right-winger.  But I value my life.  I don't want the Commies

coming over and dropping a bomb on my head. That's why I say you've got to be

careful about who gets this information."



The Captain suddenly shifts into a diatribe against those phone phreaks who

don't like the phone company.



"They don't understand, but Ma Bell knows everything they do.  Ma Bell knows.

Listen, is this line hot?  I just heard someone tap in.  I'm not paranoid, but

I can detect things like that.  Well, even if it is, they know that I know that

they know that I have a bulk eraser.  I'm very clean."  The Captain pauses,

evidently torn between wanting to prove to the phone-company monitors that he

does nothing illegal, and the desire to impress Ma Bell with his prowess.  "Ma

Bell knows how good I am.  And I am quite good.  I can detect reversals, tandem

switching, everything that goes on on a line.  I have relative pitch now.  Do

you know what that means?  My ears are a $20,000 piece of equipment.  With my

ears I can detect things they can't hear with their equipment.  I've had

employment problems.  I've lost jobs.  But I want to show Ma Bell how good I

am.  I don't want to screw her, I want to work for her.  I want to do good for

her.  I want to help her get rid of her flaws and become perfect.  That's my

number-one goal in life now."  The Captain concludes his warnings and tells me

he has to be going.  "I've got a little action lined up for tonight," he

explains and hangs up.



Before I hang up for the night, I call Joe Engressia back.  He reports that his

tormentor has finally gone to sleep -- "He's not blind drunk, that's the way I

get, ahem, yes; but you might say he's in a drunken stupor."  I make a date to

visit Joe in Memphis in two days.



+-- End second file of four --+

















































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         ***** The AAG Proudly Presents The AAG Proudly Presents *****

         *                                                           *

         *      +----------------------------------------------+     *

         *                                                           *

         *              Secrets of the Little Blue Box               *

         *                                                           *

         *                     by Ron Rosenbaum                      *

         *                 Typed by One Farad Cap/AAG                *

         *                                                           *

         *        -A story so incredible it may even make you        *

         *             feel sorry for the phone company-             *

         *                                                           *

         *                  (Third of four files)                    *

         *                                                           *

         *      +----------------------------------------------+     *

         *                                                           *

         ***** The AAG Proudly Presents The AAG Proudly Presents *****



A Phone Phreak Call Takes Care of Business



The next morning I attend a gathering of four phone phreaks in  ----- (a

California suburb).  The gathering takes place in a comfortable split-level

home in an upper-middle-class subdivision.  Heaped on the kitchen table are the

portable cassette recorders, M-F cassettes, phone patches, and line ties of the

four phone phreaks present.  On the kitchen counter next to the telephone is a

shoe-box-size blue box with thirteen large toggle switches for the tones.  The

parents of the host phone phreak, Ralph, who is blind, stay in the living room

with their sighted children.  They are not sure exactly what Ralph and his

friends do with the phone or if it's strictly legal, but he is blind and they

are pleased he has a hobby which keeps him busy.



The group has been working at reestablishing the historic "2111" conference,

reopening some toll-free loops, and trying to discover the dimensions of what

seem to be new initiatives against phone phreaks by phone-company security

agents.



It is not long before I get a chance to see, to hear, Randy at work. Randy is

known among the phone phreaks as perhaps the finest con man in the game.  Randy

is blind.  He is pale, soft and pear-shaped, he wears baggy pants and a wrinkly

nylon white sport shirt, pushes his head forward from hunched shoulders

somewhat like a turtle inching out of its shell.  His eyes wander, crossing and

recrossing, and his forehead is somewhat pimply.  He is only sixteen years

old.



But when Randy starts speaking into a telephone mouthpiece his voice becomes so

stunningly authoritative it is necessary to look again to convince yourself it

comes from a chubby adolescent Randy.  Imagine the voice of a crack oil-rig

foreman, a tough, sharp, weather-beaten Marlboro man of forty.  Imagine the

voice of a brilliant performance-fund gunslinger explaining how he beats the

Dow Jones by thirty percent.  Then imagine a voice that could make those two



He is speaking to a switchman in Detroit.  The phone company in Detroit had

closed up two toll-free loop pairs for no apparent reason, although heavy use

by phone phreaks all over the country may have been detected.  Randy is telling

the switchman how to open up the loop and make it free again:



"How are you, buddy.  Yeah. I'm on the board in here in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and



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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



we've been trying to run some tests on your loop-arounds and we find'em busied

out on both sides.... Yeah, we've been getting a 'BY' on them, what d'ya say,

can you drop cards on 'em?  Do you have 08 on your number group?  Oh that's

okay, we've had this trouble before, we may have to go after the circuit.  Here

lemme give 'em to you: your frame is 05, vertical group 03, horizontal 5,

vertical file 3.  Yeah, we'll hang on here.... Okay, found it?  Good.  Right,

yeah, we'd like to clear that busy out.  Right.  All you have to do is look for

your key on the mounting plate, it's in your miscellaneous trunk frame.  Okay?

Right.  Now pull your key from NOR over the LCT.  Yeah. I don't know why that

happened, but we've been having trouble with that one.  Okay.  Thanks a lot

fella.  Be seein' ya."



Randy hangs up, reports that the switchman was a little inexperienced with the

loop-around circuits on the miscellaneous trunk frame, but that the loop has

been returned to its free-call status.



Delighted, phone phreak Ed returns the pair of numbers to the active-status

column in his directory.  Ed is a superb and painstaking researcher.  With

almost Talmudic thoroughness he will trace tendrils of hints through soft-wired

mazes of intervening phone-company circuitry back through complex linkages of

switching relays to find the location and identity of just one toll-free loop.

He spends hours and hours, every day, doing this sort of thing.  He has somehow

compiled a directory of eight hundred "Band-six in-WATS numbers" located in

over forty states.  Band-six in-WATS numbers are the big 800 numbers -- the

ones that can be dialed into free from anywhere in the country.



Ed the researcher, a nineteen-year-old engineering student, is also a superb

technician.  He put together his own working blue box from scratch at age

seventeen.  (He is sighted.)  This evening after distributing the latest issue

of his in-WATS directory (which has been typed into Braille for the blind phone

phreaks), he announces he has made a major new breakthrough:



"I finally tested it and it works, perfectly. I've got this switching matrix

which converts any touch-tone phone into an M-F-er."



The tones you hear in touch-tone phones are not the M-F tones that operate the

long-distance switching system.  Phone phreaks believe A.T.&T. had deliberately

equipped touch tones with a  different set of frequencies to avoid putting the

six master M-F tones in the hands of every touch-tone owner.  Ed's complex

switching matrix puts the six master tones, in effect put a blue box, in the

hands of every touch-tone owner.



Ed shows me pages of schematics, specifications and parts lists. "It's not easy

to build, but everything here is in the Heathkit catalog."



Ed asks Ralph what progress he has made in his attempts to reestablish a

long-term open conference line for phone phreaks.  The last big conference --

the historic "2111" conference -- had been arranged through an unused Telex

test-board trunk somewhere in the innards of a 4A switching machine in

Vancouver, Canada.  For months phone phreaks could M-F their way into

Vancouver, beep out 604 (the Vancouver area code) and then beep out 2111 (the

internal phone-company code for Telex testing), and find themselves at any

time, day or night, on an open wire talking with an array of phone phreaks from

coast to coast, operators from Bermuda, Tokyo and London who are phone-phreak

sympathizers, and miscellaneous guests and technical experts.  The conference

was a massive exchange of information.  Phone phreaks picked each other's

brains clean, then developed new ways to pick the phone company's brains clean.

Ralph gave M F Boogies concerts with his home-entertainment-type electric



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organ, Captain Crunch demonstrated his round-the-world prowess with his

notorious computerized unit and dropped leering hints of the "action" he was

getting with his girl friends.  (The Captain lives out or pretends to live out

several kinds of fantasies to the gossipy delight of the blind phone phreaks

who urge him on to further triumphs on behalf of all of them.)  The somewhat

rowdy Northwest phone-phreak crowd let their bitter internal feud spill over

into the peaceable conference line, escalating shortly into guerrilla warfare;

Carl the East Coast international tone relations expert demonstrated newly

opened direct M-F routes to central offices on the island of Bahrein in the

Persian Gulf, introduced a new phone-phreak friend of his in Pretoria, and

explained the technical operation of the new Oakland-to Vietnam linkages.

(Many phone phreaks pick up spending money by M-F-ing calls from relatives to

Vietnam G.I.'s, charging $5 for a whole hour of trans-Pacific conversation.)



Day and night the conference line was never dead.  Blind phone phreaks all over

the country, lonely and isolated in homes filled with active sighted brothers

and sisters, or trapped with slow and unimaginative blind kids in straitjacket

schools for the blind, knew that no matter how late it got they could dial up

the conference and find instant electronic communion with two or three other

blind kids awake over on the other side of America.  Talking together on a

phone hookup, the blind phone phreaks say, is not much different from being

there together. Physically, there was nothing more than a two-inch-square wafer

of titanium inside a vast machine on Vancouver Island.  For the blind kids

>there< meant an exhilarating feeling of being in touch, through a kind of

skill and magic which was peculiarly their own.



Last April 1, however, the long Vancouver Conference was shut off. The phone

phreaks knew it was coming.  Vancouver was in the process of converting from a

step-by-step system to a 4A machine and the 2111 Telex circuit was to be wiped

out in the process.  The phone phreaks learned the actual day on which the

conference would be erased about a week ahead of time over the phone company's

internal-news-and-shop-talk recording.



For the next frantic seven days every phone phreak in America was on and off

the 2111 conference twenty-four hours a day.  Phone phreaks who were just

learning the game or didn't have M-F capability were boosted up to the

conference by more experienced phreaks so they could get a glimpse of what it

was like before it disappeared.  Top phone phreaks searched distant area codes

for new conference possibilities without success.  Finally in the early morning

of April 1, the end came.



"I could feel it coming a couple hours before midnight," Ralph remembers.  "You

could feel something going on in the lines.  Some static began showing up, then

some whistling wheezing sound.  Then there were breaks.  Some people got cut

off and called right back in, but after a while some people were finding they

were cut off and couldn't get back in at all.  It was terrible.  I lost it

about one a.m., but managed to slip in again and stay on until the thing

died... I think it was about four in the morning.  There were four of us still

hanging on when the conference disappeared into nowhere for good.  We all tried

to M-F up to it again of course, but we got silent termination.  There was

nothing there."



The Legendary Mark Bernay Turns Out To Be "The Midnight Skulker"



Mark Bernay.  I had come across that name before.  It was on Gilbertson's

select list of phone phreaks.  The California phone phreaks had spoken of a

mysterious Mark Bernay as perhaps the first and oldest phone phreak on the West

Coast.  And in fact almost every phone phreak in the West can trace his origins



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either directly to Mark Bernay or to a disciple of Mark Bernay.



It seems that five years ago this Mark Bernay (a pseudonym he chose for

himself) began traveling up and down the West Coast pasting tiny stickers in

phone books all along his way.  The stickers read something like "Want to hear

an interesting tape recording? Call these numbers."  The numbers that followed

were toll-free loop-around pairs. When one of the curious called one of the

numbers he would hear a tape recording pre-hooked into the loop by Bernay which

explained the use of loop-around pairs, gave the numbers of several more, and

ended by telling the caller, "At six o'clock tonight this recording will stop

and you and your friends can try it out.  Have fun."



"I was disappointed by the response at first," Bernay told me, when I finally

reached him at one of his many numbers and he had dispensed with the usual "I

never do anything illegal" formalities which experienced phone phreaks open

most conversations.



"I went all over the coast with these stickers not only on pay phones, but I'd

throw them in front of high schools in the middle of the night, I'd leave them

unobtrusively in candy stores, scatter them on main streets of small towns.  At

first hardly anyone bothered to try it out.  I would listen in for hours and

hours after six o'clock and no one came on.  I couldn't figure out why people

wouldn't be interested.  Finally these two girls in Oregon tried it out and

told all their friends and suddenly it began to spread."



Before his Johny Appleseed trip Bernay had already gathered a sizable group of

early pre-blue-box phone phreaks together on loop-arounds in Los Angeles.

Bernay does not claim credit for the original discovery of the loop-around

numbers.  He attributes the discovery to an eighteen-year-old reform school kid

in Long Beach whose name he forgets and who, he says, "just disappeared one

day."  When Bernay himself discovered loop-arounds independently, from clues in

his readings in old issues of the Automatic Electric Technical Journal, he

found dozens of the reform-school kid's friends already using them. However, it

was one of Bernay's disciples in Seattle that introduced phone phreaking to

blind kids.  The Seattle kid who learned about loops through Bernay's recording

told a blind friend, the blind kid taught the secret to his friends at a winter

camp for blind kids in Los Angeles.  When the camp session was over these kids

took the secret back to towns all over the West.  This is how the original

blind kids became phone phreaks.  For them, for most phone phreaks in general,

it was the discovery of the possibilities of loop-arounds which led them on to

far more serious and sophisticated phone-phreak methods, and which gave them a

medium for sharing their discoveries.



A year later a blind kid who moved back east brought the technique to a blind

kids' summer camp in Vermont, which spread it along the East Coast.  All from a

Mark Bernay sticker.



Bernay, who is nearly thirty years old now, got his start when he was fifteen

and his family moved into an L.A. suburb serviced by General Telephone and

Electronics equipment.  He became fascinated with the differences between Bell

and G.T.&E. equipment.  He learned he could make interesting things happen by

carefully timed clicks with the disengage button.  He learned to interpret

subtle differences in the array of clicks, whirrs and kachinks he could hear on

his lines.  He learned he could shift himself around the switching relays of

the L.A. area code in a not-too-predictable fashion by interspersing his own

hook-switch clicks with the clicks within the line. (Independent phone

companies -- there are nineteen hundred of them still left, most of them tiny

island principalities in Ma Bell's vast empire -- have always been favorites



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with phone phreaks, first as learning tools, then as Archimedes platforms from

which to manipulate the huge Bell system.  A phone phreak in Bell territory

will often M-F himself into an independent's switching system, with switching

idiosyncrasies which can give him marvelous leverage over the Bell System.



"I have a real affection for Automatic Electric Equipment," Bernay told me.

"There are a lot of things you can play with.  Things break down in interesting

ways."



Shortly after Bernay graduated from college (with a double major in chemistry

and philosophy), he graduated from phreaking around with G.T.&E. to the Bell

System itself, and made his legendary sticker-pasting journey north along the

coast, settling finally in Northwest Pacific Bell territory.  He discovered

that if Bell does not break down as interestingly as G.T.&E., it nevertheless

offers a lot of "things to play with."



Bernay learned to play with blue boxes.  He established his own personal

switchboard and phone-phreak research laboratory complex.  He continued his

phone-phreak evangelism with ongoing sticker campaigns. He set up two recording

numbers, one with instructions for beginning phone phreaks, the other with

latest news and technical developments (along with some advanced instruction)

gathered from sources all over the country.



These days, Bernay told me, he had gone beyond phone-phreaking itself. "Lately

I've been enjoying playing with computers more than playing with phones.  My

personal thing in computers is just like with phones, I guess -- the kick is in

finding out how to beat the system, how to get at things I'm not supposed to

know about, how to do things with the system that I'm not supposed to be able

to do."



As a matter of fact, Bernay told me, he had just been fired from his

computer-programming job for doing things he was not supposed to be able to do.

he had been working with a huge time-sharing computer owned by a large

corporation but shared by many others.  Access to the computer was limited to

those programmers and corporations that had been assigned certain passwords.

And each password restricted its user to access to only the one section of the

computer cordoned off from its own information storager.  The password system

prevented companies and individuals from stealing each other's information.



"I figured out how to write a program that would let me read everyone else's

password," Bernay reports.  "I began playing around with passwords.  I began

letting the people who used the computer know, in subtle ways, that I knew

their passwords.  I began dropping notes to the computer supervisors with hints

that I knew what I know. I signed them 'The Midnight Skulker.'  I kept getting

cleverer and cleverer with my messages and devising ways of showing them what I

could do. I'm sure they couldn't imagine I could do the things I was showing

them.  But they never responded to me.  Every once in a while they'd change the

passwords, but I found out how to discover what the new ones were, and I let

them know.  But they never responded directly to the Midnight Skulker.  I even

finally designed a program which they could use to prevent my program from

finding out what it did.  In effect I told them how to wipe me out, The

Midnight Skulker.  It was a very clever program.  I started leaving clues about

myself.  I wanted them to try and use it and then try to come up with something

to get around that and reappear again.  But they wouldn't play.  I wanted to

get caught.  I mean I didn't want to get caught personally, but I wanted them

to notice me and admit that they noticed me.  I wanted them to attempt to

respond, maybe in some interesting way."





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Finally the computer managers became concerned enough about the threat of

information-stealing to respond.  However, instead of using The Midnight

Skulker's own elegant self-destruct program, they called in their security

personnel, interrogated everyone, found an informer to identify Bernay as The

Midnight Skulker, and fired him.



"At first the security people advised the company to hire me full-time to

search out other flaws and discover other computer freaks.  I might have liked

that.  But I probably would have turned into a double double agent rather than

the double agent they wanted.  I might have resurrected The Midnight Skulker

and tried to catch myself.  Who knows?  Anyway, the higher-ups turned the whole

idea down."



You Can Tap the F.B.I.'s Crime Control Computer in the Comfort of Your Own

Home, Perhaps



Computer freaking may be the wave of the future.  It suits the phone-phreak

sensibility perfectly.  Gilbertson, the blue-box inventor and a lifelong phone

phreak, has also gone on from phone-phreaking to computer-freaking.  Before he

got into the blue-box business Gilbertson, who is a highly skilled programmer,

devised programs for international currency arbitrage.



But he began playing with computers in earnest when he learned he could use his

blue box in tandem with the computer terminal installed in his apartment by the

instrumentation firm he worked for.  The print-out terminal and keyboard was

equipped with acoustical coupling, so that by coupling his little ivory

Princess phone to the terminal and then coupling his blue box on that, he could

M-F his way into other computers with complete anonymity, and without charge;

program and re-program them at will; feed them false or misleading information;

tap and steal from them.  He explained to me that he taps computers by busying

out all the lines, then going into a verification trunk, listening into the

passwords and instructions one of the time sharers uses, and them M-F-ing in

and imitating them.  He believes it would not be impossible to creep into the

F.B.I's crime control computer through a local police computer terminal and

phreak around with the F.B.I.'s memory banks.  He claims he has succeeded in

re-programming a certain huge institutional computer in such a way that it has

cordoned off an entire section of its circuitry for his personal use, and at

the same time conceals that arrangement from anyone else's notice.  I have been

unable to verify this claim.



Like Captain Crunch, like Alexander Graham Bell (pseudonym of a

disgruntled-looking East Coast engineer who claims to have invented the black

box and now sells black and blue boxes to gamblers and radical heavies), like

most phone phreaks, Gilbertson began his career trying to rip off pay phones as

a teenager.  Figure them out, then rip them off.  Getting his dime back from

the pay phone is the phone phreak's first thrilling rite of passage.  After

learning the usual eighteen different ways of getting his dime back, Gilbertson

learned how to make master keys to coin-phone cash boxes, and get everyone

else's dimes back.  He stole some phone-company equipment and put together his

own home switchboard with it.  He learned to make a simple "bread-box" device,

of the kind used by bookies in the Thirties (bookie gives a number to his

betting clients; the phone with that number is installed in some widow lady's

apartment, but is rigged to ring in the bookie's shop across town, cops trace

big betting number and find nothing but the widow).



Not long after that afternoon in 1968 when, deep in the stacks of an

engineering library, he came across a technical journal with the phone tone

frequencies and rushed off to make his first blue box, not long after that



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Gilbertson abandoned a very promising career in physical chemistry and began

selling blue boxes for $1,500 apiece.



"I had to leave physical chemistry.  I just ran out of interesting things to

learn," he told me one evening.  We had been talking in the apartment of the

man who served as the link between Gilbertson and the syndicate in arranging

the big $300,000 blue-box deal which fell through because of legal trouble.

There has been some smoking.



"No more interesting things to learn," he continues.  "Physical chemistry turns

out to be a sick subject when you take it to its highest level.  I don't know.

I don't think I could explain to you how it's sick.  You have to be there.  But

you get, I don't know, a false feeling of omnipotence.  I suppose it's like

phone-phreaking that way.  This huge thing is there.  This whole system.  And

there are holes in it and you slip into them like Alice and you're pretending

you're doing something you're actually not, or at least it's no longer you

that's doing what you thought you were doing.  It's all Lewis Carroll.

Physical chemistry and phone-phreaking.  That's why you have these phone-phreak

pseudonyms like The Cheshire Cat, the Red King, and The Snark.  But there's

something about phone-phreaking that you don't find in physical chemistry."  He

looks up at me:



"Did you ever steal anything?"





"Then you know!  You know the rush you get.  It's not just knowledge, like

physical chemistry.  It's forbidden knowledge.  You know.  You can learn about

anything under the sun and be bored to death with it. But the idea that it's

illegal.  Look: you can be small and mobile and smart and you're ripping off

somebody large and powerful and very dangerous."



People like Gilbertson and Alexander Graham Bell are always talking about

ripping off the phone company and screwing Ma Bell.  But if they were shown a

single button and told that by pushing it they could turn the entire circuitry

of A.T.&T. into molten puddles, they probably wouldn't push it.  The

disgruntled-inventor phone phreak needs the phone system the way the lapsed

Catholic needs the Church, the way Satan needs a God, the way The Midnight

Skulker needed, more than anything else, response.



Later that evening Gilbertson finished telling me how delighted he was at the

flood of blue boxes spreading throughout the country, how delighted he was to

know that "this time they're really screwed."  He suddenly shifted gears.



"Of course.  I do have this love/hate thing about Ma Bell.  In a way I almost

like the phone company.  I guess I'd be very sad if they were to disintegrate.

In a way it's just that after having been so good they turn out to have these

things wrong with them.  It's those flaws that allow me to get in and mess with

them, but I don't know.  There's something about it that gets to you and makes

you want to get to it, you know."



I ask him what happens when he runs out of interesting, forbidden things to

learn about the phone system.



"I don't know, maybe I'd go to work for them for a while."



"In security even?"





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"I'd do it, sure.  I just as soon play -- I'd just as soon work on either

side."



"Even figuring out how to trap phone phreaks? I said, recalling Mark Bernay's

game."



"Yes, that might be interesting.  Yes, I could figure out how to outwit the

phone phreaks.  Of course if I got too good at it, it might become boring

again.  Then I'd have to hope the phone phreaks got much better and outsmarted

me for a while.  That would move the quality of the game up one level.  I might

even have to help them out, you know, 'Well, kids, I wouldn't want this to get

around but did you ever think of -- ?' I could keep it going at higher and

higher levels forever."



The dealer speaks up for the first time.  He has been staring at the soft

blinking patterns of light and colors on the translucent tiled wall facing him.

(Actually there are no patterns: the color and illumination of every tile is

determined by a computerized random-number generator designed by Gilbertson

which insures that there can be no meaning to any sequence of events in the

tiles.)



"Those are nice games you're talking about," says the dealer to his friend.

"But I wouldn't mind seeing them screwed.  A telephone isn't private anymore.

You can't say anything you really want to say on a telephone or you have to go

through that paranoid bullshit.  'Is it cool to talk on the phone?' I mean,

even if it is cool, if you have to ask 'Is it cool,' then it isn't cool.  You

know.  'Is it cool,' then it isn't cool.  You know.  Like those blind kids,

people are going to start putting together their own private telephone

companies if they want to really talk.  And you know what else.  You don't hear

silences on the phone anymore.  They've got this time-sharing thing on

long-distance lines where you make a pause and they snip out that piece of time

and use it to carry part of somebody else's conversation.  Instead of a pause,

where somebody's maybe breathing or sighing, you get this blank hole and you

only start hearing again when someone says a word and even the beginning of the

word is clipped off. Silences don't count -- you're paying for them, but they

take them away from you.  It's not cool to talk and you can't hear someone when

they don't talk.  What the hell good is the phone?  I wouldn't mind seeing them

totally screwed."



+-- End third file of four --+







































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         ***** The AAG Proudly Presents The AAG Proudly Presents *****

         *                                                           *

         *      +----------------------------------------------+     *

         *                                                           *

         *              Secrets of the Little Blue Box               *

         *                                                           *

         *                     by Ron Rosenbaum                      *

         *                 Typed by One Farad Cap/AAG                *

         *                                                           *

         *        -A story so incredible it may even make you        *

         *             feel sorry for the phone company-             *

         *                                                           *

         *                  (Fourth of four files)                   *

         *                                                           *

         *      +----------------------------------------------+     *

         *                                                           *

         ***** The AAG Proudly Presents The AAG Proudly Presents *****



The Big Memphis Bust



Joe Engressia never wanted to screw Ma Bell.  His dream had always been to work

for her.



The day I visited Joe in his small apartment on Union Avenue in Memphis, he was

upset about another setback in his application for a telephone job.



"They're stalling on it.  I got a letter today telling me they'd have to

postpone the interview I requested again.  My landlord read it for me.  They

gave me some runaround about wanting papers on my rehabilitation status but I

think there's something else going on."



When I switched on the 40-watt bulb in Joe's room -- he sometimes forgets when

he has guests -- it looked as if there was enough telephone hardware to start a

small phone company of his own.



There is one phone on top of his desk, one phone sitting in an open drawer

beneath the desk top.  Next to the desk-top phone is a cigar-box-size M-F

device with big toggle switches, and next to that is some kind of switching and

coupling device with jacks and alligator plugs hanging loose.  Next to that is

a Braille typewriter.  On the floor next to the desk, lying upside down like a

dead tortoise, is the half-gutted body of an old black standard phone.  Across

the room on a torn and dusty couch are two more phones, one of them a

touch-tone model; two tape recorders; a heap of phone patches and cassettes,

and a life-size toy telephone.



Our conversation is interrupted every ten minutes by phone phreaks from all

over the country ringing Joe on just about every piece of equipment but the toy

phone and the Braille typewriter.  One fourteen-year-old blind kid from

Connecticut calls up and tells Joe he's got a girl friend.  He wants to talk to

Joe about girl friends. Joe says they'll talk later in the evening when they

can be alone on the line.  Joe draws a deep breath, whistles him off the air

with an earsplitting 2600-cycle whistle. Joe is pleased to get the calls but he

looked worried and preoccupied that evening, his brow constantly furrowed over

his dark wandering eyes.  In addition to the phone-company stall, he has just

learned that his apartment house is due to be demolished in sixty days for

urban renewal.  For all its shabbiness, the Union Avenue apartment house has

been Joe's first home-of-his-own and he's worried that he may not find another

before this one is demolished.



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But what really bothers Joe is that switchmen haven't been listening to him.

"I've been doing some checking on 800 numbers lately, and I've discovered that

certain 800 numbers in New Hampshire couldn't be reached from Missouri and

Kansas.  Now it may sound like a small thing, but I don't like to see sloppy

work; it makes me feel bad about the lines.  So I've been calling up switching

offices and reporting it, but they haven't corrected it.  I called them up for

the third time today and instead of checking they just got mad.  Well, that

gets me mad.  I mean, I do try to help them.  There's something about them I

can't understand -- you want to help them and they just try to say you're

defrauding them."



It is Sunday evening and Joe invites me to join him for dinner at a Holiday

Inn.  Frequently on Sunday evening Joe takes some of his welfare money, calls a

cab, and treats himself to a steak dinner at one of Memphis' thirteen Holiday

Inns.  (Memphis is the headquarters of Holiday Inn.  Holiday Inns have been a

favorite for Joe ever since he made his first solo phone trip to a Bell

switching office in Jacksonville, Florida, and stayed in the Holiday Inn there.

He likes to stay at Holiday Inns, he explains, because they represent freedom

to him and because the rooms are arranged the same all over the country so he

knows that any Holiday Inn room is familiar territory to him.  Just like any

telephone.)



Over steaks in the Pinnacle Restaurant of the Holiday Inn Medical Center on

Madison Avenue in Memphis, Joe tells me the highlights of his life as a phone

phreak.



At age seven, Joe learned his first phone trick.  A mean baby-sitter, tired of

listening to little Joe play with the phone as he always did, constantly, put a

lock on the phone dial.  "I got so mad.  When there's a phone sitting there and

I can't use it... so I started getting mad and banging the receiver up and

down.  I noticed I banged it once and it dialed one.  Well, then I tried

banging it twice...." In a few minutes Joe learned how to dial by pressing the

hook switch at the right time.  "I was so excited I remember going 'whoo whoo'

and beat a box down on the floor."



At age eight Joe learned about whistling.  "I was listening to some intercept

non working-number recording in L.A.- I was calling L.A. as far back as that,

but I'd mainly dial non working numbers because there was no charge, and I'd

listen to these recordings all day.  Well, I was whistling 'cause listening to

these recordings can be boring after a while even if they are from L.A., and

all of a sudden, in the middle of whistling, the recording clicked off.  I

fiddled around whistling some more, and the same thing happened.  So I called

up the switch room and said, 'I'm Joe.  I'm eight years old and I want to know

why when I whistle this tune the line clicks off.'  He tried to explain it to

me, but it was a little too technical at the time.  I went on learning.  That

was a thing nobody was going to stop me from doing. The phones were my life,

and I was going to pay any price to keep on learning.  I knew I could go to

jail.  But I had to do what I had to do to keep on learning."



The phone is ringing when we walk back into Joe's apartment on Union Avenue.

It is Captain Crunch.  The Captain has been following me around by phone,

calling up everywhere I go with additional bits of advice and explanation for

me and whatever phone phreak I happen to be visiting.  This time the Captain

reports he is calling from what he describes as "my hideaway high up in the

Sierra Nevada."  He pulses out lusty salvos of M-F and tells Joe he is about to

"go out and get a little action tonight.  Do some phreaking of another kind, if

you know what I mean."  Joe chuckles.



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The Captain then tells me to make sure I understand that what he told me about

tying up the nation's phone lines was true, but that he and the phone phreaks

he knew never used the technique for sabotage.  They only learned the technique

to help the phone company.



"We do a lot of troubleshooting for them.  Like this New Hampshire/Missouri

WATS-line flaw I've been screaming about.  We help them more than they know."



After we say good-bye to the Captain and Joe whistles him off the line, Joe

tells me about a disturbing dream he had the night before: "I had been caught

and they were taking me to a prison.  It was a long trip.  They were taking me

to a prison a long long way away.  And we stopped at a Holiday Inn and it was

my last night ever using the phone and I was crying and crying, and the lady at

the Holiday Inn said, 'Gosh, honey, you should never be sad at a Holiday Inn.

You should always be happy here.  Especially since it's your last night.'  And

that just made it worse and I was sobbing so much I couldn't stand it."



Two weeks after I left Joe Engressia's apartment, phone-company security agents

and Memphis police broke into it.  Armed with a warrant, which they left pinned

to a wall, they confiscated every piece of equipment in the room, including his

toy telephone.  Joe was placed under arrest and taken to the city jail where he

was forced to spend the night since he had no money and knew no one in Memphis

to call.



It is not clear who told Joe what that night, but someone told him that the

phone company had an open-and-shut case against him because of revelations of

illegal activity he had made to a phone-company undercover agent.



By morning Joe had become convinced that the reporter from Esquire, with whom

he had spoken two weeks ago, was the undercover agent.  He probably had ugly

thoughts about someone he couldn't see gaining his confidence, listening to him

talk about his personal obsessions and dreams, while planning all the while to

lock him up.



"I really thought he was a reporter," Engressia told the Memphis Press-Seminar.

"I told him everything...." Feeling betrayed, Joe proceeded to confess

everything to the press and police.



As it turns out, the phone company did use an undercover agent to trap Joe,

although it was not the Esquire reporter.



Ironically, security agents were alerted and began to compile a case against

Joe because of one of his acts of love for the system: Joe had called an

internal service department to report that he had located a group of defective

long-distance trunks, and to complain again about the New Hampshire/Missouri

WATS problem.  Joe always liked Ma Bell's lines to be clean and responsive.  A

suspicious switchman reported Joe to the security agents who discovered that

Joe had never had a long-distance call charged to his name.



Then the security agents learned that Joe was planning one of his phone trips

to a local switching office.  The security people planted one of their agents

in the switching office.  He posed as a student switchman and followed Joe

around on a tour.  He was extremely friendly and helpful to Joe, leading him

around the office by the arm. When the tour was over he offered Joe a ride back

to his apartment house.  On the way he asked Joe -- one tech man to another --

about "those blue boxers" he'd heard about.  Joe talked about them freely,

talked about his blue box freely, and about all the other things he could do



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with the phones.



The next day the phone-company security agents slapped a monitoring tape on

Joe's line, which eventually picked up an illegal call.  Then they applied for

the search warrant and broke in.



In court Joe pleaded not guilty to possession of a blue box and theft of

service.  A sympathetic judge reduced the charges to malicious mischief and

found him guilty on that count, sentenced him to two thirty-day sentences to be

served concurrently and then suspended the sentence on condition that Joe

promise never to play with phones again.  Joe promised, but the phone company

refused to restore his service.  For two weeks after the trial Joe could not be

reached except through the pay phone at his apartment house, and the landlord

screened all calls for him.



Phone-phreak Carl managed to get through to Joe after the trial, and reported

that Joe sounded crushed by the whole affair.



"What I'm worried about," Carl told me, "is that Joe means it this time.  The

promise.  That he'll never phone-phreak again.  That's what he told me, that

he's given up phone-phreaking for good.  I mean his entire life.  He says he

knows they're going to be watching him so closely for the rest of his life

he'll never be able to make a move without going straight to jail.  He sounded

very broken up by the whole experience of being in jail. It was awful to hear

him talk that way.  I don't know.  I hope maybe he had to sound that way.  Over

the phone, you know."



He reports that the entire phone-phreak underground is up in arms over the

phone company's treatment of Joe.  "All the while Joe had his hopes pinned on

his application for a phone-company job, they were stringing him along getting

ready to bust him.  That gets me mad.  Joe spent most of his time helping them

out.  The bastards.  They think they can use him as an example.  All of sudden

they're harassing us on the coast.  Agents are jumping up on our lines.  They

just busted ------'s mute yesterday and ripped out his lines.  But no matter

what Joe does, I don't think we're going to take this lying down."



Two weeks later my phone rings and about eight phone phreaks in succession say

hello from about eight different places in the country, among them Carl, Ed,

and Captain Crunch.  A nationwide phone-phreak conference line has been

reestablished through a switching machine in --------, with the cooperation of

a disgruntled switchman.



"We have a special guest with us today," Carl tells me.



The next voice I hear is Joe's.  He reports happily that he has just moved to a

place called Millington, Tennessee, fifteen miles outside of Memphis, where he

has been hired as a telephone-set repairman by a small independent phone

company.  Someday he hopes to be an equipment troubleshooter.



"It's the kind of job I dreamed about.  They found out about me from the

publicity surrounding the trial.  Maybe Ma Bell did me a favor busting me.

I'll have telephones in my hands all day long."



"You know the expression, 'Don't get mad, get even'?" phone-phreak Carl asked

me.  "Well, I think they're going to be very sorry about what they did to Joe

and what they're trying to do to us."



+-- End fourth file of four --+



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                    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

                    $                                     $

                    $         THE HISTORY OF ESS          $

                    $         --- ------- -- ---          $

                    $                                     $

                    $                                     $

                    $      Another original phile by:     $

                    $                                     $

                    $                                     $

                    $$$$$$$$$$$$-=>Lex Luthor<=-$$$$$$$$$$$

                    $                                     $

                    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$





   Of all the new 1960s wonders of telephone technology - satellites, ultra

modern Traffic Service Positions (TSPS) for operators, the picturephone, and so

on - the one that gave Bell Labs the most trouble, and unexpectedly became the

greatest development effort in Bell System's history, was the perfection of an

electronic switching system, or ESS.



   It may be recalled that such a system was the specific end in view when the

project that had culminated in the invention of the transistor had been

launched back in the 1930s. After successful accomplishment of that planned

miracle in 1947-48, further delays were brought about by financial stringency

and the need for further development of the transistor itself.  In the early

1950s, a Labs team began serious work on electronic switching.  As early as

1955, Western Electric became involved when five engineers from the Hawthorne

works were assigned to collaborate with the Labs on the project. The president

of AT&T in 1956, wrote confidently, "At Bell Labs, development of the new

electronic switching system is going full speed ahead. We are sure this will

lead to many improvements in service and also to greater efficiency. The first

service trial will start in Morris, Ill., in 1959." Shortly thereafter, Kappel

said that the cost of the whole project would probably be $45 million.



   But it gradually became apparent that the development of a commercially

usable electronic switching system -in effect, a computerized telephone

exchange - presented vastly greater technical problems than had been

anticipated, and that, accordingly, Bell Labs had vastly underestimated both

the time and the investment needed to do the job. The year 1959 passed without

the promised first trial at Morris, Illinois; it was finally made in November

1960, and quickly showed how much more work remained to be done.  As time

dragged on and costs mounted, there was a concern at AT&T and some-thing

approaching panic at Bell Labs.  But the project had to go forward; by this

time the investment was too great to be sacrificed, and in any case, forward

projections of increased demand for telephone service indicated that within a

phew years a time would come when, without the quantum leap in speed and

flexibility that electronic switching would provide, the national network would

be unable to meet the demand. In November 1963, an all-electronic switching

system went into use at the Brown Engineering Company at Cocoa Beach, Florida.

But this was a small installation, essentially another test installation,

serving only a single company. Kappel's tone on the subject in the 1964 annual

report was, for him, an almost apologetic: "Electronic switching equipment must

be manufactured in volume to unprecedented standards of reliability.... To turn

out the equipment economically and with good speed, mass production methods

must be developed; but, at the same time, there can be no loss of precision..."

Another year and millions of dollars later, on May 30, 1965, the first

commercial electric central office was put into service at Succasunna, New

Jersey.



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   Even at Succasunna, only 200 of the town's 4,300 subscribers initially had

the benefit of electronic switching's added speed and additional services, such

as provision for three party conversations and automatic transfer of incoming

calls. But after that, ESS was on its way. In January 1966, the second

commercial installation, this one serving 2,900 telephones, went into service

in Chase, Maryland. By the end of 1967 there were additional ESS offices in

California, Connecticut, Minnesota, Georgia, New York, Florida, and

Pennsylvania; by the end of 1970 there were 120 offices serving 1.8 million

customers; and by 1974 there were 475 offices serving 5.6 million customers.



   The difference between conventional switching and electronic switching is

the difference between "hardware" and "software"; in the former case,

maintenance is done on the spot, with screwdriver and pliers, while in the case

of electronic switching, it can be done remotely, by computer, from a central

point, making it possible to have only one or two technicians on duty at a time

at each switching center.



   The development program, when the final figures were added up, was found to

have required a staggering four thousand man-years of work at Bell Labs and to

have cost not $45 million but $500 million!













































































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                    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

                    $                                     $

                    $   THE HISTORY OF BRITISH PHREAKING  $

                    $   -=- -=-=-=- -- -=-=-=- -=-=-=-=-  $

                    $                                     $

                    $     THE SECOND IN A SERIES OF       $

                    $     THE HISTORY OF.....PHILES       $

                    $                                     $

                    $       WRITTEN AND UPLOADED BY:      $

                    $                                     $

                    $$$$$$$$$$$$-=>LEX LUTHOR<=-$$$$$$$$$$$

                    $                 AND                 $

                    $          THE LEGION OF DOOM!        $

                    $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$



  NOTE:  THE BRITISH POST OFFICE, IS THE U.S.  EQUIVALENT OF MA BELL.



  IN BRITAIN, PHREAKING GOES BACK TO THE EARLY FIFTIES, WHEN THE TECHNIQUE OF

'TOLL A DROP BACK' WAS DISCOVERED.  TOLL A WAS AN EXCHANGE NEAR ST.  PAULS

WHICH ROUTED CALLS BETWEEN LONDON AND NEARBY NON-LONDON EXCHANGES.  THE TRICK

WAS TO DIAL AN UNALLOCATED NUMBER, AND THEN DEPRESS THE RECEIVER-REST FOR 1/2

SECOND.  THIS FLASHING INITIATED THE 'CLEAR FORWARD' SIGNAL, LEAVING THE CALLER

WITH AN OPEN LINE INTO THE TOLL A EXCHANGE.THE COULD THEN DIAL 018, WHICH

FORWARDED HIM TO THE TRUNK EXCHANGE AT THAT TIME, THE FIRST LONG DISTANCE

EXCHANGE IN BRITAIN AND FOLLOW IT WITH THE CODE FOR THE DISTANT EXCHANGE TO

WHICH HE WOULD BE CONNECTED AT NO EXTRA CHARGE.



  THE SIGNALS NEEDED TO CONTROL THE UK NETWORK TODAY WERE PUBLISHED IN THE

"INSTITUTION OF POST OFFICE ENGINEERS JOURNAL" AND REPRINTED IN THE SUNDAY

TIMES (15 OCT.  1972).



  THE SIGNALLING SYSTEM THEY USE:  SIGNALLING SYSTEM NO.  3 USES PAIRS OF

FREQUENCIES SELECTED FROM 6 TONES SEPARATED BY 120HZ.  WITH THAT INFO, THE

PHREAKS MADE "BLEEPERS" OR AS THEY ARE CALLED HERE IN THE U.S.  "BLUE BOX", BUT

THEY DO UTILIZE DIFFERENT MF TONES THEN THE U.S., THUS, YOUR U.S.  BLUE BOX

THAT YOU SMUGGLED INTO THE UK WILL NOT WORK, UNLESS YOU CHANGE THE

FREQUENCIES.



  IN THE EARLY SEVENTIES, A SIMPLER SYSTEM BASED ON DIFFERENT NUMBERS OF PULSES

WITH THE SAME FREQUENCY (2280HZ) WAS USED.  FOR MORE INFO ON THAT, TRY TO GET A

HOLD OF:  ATKINSON'S "TELEPHONY AND SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY".



  IN THE EARLY DAYS OF BRITISH PHREAKING, THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY TITAN

COMPUTER WAS USED TO RECORD AND CIRCULATE NUMBERS FOUND BY THE EXHAUSTIVE

DIALING OF LOCAL NETWORKS.  THESE NUMBERS WERE USED TO CREATE A CHAIN OF LINKS

FROM LOCAL EXCHANGE TO LOCAL EXCHANGE ACROSS THE COUNTRY, BYPASSING THE TRUNK

CIRCUITS.  BECAUSE THE INTERNAL ROUTING CODES IN THE UK NETWORK ARE NOT THE

SAME AS THOSE DIALED BY THE CALLER, THE PHREAKS HAD TO DISCOVER THEM BY 'PROBE

AND LISTEN' TECHNIQUES OR MORE COMMONLY KNOWN IN THE U.S.-- SCANNING.  WHAT

THEY DID WAS PUT IN LIKELY SIGNALS AND LISTENED TO FIND OUT IF THEY SUCCEEDED.

THE RESULTS OF SCANNING WERE CIRCULATED TO OTHER PHREAKS. DISCOVERING EACH

OTHER TOOK TIME AT FIRST, BUT EVENTUALLY THE PHREAKS BECAME ORGANIZED.  THE

"TAP" OF BRITAIN WAS CALLED "UNDERCURRENTS" WHICH ENABLED BRITISH PHREAKS TO

SHARE THE INFO ON NEW NUMBERS, EQUIPMENT ETC.



  TO UNDERSTAND WHAT THE BRITISH BRITISH PHREAKS DID, THINK OF THE PHONE

NETWORK IN THREE LAYERS OF LINES:  LOCAL, TRUNK, AND INTERNATIONAL.#IN THE UK,

SUBSCRIBER TRUNK DIALING (STD), IS THE MECHANISM WHICH TAKES A CALL FROM THE



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LOCAL LINES AND (LEGITIMATELY) ELEVATES IT TO A TRUNK OR INTERNATIONAL

LEVEL.#THE UK PHREAKS FIGURED THAT A CALL AT TRUNK LEVEL CAN BE ROUTED THROUGH

ANY NUMBER OF EXCHANGES, PROVIDED THAT THE RIGHT ROUTING CODES WERE FOUND AND

USED CORRECTLY.  THEY ALSO HAD TO DISCOVER HOW TO GET FROM LOCAL TO TRUNK LEVEL

EITHER WITHOUT BEING CHARGED (WHICH THEY DID WITH A BLEEPER BOX) OR WITHOUT

USING (STD).  CHAINING HAS ALREADY BEEN MENTIONED BUT IT REQUIRES LONG STRINGS

OF DIGITS AND SPEECH GETS MORE AND MORE FAINT AS THE CHAIN GROWS, JUST LIKE IT

DOES WHEN YOU STACK TRUNKS BACK AND FORTH ACROSS THE U.S.#THE WAY THE SECURITY

REPS SNAGGED THE PHREAKS WAS TO PUT A SIMPLE 'PRINTERMETER' OR AS WE CALL IT:

A PEN REGISTER ON THE SUSPECTS LINE, WHICH SHOWS EVERY DIGIT DIALED FROM THE

SUBSCRIBERS LINE.



  THE BRITISH PREFER TO GET ONTO THE TRUNKS RATHER THAN CHAINING.  ONE WAY WAS

TO DISCOVER WHERE LOCAL CALLS USE THE TRUNKS BETWEEN NEIGHBORING EXCHANGES,

START A CALL AND STAY ON THE TRUNK INSTEAD OF RETURNING TO THE LOCAL LEVEL ON

REACHING THE DISTANT SWITCH.  THIS AGAIN REQUIRED EXHAUSTIVE DIALING AND MADE

MORE WORK FOR TITAN; IT ALSO REVEALED 'FIDDLES', WHICH WERE INSERTED BY POST

OFFICE ENGINEERS.



  WHAT FIDDLING MEANS IS THAT THE ENGINEERS REWIRED THE EXCHANGES FOR THEIR OWN

BENEFIT.  THE EQUIPMENT IS MODIFIED TO GIVE ACCESS TO A TRUNK WITH OUT BEING

CHARGED, AN OPERATION WHICH IS PRETTY EASY IN STEP BY STEP (SXS)

ELECTROMECHANICAL EXCHANGES, WHICH WERE INSTALLED IN BRITAIN EVEN IN THE 1970S

(NOTE:  I KNOW OF A BACK DOOR INTO THE CANADIAN SYSTEM ON A 4A CO., SO IF YOU

ARE ON SXS OR A 4A, TRY SCANNING 3 DIGIT EXCHANGES, IE:  DIAL 999,998,997

ETC.#AND LISTEN FOR THE BEEP-KERCHINK, IF THERE ARE NO 3 DIGIT CODES WHICH

ALLOW DIRECT ACCESS TO A TANDEM IN YOUR LOCAL EXCHANGE AND BYPASSES THE AMA SO

YOU WON'T BE BILLED, NOT HAVE TO BLAST 2600 EVERY TIME YOU WISH TO BOX A CALL.



  A FAMOUS BRITISH 'FIDDLER' REVEALED IN THE EARLY 1970S WORKED BY DIALING 173.

THE CALLER THEN ADDED THE TRUNK CODE OF 1 AND THE SUBSCRIBERS LOCAL NUMBER.  AT

THAT TIME, MOST ENGINEERING TEST SERVICES BEGAN WITH 17X, SO THE ENGINEERS

COULD HIDE THEIR FIDDLES IN THE NEST OF SERVICE WIRES.  WHEN SECURITY REPS

STARTED SEARCHING, THE FIDDLES WERE CONCEALED BY TONES SIGNALLING:  'NUMBER

UNOBTAINALBE' OR 'EQUIPMENT ENGAGED' WHICH SWITCHED OFF AFTER A DELAY.  THE

NECESSARY RELAYS ARE SMALL AND EASILY HIDDEN.



  THERE WAS ANOTHER SIDE TO PHREAKING IN THE UK IN THE SIXTIES. BEFORE STD WAS

WIDESPREAD, MANY 'ORDINARY' PEOPLE WERE DRIVEN TO.



OCCASIONAL PHREAKING FROM SHEER FRUSTRATION AT THE INEFFICIENT OPERATOR

CONTROLLED TRUNK SYSTEM.  THIS CAME TO A HEAD DURING A STRIKE ABOUT 1961 WHEN

OPERATORS COULD NOT BE REACHED.  NOTHING COMPLICATED WAS NEEDED.  MANY

OPERATORS HAD BEEN IN THE HABIT OF REPEATING THE CODES AS THEY DIALLED THE

REQUESTED NUMBERS SO PEOPLE SOON LEARNT THE NUMBERS THEY CALLED FREQUENTLY.

THE ONLY 'TRICK' WAS TO KNOW WHICH EXCHANGES COULD BE DIALLED THROUGH TO PASS

ON THE TRUNK NUMBER.CALLERS ALSO NEEDED A PRETTY QUIET PLACE TO DO IT, SINCE

TIMING RELATIVE TO CLICKS WAS IMPORTANT THE MOST FAMOUS TRIAL OF BRITISH

PHREAKS WAS CALLED THE OLD BAILY TRIAL.#WHICH STARTED ON 3 OCT.  1973.#WHAT

THEY PHREAKS DID WAS TO DIAL A SPARE NUMBER AT A LOCAL CALL RATE BUT INVOLVING

A TRUNK TO ANOTHER EXCHANGE THEN THEY SEND A 'CLEAR FORWARD' TO THEIR LOCAL

EXCHANGE, INDICATING TO IT THAT THE CALL IS FINISHED;BUT THE DISTANT EXCHANGE

DOESN'T REALIZE BECAUSE THE CALLER'S PHONE IS STILL OFF THE HOOK.  THEY NOW

HAVE AN OPEN LINE INTO THE DISTANT TRUNK EXCHANGE AND SENDS TO IT A 'SEIZE'

SIGNAL:  '1' WHICH PUTS HIM ONTO ITS OUTGOING LINES NOW, IF THEY KNOW THE

CODES, THE WORLD IS OPEN TO THEM.  ALL OTHER EXCHANGES TRUST HIS LOCAL EXCHANGE

TO HANDLE THE BILLING; THEY JUST INTERPRET THE TONES THEY HEAR.  MEAN WHILE,

THE LOCAL EXCHANGE COLLECTS ONLY FOR A LOCAL CALL.  THE INVESTIGATORS



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DISCOVERED THE PHREAKS HOLDING A CONFERENCE SOMEWHERE IN ENGLAND SURROUNDED BY

VARIOUS PHONE EQUIPMENT AND BLEEPER BOXES, ALSO PRINTOUTS LISTING 'SECRET' POST

OFFICE CODES.  (THEY PROBABLY GOT THEM FROM TRASHING?) THE JUDGE SAID:  "SOME

TAKE TO HEROIN, SOME TAKE TO TELEPHONES" FOR THEM PHONE PHREAKING WAS NOT A

CRIME BUT A HOBBY TO BE SHARED WITH PHELLOW ENTHUSIASTS AND DISCUSSED WITH THE

POST OFFICE OPENLY OVER DINNER AND BY MAIL.  THEIR APPROACH AND ATTITUDE TO THE

WORLDS LARGEST COMPUTER, THE GLOBAL TELEPHONE SYSTEM, WAS THAT OF SCIENTISTS

CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS OR PROGRAMMERS AND ENGINEERS TESTING PROGRAMS AND

SYSTEMS.  THE JUDGE APPEARED TO AGREE, AND EVEN ASKED THEM FOR PHREAKING CODES

TO USE FROM HIS LOCAL EXCHANGE!!!



#     $-THE END-$































































































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                                  Bad as Shit



   Recently, a telephone fanatic in the  northwest made an interesting

discovery.  He was exploring the 804 area code (Virginia) and found out that

the 840 exchange did something strange.

  In the vast majority of cases, in fact in all of the cases except one, he

would get a recording as if the exchange didn't exist. However, if he dialed

804-840 and four rather predictable numbers, he got a ring!



   After one or two rings, somebody picked up.  Being experienced at this kind

of thing, he could tell that the call didn't "supe", that is, no charges were

being incurred for calling this number.

  (Calls that get you to an error message, or a special operator, generally

don't supervise.)  A female voice, with a hint of a Southern accent said,

"Operator, can I help you?"



   "Yes," he said, "What number have I reached?"



   "What number did you dial, sir?"



   He made up a number that was similar.



   "I'm sorry that is not the number you reached."  Click.



   He was fascinated.  What in the world was this?  He knew he was going to

call back, but before he did, he tried some more experiments. He tried the 840

exchange in several other area codes.  In some, it came up as a valid exchange.

In others, exactly the same thing happened -- the same last four digits, the

same Southern belle.  Oddly enough, he later noticed, the areas worked in

seemed to travel in a beeline from Washington DC to Pittsburgh, PA.



   He called back from a payphone.  "Operator, can I help you?"



   "Yes, this is the phone company.  I'm testing this line and we don't seem to

have an identification on your circuit.  What office is this, please?"



   "What number are you trying to reach?"



   "I'm not trying to reach any number.  I'm trying to identify this circuit."



   "I'm sorry, I can't help you."



   "Ma'am, if I don't get an ID on this line, I'll have to disconnect it.  We

show no record of it here."



   "Hold on a moment, sir."



   After about a minute, she came back.  "Sir, I can have someone speak to you.

Would you give me your number, please?"



   He had anticipated this and he had the payphone number ready. After he gave

it, she said, "Mr. XXX will get right back to you."



   "Thanks."  He hung up the phone.  It rang.  INSTANTLY!  "Oh my God," he

thought, "They weren't asking for my number -- they were confirming it!"



   "Hello," he said, trying to sound authoritative.





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   "This is Mr. XXX.  Did you just make  an inquiry to my office concerning a

phone number?"



   "Yes.  I need an identi--"



   "What you need is advice.  Don't ever call that number again. Forget you

ever knew it."



   At this point our friend got so nervous he just hung up.  He expected to

hear the phone ring again but it didn't.



   Over the next few days he racked his brains trying to figure out what the

number was.  He knew it was something big -- that was pretty certain at this

point.  It was so big that the number was programmed into every central office

in the country.  He knew this because if he tried to dial any other number in

that exchange, he'd get a local error message from his CO, as if the exchange

didn't exist.



   It finally came to him.  He had an uncle who worked in a federal agency.  He

had a feeling that this was government related and if it was, his uncle could

probably find out what it was.  He asked the next day and his uncle promised to

look into the matter.



   The next time he saw his uncle, he noticed a big change in his manner.  He

was trembling.  "Where did you get that number?!"  he shouted.  "Do you know I

almost got fired for asking about it?!? They kept wanting to know where I got

it."



   Our friend couldn't contain his excitement.  "What is it?" he pleaded.

"What's the number?!"



"IT'S THE PRESIDENT'S BOMB SHELTER!"



   He never called the number after that.  He knew that he could probably cause

quite a bit of excitement by calling the number and saying something like, "The

weather's not good in Washington.  We're coming over for a visit."  But our

friend was smart.  he knew that there were some things that were better off

unsaid and undone. <>



























From @UICVM.uic.edu:[email protected] Tue Jun 12 06:40:26 1990

















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                                   Chapter 3



   This chapter is really just a bunch of FACS (pun intended).  Here is where

random facts that really have something to do with everything else but nothing

to do with anything else, are presented.  They cover various topics such as:

Conferencing, Tracing, Pen registers, Calling cards, and some basic FMF (Fool

the Mother Fuckers).  The aspects covered here are very brief and could easily

be covered much more thoroughly, but it is no problem since they are not very

important topics.  Something that would make a very nice gift is covered in the

article AT&T forgery.  Just make up stationary with AT&T letter head and give

it as a present to your phriends who would appreciate it.

































































































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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



                               Phreaking COSMOS

         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-



    COSMOS is Bell's computer for handling information on customer lines,

special services on lines, and orders to change line equipment, disconnect

lines, etc.  COSMOS stands for Computerized System for Mainframe Operations. It

is based on the UNIX operating system and, depending upon the COSMOS and upon

your access, has some, many, or no UNIX standard commands.  COSMOS is powerful,

but there is no reason to be afraid of it.  This article will give some of the

basic, pertinent info on how users get in, account format, and a few other

goodies.



                            Password Identification

         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-



    To get onto COSMOS you need a dialup, account, password, and wire center

(WC).  Wire centers are two letter codes that tell what section of the COSMOS

you are in.  There are different WC's f or different areas and groups of

exchanges.  Examples are PB, SR, LK, et c. Sometimes there are accounts that

have no password; obviously such accounts are the easiest to hack.



                                Checking It Out

         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-



    Let's suppose you have a COSMOS number which you obtained one way or

another.  The first thing to do would be to make sure it is really a COSMOS

system, not some other Bell or AT&T computer.  To do this, you would call it

and connect your modem,, then hit some returns until you got a response. It

should say:



 ';LOGIN:' or 'NAME:'.

    If you enter some garbage it should say:

'PASSWORD:'.

    If you hit a return and it says 'WC?', it is a COSMOS system.  If it says

something like 'TA%' then you're in business.  If it doesn't do any of the

above, then it is either some other  kind of system, or, if you're not getting

anything at all, the dialup has  probably gone bad.



                                  Getting In

         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-



    COSMOS has certain accounts that are  usually on the system, one of which

might not have a password.  They consist of ROOT (most powerful and almost

always on the system), SYS (second most  powerful, still many privileges), BIN

(a little less power), PREOP (a little less), and COSMOS (hardly any

privileges, like a normal user).  The way to tell if they have passwords is by

entering accounts at the ';LOGIN:' or ' NAME:' prompt, and if it jumps straight

to 'WC?', all you need is a WC to get in.  But suppose all of the accounts have

passwords?  You have two choices. You  can try to hack the password and WC to

one of the above accounts.  I won't deal with this method, as is

self-explanatory.  Or you can do something I  find much easier...call the

COSMOS during business hours and hope that someone forgot to log off. Keep

calling until when you connect and hit return until you get a 'WC%' prompt.

'WC' is the WC that the account you found is currently in. You are now in!



                           What to Do while on-line

         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-





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    The first thing you want to do is write down the WC you are in. Only on our

first login it is a good idea to print everything or dump everything to a

buffer.



                                   Commands

         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

'WCFLDS'(!)     : Should list all WC's.

'WHO'           : Should print everyone currently logged on the system, giving

some accounts.

'TTY'           : Tells what terminal port you are on.

'WHERE'         : Should tell the location of the COSMOS installation.

'WHAT'          : Tells what version of COSNIX, COSMOS's operating system, it

is.

'LS *'          : Prints all the files you  have access to.

'CD /dir'       : Connects you to the directory '/dir'.

'CAT filename ' : Prints the file 'filename'.

'Q'             : Quits the editor.

CTRL- Y.        : Logs off

'TAT'           : Sometimes prints a little help file.

'ISH'           : Check someone's telefone #, type 'ISH' at the COSMOS 'WC%'

prompt. Then type.

'HTN XXX-XXXX'  : (Hunt Telephone Number) to tell you about the local number

you are interested in.



'CAT /ETC/PASSWD': Prints out the password file, if you have access. The

passwords are almost always encrypted, but you get a  list of all the accounts.

If you are lucky, one of the lines will have two colons after the account name.

This means there is no prompt from the ';LOGIN:' or 'NAME:' prompts when you

enter that account.



To run a file just type the name followed by a return.



   When the system gives you a '-', you type a '.', and it will type all kinds

of info on the phone number you entered (in Bell abbreviations, of course).  If

it is not a good exchange, it will say something to that effect.  You type a

period to end the ISH.

   If you wish to learn more information about COSMOS, find yourself a COSMOS

manual or look at future issues of 2600.  A UNIX manual would also be helpful

for standard UNIX commands.









































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                                  FACS  FACTS

                        A LOOK AT THE NEW FACS SYSTEMS

                                BY SHARP RAZOR





    BELL ATLANTIC (AND PROBABLY THE REST OF THE U.S. SOON ENOUGH) IS REVAMPING

COSMOS. THE PROJECT IS CALLED FACS (FACILITATED ASSIGNMENT AND CONTROL

SYSTEM).FACS IS COMPOSED OF 5 MODULES WHICH ARE DESIGNED TO FUNCTION AS A

UNIFIED SYSTEM. THE PREMIS AND THE COSMOS SYSTEMS CAN FUNCTION AS ST AND-ALONE

SYSTEMS.THE FIVE PARTS OF FACS ARE PREMIS,SOAC, LFACS,COSMOS,AND THE WM.



    THE PREMIS (PREMISES INFORMATION SYSTEM) SUPPORTS BOTH RESIDENCE AND

BUSINESS ACCOUNTS. PREMIS IS USED FOR VARIOUS INQUIRIES FOR THE STREET ADDRESS

GUIDE(SAG),IE::PHONE NUMBERS,BILLING CHARGES,CREDIT,ETC.



    THE SECOND PART OF FACS IS THE SOAC(SERVICE ORDER ANALYSIS AND CONTROL).

THIS IS PRIMARILY USED TO INPUT SERVICE ORDER DATA INTO FACS, AND TO GET THE

APPROPRIATE OUTPUT.  SOAC INTERPRETS, VALIDATES,AND DECOMPOSES ALL INPUTED DATA

AND SENDS THE INFO TO THE COSMOS AND THE LFACS SYSTEMS.



    THE THIRD PART OF THE SYSTEM IS LFACS(LOOP FACILITIES AND CONTROL SYSTEM).

THIS IS THE COMPONENT OF FACS THAT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR MAINTAINING THE

INVENTORY,DOING THE ASSIGNMENTS, ADMINISTRATING INQUIRIES AND REPORTS, AND IS

THE INVENTORY TRANSFORMATION CENTER. THIS PART OF FACS WILL BE MOSTLY USED FOR

AIDING THE AT&T LINEMEN.



    THE COSMOS SYSTEM(COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR MAINFRAME OPERATIONS) COMPRISES THE

FOURTH PART OF THE FACS SYSTEM. COSMOS IS THE COMPONENT OF FACS THAT IS

RESPONSIBLE FOR MAINTAINING THE MECHANIZED INVENTORY OF MDF FACILITIES,STORING

CUSTOM CALL FEATURES(IE:SPEED DIALING NUMBERS),AND OTHER MISC. INFO.



    THE FIFTH AND LAST PIECE OF THE FACS SYSTEM IS THE WORK MANAGER (WM).  HIS

COMPONENT SERVES AS THE FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR COSMOS. IT ENABLES A NUMBER OF

COSMOS COMPUTERS TO RELIABLY COMMUNICATE WITH THE OTHER FACS COMPONENTS.  WM

SERVES AS THE MESSAGES SWITCHING SYSTEM FOR THE FACS PIECES, AND GENERALLY IS

THE "MESSENGER AND STABILIZER" OF THE SYSTEM.



        THE HARDWARE THAT WILL RUN THIS FACS SYSTEM IS:

   COSMOS:  22-WECO. 3B-20S MINI COMPS.

   WM:      6-WECO.  3B-20S MINI COMPS.

   SOAC-LFACS-PREMIS: TWO SPERRY UNIVAC 1100/92 MAINFRAMES.

                      BANCS 2 THP CYBER 1000 PROCESSORS.



     THE FACS SYSTEM IS STARTING UP AT THIS VERY MOMENT.  THIS IS BASICALLY A

BROAD VIEW OF THE FACS SYSTEM.  AT&T SEEMS TO THINK THAT FACS WILL BE MORE

EFFICIENT,SAVE THEM MONEY IN THE LONG RUN, AND SAVE THEM WORKERS(HERE COME SOME

MASSIVE LAYOFFS!) WHAT THIS MEANS TO PHREAKERS AND HACKERS IS THAT YOU WILL NOW

HAVE AT LEAST FIVE DIAL-UPS IN AN AREA CODE WITH WHICH YOU CAN PHUCK WITH

AT&T!



  ..LATER..

  ..SHARP RAZOR>>

   THE LEGION OF DOOM!

(NOTE: THE FACS SYSTEM HAS RECENTLY BEEN PUT INTO OPERATION(SUMMER 84) IN

ST.LOUIS MISSOURI)









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                                    Telenet



  It seems that not many of you know that Telenet is connected to about 80

computer-networks in the world. No, I don't mean 80 nodes, but 80 networks with

thousands of unprotected computers. When you call your local Telenet- gateway,

you can only call those computers which accept reverse-charging- calls.

  If you want to call computers in foreign countries or computers in USA which

do not accept R-calls, you need a Telenet-ID. Did you ever notice that you can

type ID XXXX when being connected to Telenet? You are then asked for the

password. If you have such a NUI (Network-User-ID) you can call nearly every

host connected to any computer-network in the world. Here are some examples:



026245400090184 :Is a VAX in Germany  (Username: DATEXP and leave mail for

CHRIS  !!!)

0311050500061   :Is the Los Alamos Integrated computing network (One of the

hosts connected to it is the DNA (Defense Nuclear Agency)!!!)

0530197000016   :Is a BBS in New Zealand

024050256       :Is the S-E-Bank in Stockholm, Sweden (Login as GAMES !!!)

02284681140541  :CERN in Geneva in Switzerland (one of the biggest nuclear

research centers in the world) Login as GUEST

0234212301161   :A Videotex-standard system. Type OPTEL to get in and use the

ID 999_ with the password 9_

0242211000001   :University of Oslo in Norway (Type  LOGIN 17,17  to play the

Multi-User-Dungeon !)

0425130000215   :Something like ITT Dialcom, but this one is in Israel ! ID

HELP  with password HELP  works fine with security level 3

0310600584401   :Is the Washington Post News Service via Tymnet (Yes, Tymnet is

connected to Telenet, too !)  ID and Password is: PETER You can read the news

of the next day !



The prefixes are as follows:

02624  is Datex-P in Germany

02342  is PSS in England

03110  is Telenet in USA

03106  is Tymnet in USA

02405  is Telepak in Sweden

04251  is Isranet in Israel

02080  is Transpac in France

02284  is Telepac in Switzerland

02724  is Eirpac in Ireland

02704  is Luxpac in Luxembourg

05252  is Telepac in Singapore

04408  is Venus-P in Japan

...and so on... Some of the countries have more than one

packet-switching-network (USA has 11, Canada has 3, etc).



OK. That should be enough for the moment. As you see most of the passwords are

very simple. This is because they must not have any fear of hackers. Only a few

German hackers use these networks. Most of the computers are absolutely easy to

hack !!! So, try to find out some Telenet-ID's and leave them here. If you need

more numbers, leave e-mail.

I'm calling from Germany via the German Datex-P network, which is similar to

Telenet. We have a lot of those NUI's for the German network, but none for a

special Tymnet-outdial-computer in USA, which connects me to any phone #.



CUL8R,  Mad Max



PS: Call 026245621040000 and type ID INF300 with password DATACOM to get more



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Informations on packet-switching-networks !



PS2: The new password for the Washington Post is KING !!!!

















































































































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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



                             Phreaking AT&T Cards

         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-



    My topic will deal with using an AT&T calling card for automated calls. Ok

to place a call with an AT&T card, lift the handset (PAY PHONE) hit (0) and the

desired area code and the  number to call. Also when calling the same number

that the card is being billed to you enter the phone number and at  the tone

only enter the last four digits on the card. But we don't want  to do that now,

do we. If additional calls are wanted all you do is hit the (#) and you will

get a new dial tone! After you hit (#) you do not have to  re-enter the calling

card number  simply enter your desired number and it will connect you.

    If the number you called is busy just keep hitting (#) and the number to be

called until you connect! Ok to calL the U.S. of a from another country, you

use the exact same format as described above!

    Ok now I will describe the procedure for placing calls to a foreign

country, such as CANADA,RUSSIA,SOUTH AMERICA, etc.. Ok first lift the handset

then enter (01) + the country code + the city code + the local telephone

number. Ok after you get the tone enter the AT&T calling card number. Ok if you

can not dial operator assisted calls from your area don't worry just jingle the

operator and she will handle your call, don't worry she can't see you!

    The international number on the AT&T calling card is used for calling the

US of A from places like RUSSIA, CHINA you never know when you might get stuck

in a country like those and you have no money to make a call! The international

operator will be able to tell you if they honor the AT&T calling card.

    Well I hope that this has straightened out some of your problems on the use

of an AT&T calling card! All you have to remember is that weather you are

placing the call or the operator, be careful and never use the calling card

from your home phone!! That is a BIG NO NO..



    Also AT&T has came out with a new thing called (NEW CARD CALLER SERVICE)

they say that it was designed to meet the public's needs! These phones will be

popping up in many place such as airport terminals, hotels, etc... What the new

card caller service is, is a new type of phone that has a  (CRT) screen that

will talk to you in a language of your choice. The  service works something

like this, when you find a (NEW CARD CALLER PHONE), all you do is follow the

instructions on the (CRT) screen, then you insert the (NEW CARD CALLER CARD)

and there is a strip of magnetic tape on the card  which reads the number, thus

no one can hear you saying your number or if there were a bug in the phone,no

touch tones will be heard!! You can also bill the call to a third party. that

is  one that I am not totally clear on yet! The phone is supposed to tell you

how it can be done. That is after you  have inserted your card and lifted the

receiver!



































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         :%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:

         :%                                                        %:

         :%                     AT&T FORGERY                       %:

         :%              Written by The Blue Buccaneer             %:

         :%                                                        %:

         :% CALL THE EVERLASTING SPEED DEMON BBS AT (415) 522-3074 %:

         :%   Uploaded by Elric of Imrryr of Lunatic Labs UnLtd    %:

         :%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%:





Here is a very simple way to either:



[1] Play an incredibly cruel and realistic joke on a phreaking friend.

                                     -OR-

[2] Provide yourself with everything you ever wanted to be an AT&T person.



   All you need to do is get your hands on some AT&T paper and/or business

cards.  To do this you can either go down to your local business office and

swipe a few or call up somewhere like WATTS INFORMATION and ask them to send

you their information package. They will send you:

1. A nice letter (with the AT&T logo letterhead) saying "Here is the info."

2. A business card (again with AT&T) saying who the sales representative is.

3. A very nice color booklet telling you all about WATTS lines.

4. Various billing information. (Discard as it is very worthless)



   Now take the piece of AT&T paper and the AT&T business card down to your

local print/copy shop.  Tell them to run you off several copies of each, but to

leave out whatever else is printed on the business card/letter.  If they refuse

or ask why, take your precious business elsewhere.

(This should only cost you around $2.00 total)



   Now take the copies home and either with your typewriter, MAC, or Fontrix,

add whatever name, address, telephone number, etc. you like. (I would recommend

just changing the name on the card and using whatever information was on there

earlier)



   And there you have official AT&T letters and business cards.  As mentioned

earlier, you can use them in several ways.  Mail a nice letter to someone you

hate (on AT&T paper..hehehe) saying that AT&T is onto them or something like

that.  (Be sure to use correct English and spelling)  (Also do not hand write

the letter!  Use a typewriter! - Not Fontrix as AT&T doesn't use OLD ENGLISH or

ASCII BOLD when they type letters.  Any IBM typewriter will do perfectly)



   Another possible use (of many, I guess) is (if you are old enough to look

the part) to use the business card as some sort of fake id.



   The last example of uses for the fake AT&T letters & b.cards is mentioned in

my textfile, BASIC RADIO CALLING.  Briefly, send the station a letter that

reads:

    WCAT - FM202: (Like my examples? Haha!)

(As you probably know, radio stations give away things by accepting the 'x'

call. (ie: The tenth caller through wins a pair of Van Halen tickets) Sometimes

they may ask a trivia question, but that's your problem. Anyway, the letter

continues:)

  (You basically say that they have become so popular that they are getting too

many calls at once from listeners trying to win tickets. By asking them  to

call all at the same time is overloading our systems.  We do, of course, have

means of handling these sort of matters, but it would require you sending us a



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schedule of when you will be asking your listeners to call in.  That way we

would be able to set our systems to handle the amount of callers you get at

peak times..(etc..etc..more BS..But you get the idea, right?)



Joseph Hakimout

AT&T Telecommunications

East Bumblefuck, Nowheresville  55555





    Ok, so it probably won't work (DJs just aren't that dumb, unless you really

do live in Nowheresville), but using AT&T paper and a business card might up

your chances some.



         :-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-



























































































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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



                    =><---------------------------------><=

                   =>      A little something about      <=

                    =>         Your phone company        <=

                    =><---------------------------------><=

                    =>           By Col. Hogan           <=

                   ========================================



           Ever get an operator who gave you a hard time, and you didn't know

what to do? Well if the operator hears you use a little Bell jargon, she might

wise up. Here is a little diagram (excuse the artwork) of the structure of

operators



/--------X     /------X     /-----X

!Operator!-- > ! S.A. ! --->! BOS !

X--------/     X------/     X-----/

   !

   !

   V

/-------------X

! Group Chief !

X-------------/



    Now most of the operators are not bugged, so they can curse at you, if they

do ask INSTANTLY for the "S.A." or the Service Assistant. The operator does not

report to her (95% of them are hers) but they will solve most of your problems.

She MUST give you her name as she connects & all of these calls are bugged. If

the SA gives you a rough time get her BOS (Business Office Supervisor) on the

line. S/He will almost always back her girls up, but sometimes the SA will get

tarred and feathered. The operator reports to the Group Chief, and S/He will

solve 100% of your problems, but the chances of getting S/He on the line are

nill.

    If a lineman (the guy who works out on the poles) or an installation man

gives you the works ask to speak to the Installation Foreman, that works

wonders.

    Here is some other bell jargon, that might come in handy if you are having

trouble with the line. Or they can be used to lie your way out of

situations....



     An Erling is a line busy for 1 hour, used mostly in traffic studies A

Permanent Signal is that terrible howling you get if you disconnect, but don't

hang up.

     Everyone knows what a busy signal is, but some idiots think that is the

*Actual* ringing of the phone, when it just is a tone "beeps" when the phone is

ringing, wouldn't bet on this though, it can (and does) get out of sync.

     When you get a busy signal that is 2 times as fast as the normal one, the

person you are trying to reach isn't really on the phone, (he might be), it is

actually the signal that a trunk line somewhere is busy and they haven't or

can't reroute your call. Sometimes you will get a Recording, or if you get

nothing at all (Left High & Dry in fone terms) all the recordings are being

used and the system is really overused, will probably go down in a little

while. This happened when Kennedy was shot, the system just couldn't handle the

calls. By the way this is called the "reorder signal" and the trunk line is

"blocked".

     One more thing, if an overseas call isn't completed and doesn't generate

any money for AT&T, is is called an "Air & Water Call".









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                      [ESSENCE OF TELEPHONE CONFERENCING]

                                 [WRITTEN BY:]

                               [FOREST  RANGER]



     TELEPHONE CONFERENCING IS AN EASY WAY OF GETTING MANY FRIENDS TOGETHER AT

ONCE. THIS CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED EASILY WITH LITTLE OR NO TROUBLE WHAT SO EVER.

THE TECHNIQUES THAT I WILL TEACH YOU DO NOT REQUIRE A BLUE BOX OR A TOUCH TONE

PHONE LINE. THE ONLY PREREQUISITE IS THAT YOU HAVE A PHONE THAT HAS A TONE

SWITCH ON IT OR HAVE A HOOKABLE TOUCH TONE KEYPAD. NOW, IF YOU ARE THE PARANOID

TYPE OF PERSON AND REFUSE TO USE YOUR OWN PHONE OUT OF YOUR HOUSE THEN HERE ARE

SOME SIMPLE WAYS OF GETTING CONFERENCES STARTED FROM ANOTHER PHONE. GO TO A

MALL OR A PLACE WHERE YOU KNOW THE PHONE IS BEING PAYED FOR BY THE BUSINESS IT

IS IN.

    NOW THERE ARE TWO TO CALL THE CONFERENCE OPERATOR; DIAL "0" TO GET YOUR

LOCAL OPERATOR SO SHE CAN PUT YOU THROUGH TO THE CONFERENCE OPERATOR OR DIAL

THE CONFERENCE OPERATOR DIRECTLY IF YOU HAVE THE NUMBER HANDY. THE SYSTEM YOU

WILL BE LINKED UP TO IS CALLED THE "ALLIANCE" SYSTEM. THERE ARE THREE BRANCHES;

1000,2000,3000.

    NOW ONCE YOU HAVE GOTTEN THE CONFERENCE OPERATOR YOU TELL HER YOU WOULD

LIKE TO START A CONFERENCE AND YOU WOULD LIKE TO MAINTAIN CONTROL OF IT. SHE

WILL THEN PROCEED TO ASK YOU FOR YOUR NAME AND NUMBER. YOU WILL THEN GIVE HER A

FAKE NAME AND THE NUMBER OF THE PAY PHONE. SHE WILL HANG UP AND CALL YOU BACK

ONCE SHE HAS CHECKED THE NUMBER. THEY USUALLY DON'T REALIZE IT IS A PAYPHONE SO

DON'T THINK IT WON'T WORK! NOW ONCE THE OPERATOR HAS GIVEN YOU CONTROL YOU WILL

THEN PROCEED TO HACK MY VOICE PHONE AND PUT ME ON THE CONFERENCE.

    NOW, THE OTHER WAY OF STARTING A CONFERENCE IN WHICH YOU DON'T GET A LIVE

OPERATOR IS A "PBX". WITH THIS YOU WILL CALL A PBX NUMBER AND YOU WILL THEN

RECEIVE A RECORDING OF A BUSINESS OR OFFICE CO. THEN WHEN THE RECORDING IS OVER

YOU WILL HERE A BEEP...THEN AFTER ABOUT 10-30 SECONDS AFTER THE BEEP YOU WILL

GET A DIAL TONE ON THE ON THE END OF THE PBX.  YOU WILL THEN TYPE THE PBX CODE

WHICH WILL THEN RESPOND WITH A RECORDING WELCOMING YOU TO THE CONFERENCING

NETWORK (WHICH WILL IN MOST IF NOT ALL BE THE "ALLIANCE" SYSTEM).

    IT WILL BE SELF EXPLANATORY FROM THERE. NOW IF YOU DON'T WISH TO CALL THE

CONFERENCE OPERATOR EITHER WAY ALREADY EXPLAINED THEN THERE IS A WAS OF GETTING

YOUR FRIENDS IN CONFERENCE. THIS IS DONE OVER A LOOP EXTENSION. NO ONE WILL

HAVE CONTROL, BUT YOU WILL STILL BE ON CONFERENCE. THIS IS CALLED THE SEVEN

LINE LOOP EXTENSION. THIS MEANS YOU CAN HAVE UP TO SEVEN MEMBERS, BUT THAT IS

IT! THE NUMBER IS IN LA, CA. 213-206-2820. THE LAST WAY I WILL EXPLAIN TO YOU

IF YOU ARE IN DESPERATE NEED OF A CONFERENCE IS TO GO TO PAY PHONE LIKE I

MENTIONED BEFORE ANY MAKE SURE SOME BUSINESS PAYS THE BILL FOR IT THEN CALL THE

CONFERENCE OPERATOR IN THE FASHIONS MENTIONED AND ASK THE CONFERENCE OPERATOR

TO PLACE CONFERENCE CALLS.

    THE WILL THEN ASK FOR THE NUMBERS OF THE PEOPLE TO PUT ON CONFERENCE, YOU

GIVE HER THE NUMBERS AND SHE WILL PUT YOU ALL ON CONFERENCE.  WHEN YOU ARE DONE

YOU WILL HANG UP ON HER SO THERE WILL BE NO ONE IN CONTROL.THAT MEANS THE

CONFERENCE WILL BE BILLED TO THE PAYPHONE AND NO ONE CAN BE BLAMED FOR THE

CONFERENCE DUE TO NO ONE BEING IN CONTROL! ***NOTE*** THE CONFERENCE OPERATOR

WILL NOT BE ON WHILE YOU ARE ALL TALKING! REMEMBER THAT CONFERENCES ARE NOT

HARD AND IT IS VERY HARD TO GET ARRESTED ON ONE DUE TO WHAT I HAVE MENTIONED.



                REMEMBER:REACH OUT AND PHREAK SOMEONE!







[TELEPHONE CONFERENCE CONTROLS]



   # - CONTROL MODE

   # - 6 PASSES CONTROL



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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



   # - 1 + AREA CODE & NUMBER ADDS

   # - 9 SILENT MODE

   # - 7 GETS CONFERENCE OPERATOR

   * - ENDS CONFERENCE





   THE "#" IS THE CONTROL KEY ON YOUR CONFERENCES. WHEN YOU PASS CONTROL TO

SOMEONE ELSE HIT THE "#" THEN "6". WAIT FOR THE RECORDING TO SAY ENTER # OF

PERSON TO PASS CONTROL TO, THEN ENTER THE NUMBER OF THE PERSON YOU ARE GOING TO

GIVE CONTROL TO.

   TO ADD A PERSON ON TO THE CONFERENCE HIT "#" THEN "1","AREA CODE","NUMBER".

THEN WHEN THE PERSON ANSWERS WAIT FIVE SECONDS THEN HIT THE "#" TO ADD. IF YOU

ARE IN CONTROL OF THE CONFERENCE AND YOU WANT TO HEAR EVERYONE ELSE, BUT YOU DO

NOT WANT TO BE HEARD IT "#" THEN "9" THEN THE "#" TO REJOIN THE CONFERENCE.

REMEMBER AFTER ADDING SOMEONE ON OR PASSING CONTROL TO SOMEONE YOU MUST ALWAYS

HIT THE "#" TO REJOIN THE OTHERS ON CONFERENCE: PASSING CONTROL: "#","6", WAIT

FOR RECORDING TO SAY ENTER NUMBER OF PARTY TO GIVE CONTROL TO THEN ENTER NUMBER

AND HIT "#" TO REJOIN YOUR CONFERENCE.IF YOU EVER WANT TO GET A CONFERENCE

OPERATOR FOR SOME STRANGE REASON THEN HIT "#","7" AND WAIT FOR A CONFERENCE

OPERATOR TO CLICK ON. TO END A CONFERENCE HIT "*".



 WITH HELP FROM: SILICON FALCON, SILVER CONDOR, AND THE ELIMINATOR.











































































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                                 Phone Tapping



     HERE IS SOME INFO ON PHONE TAPS. I HAVE ENCLOSED A SCHEMATIC FOR A SIMPLE

WIRETAP & INSTRUCTIONS FOR HOOKING UP A TAPE RECORDER CONTROL RELAY TO THE

PHONE LINE.

     FIRST I'LL DISCUSS TAPS A LITTLE. THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF TAPS.

THERE ARE TRANSMITTERS, WIRED TAPS AND INDUCTION TAPS TO NAME A FEW.  WIRED AND

WIRELESS TRANSMITTERS MUST BE PHYSICALLY CONNECTED TO THE LINE BEFORE THEY'LL

DO ANY GOOD. ONCE A WIRELESS TAP IS CONNECTED TO THE LINE, IT CAN TRANSMIT ALL

CONVERSATIONS OVER A LIMITED RANGE. THE PHONES IN THE HOUSE CAN EVEN BE

MODIFIED TO PICK UP CONVERSATIONS IN THE ROOM & TRANSMIT THEM TOO!  THESE TAPS

ARE USUALLY POWERED OFF THE PHONE LINE, BUT CAN HAVE AN EXTERNAL POWER SOURCE.

     WIRED TAPS, ON THE OTHER HAND, NEED NO POWER SOURCE, BUT A WIRE MUST BE

RUN FROM THE LINE TO THE LISTENER OR TO A TRANSMITTER.  THERE ARE OBVIOUS

ADVANTAGES OF WIRELESS TAPS OVER WIRED ONES.  THERE IS ONE TYPE OF WIRELESS TAP

THAT LOOKS LIKE A NORMAL TELEPHONE MIKE.  ALL YOU HAVE TO DO IS REPLACE THE

ORIGINAL MIKE WITH THIS & IT'LL TRANSMIT ALL CONVERSATIONS!

    THERE IS AN EXOTIC TYPE OF WIRED TAP KNOWN AS THE 'INFINITY TRANSMITTER' OR

'HARMONICA BUG'.  IN ORDER TO HOOK UP ONE OF THESE, YOU NEED ACCESS TO THE

TARGET TELEPHONE.  IT HAS A TONE DECODER & SWITCH INSIDE.  WHEN IT IS

INSTALLED, SOMEONE CALLS THE TAPPED PHONE & *BEFORE* IT RINGS, BLOWS A WHISTLE

OVER THE LINE.  THE X-MITTER RECEIVES THE TONE & PICKS UP THE PHONE VIA A

RELAY.  THE MIKE ON THE PHONE IS ACTIVATED SO THE CALLER CAN HEAR ALL

CONVERSATIONS IN THE ROOM.

     THERE IS A SWEEP TONE TEST AT 415/BUG-1111 WHICH CAN BE USED TO DETECT ON

OF THESE TAPS.  IF ONE OF THESE IS ON YOUR LINE & THE TEST # SENDS THE CORRECT

TONE, YOU'LL HEAR A CLICK.

     INDUCTION TAPS HAVE ONE BIG ADVANTAGE OVER TAPS THAT MUST BE PHYSICALLY

WIRED TO THE PHONE.  THEY DON'T HAVE TO BE TOUCHING THE PHONE IN ORDER TO PICK

UP THE CONVERSATION. THEY WORK ON THE SAME PRINCIPLE AS THE LITTLE SUCTION-CUP

TAPE RECORDER MIKES YOU CAN GET AT RADIO SHACK. INDUCTION MIKES CAN BE HOOKED

UP TO A TRANSMITTER OR BE WIRED. HERE IS AN EXAMPLE OF INDUSTRIAL ESPIONAGE

USING THE PHONE:

     A SALESMAN WALKS INTO AN OFFICE & MAKES A FONE CALL.  HE FAKES THE

CONVERSATION, BUT WHEN HE HANGS UP HE SLIPS SOME FOAM-RUBBER CUBES UNDER THE

HANDSET, SO THE FONE IS STILL OFF THE HOOK.  THE CALLED PARTY CAN STILL HEAR

ALL CONVERSATIONS IN THE ROOM. WHEN SOMEONE PICKS UP THE FONE, THE CUBES FALL

AWAY UNNOTICED.

     I USE A TAP ON MY LINE TO MONITOR WHAT AE-PRO IS DOING WHEN IT AUTO-DIALS,

SINCE IT DOESN'T TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE HANDSET ON THE APPLE CAT II.  I CAN ALSO

HOOK UP THE TAP TO A CASSETTE RECORDER OR AMPLIFIER. HERE IS THE SCHEMATIC:



-------)!----)!(------------->

             )!(

 CAP ^       )!(

             )!(

             )!(

             )!(

     ^^^^^---)!(------------->

       ^  100K

       !

       !<INPUT



THE 100K POT IS USED FOR VOLUME.  IT SHOULD BE ON ITS HIGHEST (LEAST

RESISTANCE) SETTING IF YOU HOOK A SPEAKER ACROSS THE OUTPUT, BUT IT SHOULD BE

SET ON ITS HIGHEST RESISTANCE FOR A TAPE RECORDER OR AMPLIFIER.  YOU MAY FIND

IT NECESSARY TO ADD ANOTHER 10-40K.  THE CAPACITOR SHOULD BE AROUND .47 MFD.

IT'S ONLY PURPOSE IS TO PREVENT THE RELAY IN THE CO FROM TRIPPING & THINKING



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YOU HAVE THE FONE OFF THE HOOK.  THE AUDIO OUTPUT TRANSFORMER AVAILABLE AT

RADIO SHACK (273-1380) IS FINE FOR THE X-FORMER. THE BLACK & GREEN ARE FINE FOR

INPUT & THE RED & WHITE GO TO THE OUTPUT DEVICE.  YOU MAY WANT TO EXPERIMENT

WITH THE X-FORMER FOR THE BEST OUTPUT.

     HOOKING UP A TAPE RECORDER CONTROL RELAY IS EAST.  JUST ONE OF THE FONE

WIRES (USU. RED) BEFORE THE TELEPHONES & HOOK ONE END TO ONE WIRE OF THE RELAY

& THE OTHER END TO THE OTHER RELAY WIRE.  LIKE THIS:



------^^^^^^^^^------------

      ---------

      RELAY^^

































































































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         ############################################################

         #                                                          #

         #    WIRETAPPING AND DIVESTITURE:  A LINEMAN SPEAKS OUT    #

         #                  BY THE KNIGHTS OF SHADOW                #

         #                    [2600 - JANUARY 1985]                 #

         #                                                          #

         ############################################################



     NEVER MISSING AN OPPORTUNITY FOR SOCIAL ENGINEERING, THE KID & CO. AND I

NATURALLY CARRIED ON A CONVERSATION WITH THE NEW JERSEY BELL FONE INSTALLER

WHEN HE CAME TO PUT IN MY MODEM LINE. THE CONVERSATION TURNED TO FONE TAPPING,

AND SEVERAL INTERESTING DETAILS CAME TO LIGHT. HE SWORE UP AND DOWN THAT BELL

HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH WIRE TAPPING. HE SAID THE SUPERVISOR RECEIVES SEALED

ORDERS FROM THE SHERIFF'S OFFICE, MERELY PASSING THEM ON TO THE LINEMEN.  THEN

THE LINEMEN FOLLOW THE ORDERS TO GO UP ON THE POLES AND MARK THE PAIR IN THE

"CAN" THAT FIT THE FONE LINE IN QUESTION, AND THEN LEAVE THE SITE.



     ONE DAY, OUR LINEMAN DROVE BACK BY THE POLE HE HAD MARKED EARLIER IN THE

DAY, AND SAW A BELL TRUCK.  WONDERING WHO IT WAS, HE STOPPED TO ASK.  THE GUY

)zYSTERY MAN AS ONE OF THE LINEMEN FOR THE AREA, HE

ASKED HIS SUPERVISOR WHO IT COULD HAVE BEEN.  HIS SUPERVISOR CURTLY TOLD HIM TO

FORGET THE ENTIRE INCIDENT.



     THE LINEMAN TOLD US THAT IN THE OLD DAYS THE TELCO AND THE PROSECUTOR'S

OFFICE WORKED HAND-IN-HAND.  THEY WOULD LET THE AUTHORITIES RIGHT INTO THE CO

TO LISTEN IN ON CONVERSATIONS.  BUT THIS ENDED AROUND 1973 WHEN SOMEONE SUED

JERSEY BELL BECAUSE OF THIS TOO CLOSE INTERACTION.  THE TELCO THEN REALIZED

THAT THEY DIDN'T HAVE TO GO THAT FAR IN  ORDER TO HELP THE POLICE.  AFTER THIS

THEY GRADUALLY BROKE FROM THE CLOSE RELATIONSHIP.  NOW THE FONE COMPANY MERELY

MARKS THE LINES, AND THE PROSECUTOR'S OFFICE HANDLES THE REST.  HE ALSO SAID

THAT NOW THE POLICE SOMETIMES USE ULTRASONIC WAVES BOUNCED OFF OF WINDOW PANES

TO LISTEN TO SUSPECTS, REMOVING ALL CONTACT WITH THE FONE LINES.  SINCE THE

PRESENCE OF A FONE COMPANY TRUCK MESSING WITH TELEPHONE WIRES IS TAKEN FOR

GRANTED BY THE GENERAL POPULACE, THE SHERIFF'S OFFICE ALSO HAS A COUPLE OF THEM

FOR UNDERCOVER WORK.  SINCE THEY GOT THEM BACK IN THE GOOD OLD DAYS OF BELL

FRIENDLINESS, THE TRUCKS TEND TO BE THE OLDER MODELS, WITH OUTDATED GEAR. THE

LINEMAN TOLD US A SURE WAY TO IDENTIFY THE LOCAL POLICE'S TRUCKS:  THEY HAVE

WOODEN LADDERS.  NEW JERSEY BELL SWITCHED OVER TO PLASTIC ONES YEARS AGO.



     CONTINUING THE DISCUSSION WITH THE LINEMAN, WE COVERED THE BREAKUP.  NEW

JERSEY BELL NOW NO LONGER GIVES AS MUCH OVERTIME AS IT ONCE DID.  THE LINEMAN

COMPLAINED THAT HIS STANDARD OF LIVING HAD GONE DOWN SINCE THE BREAKUP AS HE NO

LONGER HAS AS MUCH TAKE HOME PAY.  THE BREAKUP HAS CAUSED A TOTAL SEVERING OF

TIES WITH AT&T.  HE PROFESSED TOTAL IGNORANCE ABOUT LONG DISTANCE CALLING.  HE

HAD ORIGINALLY GONE WITH AT&T, BUT DISLIKED FIXING PBX'S AND COMPUTER SYSTEMS.

AS SOON AS HE COULD, HE SWITCHED BACK TO THE LOCAL OPERATING COMPANY.



     HE TOLD US ABOUT A TECHNICAL INSTITUTE WESTERN UNION WAS OPERATING

SOMEWHERE IN THE MIDWEST.  HE HAD GONE THERE TO LEARN ABOUT THE VARIOUS TYPES

OF SWITCHING SYSTEMS.  ON CAMPUS WAS A GIGANTIC, MULTI-STORY BUILDING SPLIT UP

INTO ROOMS APPROXIMATELY THE SIZE OF GYMNASIUMS.  IN EACH WAS A FULLY

OPERATIONAL SCALE MODEL OF EACH OF THE VARIOUS SWITCHING SYSTEMS.  WESTERN

ELECTRIC MANUFACTURES, INCLUDING ALL THE ESS AND CROSSBAR MACHINES, AS WELL AS

SOME STEP-BY-STEP, AND SEVERAL TYPES OF PBX'S.  THEY TROUBLE-SHOT AND REPAIRED

PROBLEMS IN THESE MACHINES IN ORDER TO LEARN ABOUT ACTUAL OPERATING EQUIPMENT.



     WE TALKED ABOUT THE LOCAL SWITCHING EQUIPMENT, WHICH TURNED OUT TO BE A



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#1A ESS.  ACCORDING TO HIM, SOON ALL THE LOCAL CO'S WILL BE RUN AUTOMATICALLY

FROM CENTRAL LOCATIONS CALLED "HUBS".  THE "HUB" HANDLES ANY OVERLOAD BETWEEN

CENTRAL OFFICES THAT MIGHT CAUSE THE DREADED "GRIDLOCK" OF THE FONE SYSTEM.  IF

THE INTEROFFICE SIGNALING LINES GET OVERLOADED, THE CALLS ARE REROUTED THROUGH

THE HUB.  THE HUB ALSO SERVES AS A CENTRAL SPOT WHERE TROUBLES AT THE LOCAL CO

ARE HANDLED IN THE FIRST STAGES OF TROUBLE-SHOOTING.  THE "HUB" CONCEPT IS

ALIVE AND WELL IN OUR LOCAL AREA, WITH #5 ESS, THE THIRD INSTALLED IN THE

ENTIRE NATION, RUNNING THE WHOLE OPERATION.



     WHEN HE WAS GETTING READY TO LEAVE HE THANKED US FOR THE INTERESTING

CONVERSATION, AND WE WAVED AT HIM AS HE  PULLED OUT.  I NOW NOT ONLY HAD A NEW

FONE LINE, BUT ALSO A LOT OF USEFUL AND INTERESTING INFO, AS WELL AS THE

SATISFACTION OF A FRIENDLY CHAT.



     THE LESSON IS CLEAR.  WHENEVER A BELL EMPLOYEE VISITS YOUR HOUSE, FELL

PHREE TO ASK WHATEVER YOU WANT, WITHIN REASON.  MOST ARE EXTREMELY WILLING TO

SHOOT THE BULL ABOUT ALMOST ANYTHING OF WHICH THEY HAVE KNOWLEDGE.  AT FIRST,

MERELY JOKE WITH THEM LIGHTHEARTEDLY, IN ORDER TO GET THEM OFF THERE GUARD.

LEGIT QUESTIONS ASKABLE BY A NORMAL CUSTOMER, SUCH AS EQUAL ACCESS CUTOVERS,

WILL GET THEM ROLLING, LEAVING YOU TO DIRECT THE CONVERSATION WHEREVER YOU

LIKE.  ASKING ABOUT THE BREAKUP AND HOW IT AFFECTED THEM IS A SURE FIRE WAY TO

GET THEM TALKING.  QUESTIONS LIKE "HOW DOES THE FONE NETWORK WORK?" ALSO ARE

GOOD, ESPECIALLY IF YOU GUIDE THEM INTO  THE DISCUSSION OF SWITCHING

TECHNOLOGY. MOST BELL EMPLOYEES ARE REALLY GLAD TO TALK TO SOMEONE.  REMEMBER,

THEY USUALLY INTERACT WITH DISGRUNTLED CUSTOMERS WITH COMPLAINTS.  THEIR

SPOUSES PROBABLY YELL AT THEM, AND THEIR SUPERVISORS EITHER COMPLAIN ABOUT

THEIR PERFORMANCE OR IGNORE THEM. SOCIETY AT LARGE JUST DOESN'T CARE ABOUT

THEM.  THEY'RE MOST PROBABLY DISENCHANTED WITH THE WORLD AT LARGE, AND MAYBE

EVEN DISSATISFIED WITH THEIR JOBS.  THE CHANCE TO TALK TO SOME ONE WHO MERELY

WANTS TO LISTEN TO WHAT THEY SAY IS A WELCOME CHANGE.  THEY WILL TALK ON AND ON

ABOUT ALMOST ANYTHING, FROM TELECOMMUNICATIONS TO THEIR HOME LIFE AND THEIR

CHILDHOOD.  THE POSSIBILITIES FOR SOCIAL ENGINEERING ARE ENDLESS.  REMEMBER,

BELL EMPLOYEES ARE HUMANS, TOO.  ALL YOU HAVE TO DO IS LISTEN.





















































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                         [PEN REGISTERING AND TRACING]



                                 [WRITTEN BY:]



                               [FOREST  RANGER]





  PEN REGISTERING IS A SPECIAL DEVICE USED BY AT&T. THIS DEVICE DECIPHERS THE

TONES USED WHEN PHREAKING PHONE CALLS. THIS MEANS THAT EACH TONE KEY PRESSED IS

DECIPHERED IF YOU HAD A PEN REGISTER ON YOUR LINE OR WERE BEING TRACED WITH A

PEN REGISTER, EVERY PHONE NUMBER YOU DIALED WOULD BE KNOWN. THAT MEANS EVERY

TIME YOU WOULD PHREAK A NUMBER NOT ONLY WOULD THE ACCESS NUMBER BE RECORDED,

BUT THE CODE BEING USED AND WHERE YOU CALLED TO! SO IF YOU KNOW YOU HAVE A PEN

REGISTER ON YOUR LINE THEN I WOULD ADVISE YOU NOT TO PHREAK!



   TRACING - THE FBI DOES NOT TRACE,THE POLICE DO NOT TRACE. THE PHONE CO.

TRACES. IF THE FBI WANTS A TRACE ON YOUR LINE THEY SIMPLY CALL THE PHONE CO.

THE FBI DOES NOT SIT UP ALL NIGHT TO LISTEN IN ON YOUR PHONE. THEY DON'T TRACE

FOR YEARS OR 6 MONTHS, BUT JUST FOR A FEW DAYS AT A TIME IF AT ALL. THE POLICE

TRACES THE SAME WAY. IT COSTS TOO MUCH MONEY TO TRACE ALL THE COMPUTER

PHREAKERS AND HACKERS, SO THEY MERELY PICK ON A SELECT FEW. SO TRACING ISN'T AS

DANGEROUS AS IT SEEMS! THE PEOPLE THAT TELL YOU DIFFERENT HAVE BEEN WATCHING

TOO MANY LATE NIGHT FILMS! SO DON'T GET TOO PARANOID IF YOU THINK YOU ARE BEING

TRACED DUE TO THE FACTS MENTIONED ABOVE!





FOREST RANGER

































































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                                ==Phrack Inc.==



                     Volume One, Issue One, Phile #4 of 8



                        THE PHONE PHREAK'S FRY-UM GUIDE



                         COMPILED BY THE IRON SOLDIER



                            WITH HELP FROM DR. DOVE





NOTE: THIS GUIDE IS STILL BEING COMPILED, AND AS PHONE PHREAKS LEARN MORE IN

THE ART OF VENGEANCE IT WILL ALWAYS EXPAND.





"Vengeance is mine", says the Phreak.





METHOD 1-PHONE LINE PHUN



Call up the business office.  It should be listed at the front of the white

      "Hello, this is Mr. Korman, I'm moving to California and would like to

have  my phone service disconnected. I'm at the airport now.  I'm calling from

a payphone, my number is  [414] 445 5005. You can send my final bill to:

(somewhere in California). Thank you."





METHOD 2-PHONE BOOKS



Call up the business office from a pay phone.  Say :

     "Hello, I'd like to order a Phone Book for Upper Volta (or any out-of-the

way area with Direct Dialing).  This is Scott Korman, ship to 3119 N. 44th St.

Milwaukee, WI 53216.  Yes, I under stand it will cost $xx($25-$75!!). Thank

you."





METHOD 3-PHONE CALLS



Call up a PBX, enter the code and get an outside line.  Then dial 0+ the number

desired to call.  You will hear a bonk and then an operator.  Say, "I'd like to

charge this to my home phone at 414-445-5005. Thank you."  A friend and I did

this to a loser, I called him at 1:00 AM and we left the fone off the hook all

night.  I calculated that it cost him $168.





METHOD 4-MISC SERVICES



Call up the business office once again from a payfone.  Say you'd like call

waiting, forwarding, 3 way, etc.  Once again you are the famed loser Scott

Korman.  He pays-you laugh.  You don't know how funny it was talking to him,

and wondering what those clicks he kept hearing were.





METHOD 5-CHANGED & UNPUB



Do the same as in #4, but say you'd like to change and unlist your (Scott's)

number.  Anyone calling him will get:



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    "BEW BEW BEEP.  The number you have reached, 445-5005, has been changed to

a non-published number.  No further....."





METHOD 6-FORWRDING



    This required an accomplice or two or three.  Around Christmas time, go to

Toys 'R' Us.  Get everyone at the customer service or manager's desk away

("Hey, could you help me").  then you get on their phone and dial (usually dial

9 first) and the business office again. This time, say you are from Toys 'R'

Us, and you'd like to add call forwarding to 445-5005.  Scott will get 100-600

calls a day!!!





METHOD 7-RUSSIAN CALLER



    Call a payphone at 10:00 PM.  Say to the operator that you'd like to book a

call to Russia.  Say you are calling from a payphone, and your number is that

of the loser to fry (e.g. 445-5005). She will say that she'll have to call ya

back in 5 hours, and you ok that. Meanwhile the loser (e.g.) Scott, will get a

call at 3:00 AM from an operator saying that the call he booked to Russia is

ready.





IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS LEAVE E-MAIL FOR ME ON ANY BOARD I'M ON.

The Iron Soldier

TSF-The Second Foundation!

































































                                    Page 87









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



                           INTERESTING THINGS TO DO

                                 ON STEP LINES

                      ===================================

  IF YOU HAVE STEP LINES IN YOUR PREFIX, (A GOOD WAY OF CHECKING TO SEE IF YOU

HAVE STEP IS TO LOOK AT THE PAYPHONES AROUND YOUR HOUSE, IF THEY ARE ROTARY,

THEN YOU HAVE STEP, IF NOT, YOUR OUTTA LUCK.)

  FROM YOUR HOUSE DIAL "0", (THIS WILL NOT WORK AT A PAYPHONE). YOU WILL HEAR A

FEW "KERPLUNKS", IF YOU HIT THE HANG  UP BUTTON WHEN THE SECOND-TO-THE-LAST

"KERPLUNK" IS HEARD THEN THE OPERATOR WILL GET ON AND BE VERY CONFUSED. (I WILL

TELL WHY SHE IS CONFUSED IN JUST A SECOND, BUT FOR NOW JUST....) SAY THAT YOU

ARE TRYING TO COMPLETE A CALL WHEN SHE GOT ON. SHE WILL ASK FOR THE NUMBER YOU

ARE TRYING TO CALL. TELL HER THE NUMBER (LONG DISTANCE OF COURSE), AND SHE WILL

ASK YOU FOR YOUR NUMBER, PICK A NUMBER OUT OF YOUR HEAD, (IT MUST BE IN YOUR

PREFIX THOUGH), AND TELL HER IT. SHE WILL BELIEVE YOU AND WILL CONNECT YOU WITH

THE CHARGES CHARGED TO THE NUMBER YOU SAID. (IF YOU DIDN'T HIT THE BUTTON AT

THE CORRECT TIME JUST TELL THE OPERATOR YOUR SORRY, YOU WERE TRYING TO DUST THE

PHONE OR SOME OTHER BULLSHIT LIKE THAT.)

  WHAT YOU DID WAS SCREW UP THE AUTOMATIC NUMBER FIND THAT WAS BUILT INTO THE

FIRST STEP LINES. THIS IS WHAT WOULD TELL THE OPERATOR YOUR NUMBER SO SHE COULD

BILL YOU IF SHE HAD TO COMPLETE A CALL FOR YOU. THE OPERATOR WILL GET SOME

GARBAGE ON HER SCREEN THAT IS SUPPOSED TO BE YOUR NUMBER, BUT SINCE YOU

INTERRUPTED THAT PROCESS, IT LOOKS REALLY BIZZARE.

  WHAT IS REALLY PHUN TO DO IS COMPLAIN TO THE OPERATOR THAT THIS IS THE THIRD

TIME TODAY THAT YOU HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO GET THROUGH AND SHE WILL GIVE YOU

SOME SOB STORY ABOUT "WE'RE SORRY, BUT WE'VE HAD A COMPUTER MALFUNCTION AND IT

IS BEING FIXED RIGHT NOW".

  I'M KINDA SURE THAT THE PHONE COMPANY KNOWS NOTHING OF THIS. THE WORST THING

THAT COULD HAPPEN IS YOU GET A CALL ASKING WHY YOU'VE HUNG UP ON THE OPERATOR

SO MANY TIMES, (IF YOU DID THIS ALOT, THAT IS). JUST GIVE THEM SOME BULLSHIT

ABOUT A BABY BROTHER JUST LEARNING HOW TO USE THE PHONE, OR SOMETHING LIKE

THAT.



LIVE LONG AND DON'T GET CAUGHT,

AGRAJAG

                      ===================================

                              BROUGHT TO YOU BY:

                                  AGRAJAG AND

                          -=%> THE HITCHHINKERS <%=-

                               BRING YOUR TOWEL

































Private Sector BBS, police assumed that the sysop was  involved in illegal

activities.  Six other computers were also seized in this investigation,

including those of Store Manager [perhaps they mean Swap Shop  Manager? -

Shark] who ran a BBS of his own, Beowolf, Red Barchetta, the Vampire, NJ Hack

Shack, sysop of the NJ Hack Shack BBS, and that of the sysop of the Treasure

Chest BBS.



     Immediately after this action, members of 2600 contacted the media, who

were completely unaware of any of the raids.  They began to bombard the

Middlesex County Prosecutor's Office with questions and a press conference  was

announced for July 16.  The system operator of the Private Sector BBS attempted

to attend along with reporters from 2600.  They were effectively  thrown off

the premises.  Threats were made to charge them with trespassing and other

crimes.  An officer who had at first received them civilly was  threatened with

the loss of his job if he didn't get them removed promptly.  Then the car was

chased out of the parking lot.  Perhaps prosecutor Alan Rockoff was afraid that

he presence of some technically literate reporters would ruin the effect of his

press release on the public. As it happens, he didn't need our help.



     The next day the details of the press conference were reported to the

public by the press.  As Rockoff intended, paranoia about hackers ran rampant.

Headlines got as ridiculous as hackers ordering tank parts by telephone from

TRW and moving satellites with their home computers in order to make free phone

calls.  These and even more exotic stories were reported by otherwise

respectable media sources. The news conference understandably made the front

page of most of the major newspapers in the US, and was a major news item as

far away as Australia and in the United Kingdom due to the sensationalism of

the claims.  We will try to explain why these claims may have been made in this

issue.



     On July 18 the operator of The Private Sector was formally charged

with"computer conspiracy" under the above law, and released in the custody of

his parents.  The next day the American Civil Liberties Union took over his

defense.  The ACLU commented that it would be very hard for Rockoff to prove a

conspiracy just "because the same information, construed by the prosecutor to

be illegal, appears on two bulletin boards." especially as Rockoff admitted

that "he did not believe any of the defendants knew each other."  The ACLU

believes that the system operator's rights were violated, as he was assumed to



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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



be involved in an illegal activity just because of other people under

investigation who happened to have posted messages on his board.



    In another statement which seems to confirm Rockoff's belief in guilt by

association, he announced the next day that "630 people were being investigated

to determine if any used their computer equipment fraudulently."  We believe

this is only the user list of the NJ Hack Shack, so the actual list of those to

be investigated may turn out to be almost 5 times that.  The sheer overwhelming

difficulty of this task may kill this investigation, especially as they find

that many hackers simply leave false information.  Computer hobbyists all

across the country have already been called by the Bound Brook, New Jersey

office of the FBI.  They reported that the FBI agents used scare tactics in

order to force confessions or to provoke them into turning in others.  We would

like to remind those who get called that there is nothing inherently wrong or

illegal in calling any ANY BBS, nor in talking about ANY activity.  The FBI

would not comment on the case as it is an "ongoing investigation" and in the

hands of the local prosecutor.  They will soon find that many on the Private

Sector BBS's user list are data processing managers, telecommunications

security people, and others who are interested in the subject of the BBS,

hardly the underground community of computer criminals depicted at the news

conference.  The Private Sector BBS was a completely open BBS, and police and

security people were even invited on in order to participate.  The BBS was far

from the "elite" type of underground telecom boards that Rockoff attempted to

portray.



     Within two days, Rockoff took back almost all of the statements he had

made at the news conference, as AT&T and the DoD [Department of Defense -

Shark] discounted the claims he had made.  He was understandably unable to find

real proof of Private Sector's alleged illegal activity, and was faced with

having to return the computer equipment with nothing to show for his effort.

Rockoff panicked, and on July 31, the system operator had a new charge against

him, "wiring up his computer as a blue box."  Apparently this was referring to

his Novation Applecat modem which is capable of generating any hertz tone over

the phone line.  By this stretch of imagination an Applecat could produce a

2600 hertz tone as well as the MF which is necessary for "blue boxing."

However, each and every other owner of an Applecat or any other modem that can

generate its own tones therefore has also "wired up his computer as a blue box"

by merely installing the modem. This charge is so ridiculous that Rockoff

probably will never bother to press it.  However, the wording of WIRING UP THE

COMPUTER gives rockoff an excuse to continue to hold onto the computer longer

in his futile search for illegal activity.



     "We have requested that the prosecutors give us more specific

information," said Arthur Miller, the lawyer for The Private Sector. "The

charges are so vague that we can't really present a case at this point."

Miller will appear in court on August 16 to obtain this information.  He is

also issuing a demand for the return of the equipment and, if the prosecutors

don't cooperate, will commence court proceedings against them.  "They haven't

been pa::icularly cooperative," he said.



     Rockoff probably will soon reconsider taking Private Sector's case to

court, as he will have to admit he just didn't know what he was doing when he

seized the BBS.  The arrest warrant listed only "computer conspiracy" against

Private Sector, which is much more difficult to prosecute than the multitude of

charges against some of the other defendants, which include credit card fraud,

toll fraud, the unauthorized entry into computers, and numerous others.



     Both Rockoff and the ACLU mentioned the Supreme Court in their press



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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



releases, but he will assuredly take one of his stronger cases to test the new

New Jersey computer crime law.  by seizing the BBS just because of supposed

activities discussed on it, Rockoff raises constitutional questions.  Darrell

Paster, a lawyer who centers much of his work on computer crime, says the New

Jersey case is "just another example of local law enforcement getting on the

bandwagon of crime that has come into vogue to prosecute, and they have

proceeded with very little technical understanding, and in the process they

have abused many people's constitutional rights.  What we have developing is a

mini witch hunt which is analogous to some of the arrests at day care centers,

where they sweep in and arrest everybody, ruin reputations, and then find that

there is only one or two guilty parties."  We feel that law enforcement, not

understanding the information on the BBS, decided to strike first and ask

questions later.



     2600 magazine and the sysops of the Private Sector BBS stand fully behind

the system operator.  As soon as the equipment is returned, the BBS will go

back up.  We ask all our readers to do their utmost to support us in our

efforts, and to educate as many of the public as possible that a hacker is not

a computer criminal.  We are all convinced of our sysop's innocence, and await

Rockoff's dropping of the charges.



NOTE:  Readers will notice that our reporting of the events are quite different

than those presented in the media and by the Middlesex County Prosecutor.  We

can only remind you that we are much closer to the events at hand than the

media is, and that we are much more technologically literate than the Middlesex

County Prosecutor's Office.  The Middlesex County Prosecutor has already taken

back many of his statements, after the contentions were disproven by AT&T and

the DoD.  One problem is that the media and the police tend to treat the seven

cases as one case, thus the charges against and activities of some of the

hackers has been extended to all of the charged.  We at 2600 can only speak

about the case of Private Sector.

























































                                    Page 91









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



                                   Chapter 4



   By now I assume that the reader has a fair idea of what phreaking is, and

know a little bit about how to go about it.  From now on, I will assume that

the reader has read all the material before this or understands all the

material covered.  Now we will take a journey into the "Basics of

Telecommunications" and learn a little about how everything works, and is

related to everything else.  This series of articles is extremely good and

should be read by all levels of phreaks.

   As we go further into the advanced world of phreaking, we come closer to the

edge of technology.  As we approach it, everything seems to become larger and

more complicated.  We notice that many things that were possible aren't

anymore.  Blue boxing is starting to become the only method of exploration as

Equal Access looms nearer and nearer.  As it stands now, equal access is here,

and many LD services such as Sprint and MCI will be tougher to hack.  Extenders

will become more used and abused, which will cause them to get access codes

miles long...

   Blue boxing becomes harder as all Bell switching and transmission facilities

go under to CCIS.  Then to further complicate things, digital microwave, fiber

optic, and satellite transmission are all coming to be digital and do not

recognize 2600hz for the hang up signal.  I predict that around 1990, blue

boxes will be obsolete from all major cities.  A new type of box will have to

be invented, or you'll have to get two fone line to phreak with, on to place

the actual call and the other to tap into a COSMOS computer to change the

status of the call from toll to toll-free, ie. 800#.

   Well somethings will change for the better, with ISDN you'll get 144k bps

lines and some other neat stuff.

































































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         ************* << BIOC AGENT 003'S COURSE IN >> *************

         *                                                          *

         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *

         *                 BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS                 *

         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *

         *                         PART II                          *

         *                                                          *

         ************************************************************



                                   PREFACE:

         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    IN PART II, WE WILL EXPLORE THE VARIOUS SPECIAL BELL#'S, SUCH AS: CN/A,

AT&T NEWSLINES, LOOPS, 99XX #'S, ANI, RINGBACK, AND A FEW OTHERS.



                                     CN/A:

         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    CN/A, WHICH STANDS FOR CUSTOMER NAME AND ADDRESS, ARE BUREAUS THAT EXIST SO

THAT AUTHORIZED BELL EMPLOYEES CAN FIND OUT THE NAME AND ADDRESS OF ANY

CUSTOMER IN THE BELL SYSTEM.  ALL #'S ARE MAINTAINED ON FILE INCLUDING UNLISTED

#'S.



HERE'S HOW IT WORKS:



1) YOU HAVE A # AND YOU WANT TO FIND OUT WHO OWNS IT, E.G. (914) 555-1234.



2) YOU LOOK UP THE CN/A # FOR THAT NPA IN THE LIST BELOW.  IN THE EXAMPLE, THE

NPA IS 914 AND THE CN/A# IS 518-471-8111.



3) YOU THEN CALL UP THE CN/A # (DURING BUSINESS HOURS) AND SAY SOMETHING LIKE,

"HI, THIS IS JOHN JONES FROM THE RESIDENTIAL SERVICE CENTER IN MIAMI. CAN I

HAVE THE CUSTOMER'S NAME AT 914-555-1234.  THAT # IS 914-555-1234." MAKE UP

YOUR OWN REAL SOUNDING NAME, THOUGH.



4) IF YOU SOUND NATURAL & CHEERY, THE OPERATOR WILL ASK NO QUESTIONS.



                               HERE'S THE LIST:

         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



                      NPA     CN/A #       NPA     CN/A #

                    ---  ------------    ---  ------------

                    201  201-676-7070    517  313-232-8690

                    202  202-384-9620    518  518-471-8111

                    203  203-789-6800    519  416-487-3641

                    204  ****N/A*****    601  601-961-0877

                    205  205-988-7000    602  303-232-2300

                    206  206-382-8000    603  617-787-2750

                    207  617-787-2750    604  604-432-2996

                    208  303-232-2300    605  402-345-0600

                    209  415-546-1341    606  502-583-2861

                    212  518-471-8111    607  518-471-8111

                    213  213-501-4144    608  414-424-5690

                    214  214-948-5731    609  201-676-7070

                    215  412-633-5600    612  402-345-0600

                    216  614-464-2345    613  416-487-3641

                    217  217-525-7000    614  614-464-2345

                    218  402-345-0600    615  615-373-5791



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                    219  317-265-7027    616  313-223-8690

                    301  301-534-11??    617  617-787-2750

                    302  412-633-5600    618  217-525-7000

                    303  303-232-2300    701  402-345-0600

                    304  304-344-8041    702  415-546-1341

                    305  912-784-9111    703  804-747-1411

                    306  ****N/A*****    704  912-784-9111

                    307  303-232-2300    705  416-487-3641

                    308  402-345-0600    707  415-546-1341

                    309  217-525-7000    709  ****N/A*****

                    312  312-769-9600    712  402-345-0600

                    313  313-223-8690    713  713-658-1793

                    314  314-436-3321    714  213-995-0221

                    315  518-471-8111    715  414-424-5690

                    316  816-275-2782    716  518-471-8111

                    317  317-265-7027    717  412-633-5600

                    318  318-227-1551    801  303-232-2300

                    319  402-345-0600    802  617-787-2750

                    401  617-787-2750    803  912-784-9111

                    402  402-345-0600    804  804-747-1411

                    403  403-425-2652    805  415-546-1341

                    404  912-784-9111    806  512-828-2502

                    405  405-236-6121    807  416-487-3641

                    406  303-232-2300    808  212-226-5487

                    408  415-546-1341         BERMUDA ONLY

                    412  412-633-5600    809  212-334-4336

                    413  617-787-2750    812  317-265-7027

                    414  414-424-5690    813  813-228-7871

                    415  415-546-1132    814  412-633-5600

                    416  416-487-3641    815  217-525-7000

                    417  314-436-3321    816  816-275-2782

                    418  514-861-6391    817  214-948-5731

                    419  614-464-2345    819  514-861-6391

                    501  405-236-6121    901  615-373-5791

                    502  502-583-2861    902  902-421-4110

                    503  503-241-3440    903  ****N/A*****

                    504  504-245-5330    904  912-784-9111

                    505  303-232-2300    906  313-223-8690

                    506  506-657-3855    907  ****N/A*****

                    507  402-345-0600    912  912-784-9111

                    509  206-382-8000    913  816-275-2782

                    512  512-828-2501    914  518-471-8111

                    513  614-464-2345    915  512-828-2501

                    514  514-861-6391    916  415-546-1341

                    515  402-345-0600    918  405-236-6121

                    516  518-471-8111    919  912-784-9111

         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    BELL USES THESE #'S MAINLY TO FIND OUT WHO OWNS A # THAT A CUSTOMER CLAIMS

HE NEVER CALLED.



NOTE:    THIS IS THE MOST COMPLETE LIST OF CN/A #'S IN MY POSSESSION (WITH ONLY

5 #'S NOT AVAILABLE) THIS LIST WAS COPYRIGHTED IN 1982 BY "JUDAS GERARD" AS IT

ORIGINALLY APPEARED IN TAP ISSUE #78.

                                AT&T NEWSLINES:

         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    NEWSLINES ARE RECORDINGS THAT BELL EMPLOYEES CALL UP TO FIND OUT THE LATEST



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INFO ON STOCK, TECHNOLOGY, ETC. CONCERNING THE BELL SYSTEM.



  HERE ARE THE #'S THAT ARE CURRENTLY KNOWN TO PHREAKS (AT LEAST ME, ANYWAY):

         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



                    201-483-3800 NJ        513-421-9060 OH

                    203-771-4920 CT        516-234-9914 NY

                    212-393-2151 NY        518-471-2272 NY

                    213-621-4141 CA        617-955-1111 MA

                    213-829-0111 CA (GTE)  702-789-6711 NV

                    213-449-8830 CA        713-224-6116 TX

                    312-368-8000 IL        714-238-1111 CA

                    313-223-7223 MI        717-255-5555 PA

                    314-247-5511 MO        717-787-1031 PA

                    408-493-5000 CA        802-955-1111 VE

                    412-633-3333 PA        808-533-4426 HI

                    414-678-3511 WI        813-223-5666 FL

                    416-929-4323 ONT.      914-948-8100 NY

                    503-228-6271 OR        916-480-8000 CA



                                     LOOPS

         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    FIRST OF ALL, YOU MUST UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF LOOPS.  I THINK THAT THE

BEST WAY THAT THIS IS UNDERSTOOD IS THE WAY THAT PHRED PHREEK EXPLAINED IT...



   "NO SELF-RESPECTING PHONE PHREAK CAN GO THROUGH LIFE WITHOUT KNOWING WHAT A

LOOP IS, HOW TO USE ONE, AND THE TYPES THAT ARE AVAILABLE.  THE LOOP IS A GREAT

ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION MEDIUM THAT HAS MANY POTENTIAL USES THAT HAVEN'T EVEN

BEEN TAPPED YET. IN ORDER TO EXPLAIN WHAT A LOOP IS, IT WOULD BE HELPFUL TO

VISUALIZE TWO PHONE NUMBERS (LINES) JUST FLOATING AROUND IN THE TELCO CENTRAL

OFFICE (CO).  NOW, IF YOU (AND A FRIEND PERHAPS) WERE TO CALL THESE TWO NUMBERS

AT THE SAME TIME, POOOOPFFF!!!, YOU ARE NOW CONNECTED TOGETHER. I HEAR WHAT

YOU'RE SAYING OUT THERE..., "BIG DEAL" OR "WHY SHOULD MA BELL COLLECT HERE TWO

MSU'S (MESSAGE UNITS) FOR ONE LOUSY PHONE CALL!?" WELL... THINK AGAIN.  HAVEN'T

YOU EVER WANTED SOMEONE TO CALL YOU BACK BUT, WERE RELUCTANT TO GIVE OUT YOUR

HOME PHONE NUMBER (LIKE THE LAST TIME YOU TRIED TO GET YOUR FRIEND'S UNLISTED #

FROM THE BUSINESS OFFICE)? OR HOW ABOUT A COLLECT CALL TO YOUR FRIEND WAITING

ON A LOOP, WHO WILL GLADLY ACCEPT THE CHARGES?  OR BETTER YET, STUMBLING UPON A

LOOP THAT YOU DISCOVER THAT HAS MULTI-USER CAPABILITY (FOR THOSE LATE-NIGHT

CONFERENCES).  BEST OF ALL IS FINDING A NON-SUPERVISED LOOP THAT DOESN'T CHARGE

ANY MSU'S OR TOLLS TO ONE OR BOTH PARTIES. EXAMPLE: MANY MOONS AGO, A LOOP

AFFECTIONATELY KNOWN AS 'THE 332 LOOP' WAS NON-SUP (IE, NON-SUPERVISED) ON THE

TONE SIDE. I HAD MY FRIEND IN CALIFORNIA DIAL THE FREE (NON-SUP) SIDE, (212)

332-9906 AND I DIALED THE SIDE THAT CHARGED, 332-9900. AS YOU CAN SEE, I WAS

CHARGED ONE MSU, AND MY FRIEND AS CHARGED ZILCH, FOR AS LONG AS WE WISHED TO

TALK!!!"



                                  **********



    AHHH...HAVE I PERKED YOUR INTEREST YET? IF SO, HERE IS HOW TO FIND A LOOP

OF YOU VERY OWN.  FIRST, DO ALL OF YOU LOOP SEARCHING AT NIGHT! THIS IS BECAUSE

THE LOOPS SERVE A GENUINE TEST FUNCTION WHICH TELCO USES DURING THE DAY.  (WE

DON'T WANT TO RUN INTO AN IRATE LINEMAN NOW, DO WE?)  TO FIND A LOOP, HAVING 2

#'S IS A DEFINITE PLUS.  IF NOT, HAVE A FRIEND TO DIAL #'S AT HIS LOCATION.

LAST RESORT, TRY DIALING FROM TWO ADJACENT PAY PHONES. NOW GET YOUR TRUSTY

WHITE PAGES (*), AND TURN TO THE PAGE WHERE IT LISTS THE # OF MSU'S FROM YOUR

EXCHANGE (OR EXCHANGES IN YOUR PRIMARY CALLING AREA) THE IDEA IS TO FIND A LOOP



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THAT IS WITHIN YOUR PRIMARY CALLING AREA OR IS ONLY 1 MSU IN YOUR AREA (CALL

AREA A). THIS IS SO YOU DON'T GO BANKRUPT TRYING TO FIND A LOOP. WRITE DOWN ALL

OF THESE EXCHANGES AND DO A 99XX SCAN OF THOSE EXCHANGES (99XX SCANNING WILL BE

DISCUSSED SHORTLY).



    BEFORE WE GET UP TO 99XX SCANNING, WE WILL LOOK AT SOME OTHER LOOP INFO:



    LOOPS ARE FOUND PAIRS WHICH ARE USUALLY CLOSE TO EACH OTHER.  FOR EXAMPLE,

IN NPA 212, WHERE THE INFAMOUS LOOPS ARE FOUND, THERE IS A STANDARD LOOP

FORMAT:



MANHATTAN & BRONX-------NNX-9977/9979

BROOKLYN & QUEENS-------NNX-9900/9906



    NNX IS THE EXCHANGE TO BE SCANNED. HERE ARE SOME LOOPS THAT HAVE BEEN FOUND

IN NYC.  THESE ARE USED MOSTLY BY PHREAKS AND CALL-IN LINES FOR PIRATE RADIO

STATIONS:



212-220-9900/9906

212-283-9977/9979

212-352-9900/9906

212-365-9977/9979

212-529-9900/9906

212-562-9977/9979

212-982-9977/9979

212-986-9977/9979



    THE LOWER # IS THE TONE SIDE (SINGING SWITCH).  THE HIGHER # IS ALWAYS

SILENT.  THE TONE DISAPPEARS ON THE LOWER # WHEN SOMEBODY DIALS IN THE OTHER

SIDE OF THE LOOP. IF YOU ARE ON THE HIGHER #, YOU'LL HAVE TO LISTEN TO THE

CLICKS TO SEE IF SOMEBODY DIALED-IN.  THE NYC 982 & 986 LOOPS ARE DIFFERENT

FROM OTHERS. USUALLY WHEN YOU PARK ON A LOOP, YOU WILL HEAR WHO EVER CALLS IN

ON THE OTHER HALF.  WHEN THEY'RE DONE, THE NEXT CALLER (IF ANY) WILL BE QUEUED

IN, ONE AFTER ANOTHER. ON THE NYC 982 & 986, YOU SOMETIMES CAN'T GET ANY MORE

CALLERS IN AFTER THE FIRST. FURTHERMORE, IF YOU PARK ONE OF THESE LOOPS AND

THERE IS NOBODY ON THE OTHER END FOR MORE THAN 4 MINUTES, YOU MAY BE

AUTOMATICALLY DISCONNECTED. THESE LOOPS ARE GOOD FOR BACK-UP PURPOSES WHEN ALL

OTHER LOOPS ARE BUSY.



                                99XX SCANNING:

         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    MOST EVERY EXCHANGE IN THE BELL SYSTEM HAS A WIDE VARIETY OF TEST #'S AND

OTHER "GOODIES," SUCH AS LOOPS. THESE "GOODIES" ARE USUALLY FOUND BETWEEN 9900

AND 9999 IN YOUR LOCAL EXCHANGE.  IF YOU HAVE THE TIME AND INITIATIVE, SCAN

YOUR EXCHANGE AND YOU MAY BECOME LUCKY!



HERE ARE MY FINDINGS IN THE 914-268:



9901 - VERIFICATION (RECORDING OF A/C AND EXCHANGE)

9936 - VOICE # TO THE TELCO CO

9937 - VOICE # TO THE TELCO CO

9941 - CARRIER

9960 - OSC. TONE (TONE SIDE LOOP)

9963 - TONE (STOPS:  MUTED)

9966 - CARRIER

9968 - TONE THAT DISAPPEARS--RESPONDS TO CERTAIN TOUCH-TONE KEYS





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    MOST OF THE #'S BETWEEN 9900 & 9999 WILL RING, BE BUSY, GO TO A SPECIAL

INTERCEPT OPERATOR ("WHAT #, PLEASE?"), OR WILL GO TO A "THE # YOU HAVE

REACHED..." RECORDING.  WHAT YOU FIND DEPENDS UPON THE SWITCHING EQUIPMENT IN

THE EXCHANGE AND THE TELCO OPERATING COMPANY.



    WHEN SEARCHING FOR LOOPS, YOU MAY FIND ONE OF THE FOLLOWING POSSIBILITIES

WHEN YOU FIND ONE:



1. YOU CAN HEAR THROUGH THE LOOP (NOT MUTED), BUT THERE IS A 1/2 SECOND CLICK

EVERY 10 SECONDS THAT INTERRUPTS THE AUDIO.  THIS TYPE IS GOOD FOR BACK-UP USE

BUT THE FUCKING CLICK IS SUPER ANNOYING.



2. ONE SIDE OF THE LOOP IS BUSY; TRY IT AGAIN LATER.



3. THE TONE DISAPPEARS, BUT YOU CANNOT HEAR THROUGH IT (THE LOOP IS MUTED, TRY

AGAIN IN A MONTH OR SO)



4. YOU GET "THE # YOU HAVE REACHED RECORDING."  NO LOOP HERE!



    MOST LOOPS ARE MUTED (#3), BUT THEIR STATUS DOES CHANGES FROM TIME-TO-TIME.

IT ALL DEPENDS IF THE TELCO MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL REMEMBER TO "THROW THE

SWITCH", IE, TURN OFF THE LOOP.



    SINCE I HAVE DONE THE ABOVE 914-268 99XX SCAN, CONGERS (268) HAS INSTALLED

NEW SWITCHING EQUIPMENT (DMS100). SOME OF THE NUMBERS ARE THE SAME, BUT I HAVE

NOTICED THAT ON THE DMS100, THE RECORDINGS ARE ALSO STORED IN THIS AREA.

268-9903, 9906, 9909, & 9912 ARE ALL DIFFERENT RECORDINGS.  ALSO, THERE ARE 2

FORTRESS FONE RECORDINGS AT 268-9911 (DEPOSIT 5 CENTS OR ELSE) AND 268-9913

(DEPOSIT 10 CENTS). NONE OF THESE RECORDINGS SUPE AND ALOT OF OTHER 99XX#'S

DON'T SUPE EITHER.



    IN SOME AREAS (LIKE MD), 9906-7 IS RINGBACK.  IN WASHINGTON, THERE IS A

SWEEP TONE TEST AT (202) 560-9944.  IN NYC (212), YOU'LL FIND THE INFAMOUS LOOP

LINES (AS MENTIONED ABOVE).

    IT WILL BE EASIER TO SCAN YOUR EXCHANGE IF YOU MAKE UP A CHART LIKE THE ONE

BELOW:





                               NPA-NNX-99XX SCAN

         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



           _________________________________________________________

          | 99X X>|0   |1   |2   |3   |4   |5   |6   |7   |8   |9   |

          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|

          | 990   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |

          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|

          | 991   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |

          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|

          | 992   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |

          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|

          | 993   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |

          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|

          | 994   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |

          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|

          | 995   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |

          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|

          | 996   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |

          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|



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          | 997   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |

          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|

          | 998   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |

          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|

          | 999   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |

          |_______|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|



         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    THIS LEAVES YOU WITH 100 BOXES (1 FOR EACH # BETWEEN 9900 & 9999). YOU

SHOULD MAKE YOUR BOXES BIG ENOUGH SO YOU CAN WRITE SOME SORT OF SHORTHAND IN

THEM.  FOR EXAMPLE:



B - BUSY   (TRY AGAIN AT ANOTHER TIME)

R - RINGS  (TRY AGAIN AT ANOTHER TIME)

O - INTERCEPT OPERATOR ("WHAT # YOU CALLING?)

R1- RECORDING 1 (MAKE A MARGIN NOTE OF THE TYPES OF RECORDINGS YOU GET)

T - TONE   ] TONE AT A LOWER # + IGNORE

I - IGNORE ] AT A HIGHER # = LOOP

V - VOICE # TO TELCO CO - THEY USUALLY ANSWER WITH THE CITY NAME OR AREA.

C - CARRIER



    THERE WILL BE OTHERS AND YOU SHOULD USE OTHER CHARACTERS THAT YOU CAN

UNDERSTAND.



    NOW, BACK TO LOOPS!  AS YOU MAY HAVE NOTICED IN MY 914-268 SCAN, I FOUND A

MUTED LOOP AND A TONE SIDE.  914-268 FAILED TO COME UP WITH THE SILENT SIDE OF

A LOOP!  THEREFORE, THERE IS NO LOOP IN THAT EXCHANGE.  I THEN SCANNED ANOTHER

EXCHANGE IN MY PRIMARY CALLING AREA (914-634) AND I FOUND A LOOP!! "(914)

634-9923/9924" SO, IF AT FIRST YOU DON'T SUCCEED, MOVE ONTO ANOTHER EXCHANGE.

IF YOU USE THE BOX METHOD THAT I HAVE OUTLINED ABOVE, YOU WILL SEE A "T" & "I"

NEXT TO EACH OTHER FOR A LOOP.

   SOME EXCHANGES ARE SPECIAL.  FOR EXAMPLE, 914-623 IS A TESTING BUREAU. IN

THIS EXCHANGE, NOT ONLY DID I FIND A LOOP, BUT I ALSO FOUND SEVERAL INTERESTING

TONES, NOISES, AND OTHER TEST FUNCTIONS. ALSO, THE MORE IMPORTANT THE EXCHANGE

IS, THE MORE YOU WILL FIND. FOR EXAMPLE, IN 914-623, I FOUND WELL OVER 10 VOICE

#'S!

    ALSO, LOOPS ARE USUALLY, BUT NOT EXCLUSIVELY, FOUND IN THE 99XX SERIES. FOR

EXAMPLE: "(713) 324-1799/1499" IS A LOOP.



THE PERFECT LOOP?  HERE IS WHAT I WOULD LOOK FOR:



1. NON-SUP ON ONE OR BOTH SIDES. TO CHECK FOR A NON-SUP LOOP, GO TO A

TONE-FIRST FORTRESS FONE AND DIAL THE #. IF IT ASKS FOR A DIME, IT IS

SUPERVISED. IF THE CALL GOES THROUGH, THEN IT IS NON-SUPED!



2. 800 LOOPS WOULD BE A PLUS.  THEY ARE NOT NECESSARILY FOUND BETWEEN 9900 &

9999 THOUGH.  I WOULD CHECK THE 1XXX SERIES FIRST.



3. MULTI-USER LOOPS ARE ALSO A PLUS FOR THOSE LATE NIGHT CONFERENCES.



    FINALLY, REMEMBER IT IS ONLY A LOCAL CALL TO FIND OUT WHAT YOU CO HAS IN

STORE FOR YOU.  IF YOU FIND ANYTHING INTERESTING, BE SURE TO DROP ME A LINE.





NOTE:  YOUR LOCAL WHITE PAGES CAN BE A VALUABLE ASSET. YOU CAN ALSO ORDER OTHER

FONE BOOKS FROM YOUR BUSINESS OFFICE (USUALLY FREE FOR BOOKS WITHIN YOUR

OPERATING COMPANY'S DISTRICT).  A LARGE FONE BOOK, SUCH AS MANHATTAN, CONTAINS



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MUCH MORE INFO IN THE FIRST FEW PAGES THAN OTHER BOOKS.



                                      ANI

         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    AUTOMATIC NUMBER IDENTIFICATION (ANI), IS A NUMBER THAT YOU CALL UP THAT

WILL TELL YOU WHAT # YOU ARE CALLING FROM.

    THIS HAS A FEW USES.  FIRST, WERE YOU EVER SOMEWHERE AND THE FONE DIDN'T

HAVE A # PRINTED ON IT?  OR PERHAPS YOU WERE FOOLING AROUND IN SOME CANS (THOSE

LARGE BOXES ON FONE POLES THAT CONTAIN TERMINALS FOR LINEMAN USE--TO BE

DISCUSSES IN A FUTURE CHAPTER.) AND YOU WANT TO KNOW WHAT WHAT THE LINE # IS.

IN NPA 914, THE ANI IS 990.  IN NPA'S 212 & 516, ANI IS 958.  THIS VARIES FROM

AREA TO AREA.



HERE ARE SOME OTHER ANI'S THAT I HAVE SEEN:



890-751-5191

202-222-2222

1-XXX-1111    (IN SOME 914 AREAS, ESP. UNDER STEP-BY-STEP SWITCHING, YOU HAVE

TO DIAL 1-990-1111)



    TO FIND ANI FOR OTHER AREAS, CHECK 3 DIGITS #'S FIRST, USUALLY IN THE 9XX

SERIES (EXCLUDING 911).  IN AREAS UNDER STEP-BY-STEP (TO BE DISCUSSED IN THE

NEXT PART), TRY 1-9XX-1111.

    ANI MAY ALSO BE IN 99XX.  LAST RESORT, TRY TO GET FRIENDLY WITH YOUR

NEIGHBOR WHO WORKS FOR THE FONE COMPANY.



                                   RING BACK

         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    RINGBACK, AS ITS NAME IMPLIES, CALLS BACK THE # YOU ARE AT WHEN YOU DIAL

THE RINGBACK #. RINGBACK, IN NPA 914, IS 660. YOU DIAL 660+THE LAST 4 DIGITS OF

THE FONE.  YOU WILL THEN GET A TONE, HANG-UP QUICKLY AND PICK-UP IN ABOUT 2

SECONDS. YOU WILL THEN GET A SECOND TONE, HANG-UP AGAIN AND THE FONE WILL

RING.

    IN NYC, IT IS ALSO 660, BUT YOU MAY HAVE TO PRESS 6 OR 7 BEFORE YOU HANG UP

FOR THE FIRST TIME (IE, AT THE FIRST  TONE).





    OTHER RINGBACK #'S THAT I HAVE SEEN ARE:



26011                - THIS 5 DIGIT FORMAT IS USED PRIMARILY ON STEP-BY-STEP.

THE LAST 2 DIGITS (11) ARE DUMMY DIGITS.



890-897-XXXX         - XXXX ARE THE LAST 4 DIGITS OF THE FONE #.



119911/11911/1199911 - GTE



NNX-9906/9907        - NPA 301, NNX IS THE EXCHANGE





    THE REASON YOU GET THE TONE WHEN YOU PICK-UP AFTER IT RINGS IS BECAUSE IN

SOME AREAS, PEOPLE WERE USING RINGBACK AS AN IN-HOUSE INTERCOM.  THEY WOULD

DIAL RINGBACK, AND WHEN IT STOPPED RINGING, THEY WOULD PICK-UP & TALK WITH THE

PERSON WHO PICKED UP THE OTHER EXTENSION.  BELL DIDN'T LIKE THIS SINCE THERE IS

USUALLY ONLY 1 PIECE OF EQUIPMENT IN EACH EXCHANGE THAT DOES THE RINGBACK. WHEN

PEOPLE USED THIS AS AN INTERCOM, LINEMEN & REPAIRMEN COULDN'T GET THROUGH!  IN

SOME AREAS, ESPECIALLY THOSE UNDER STEP-BY-STEP, RINGBACK CAN STILL BE USED AS

AN INTERCOM.  ALSO, UNDER STEP-BY-STEP, THE RINGBACK PROCEDURE IT USUALLY



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SIMPLE.  FOR EXAMPLE, IN ONE AREA YOU WOULD DIAL 26011 AND HANG-UP; IT WOULD

THEN RINGBACK.



                               TOUCH-TONE TEST:

         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    IN AREAS THAT HAVE A TOUCH-TONE TEST, YOU DIAL THE RINGBACK #.  AT THE

FIRST TONE, YOU TOUCH-TONE DIGITS 1-0.  IF THEY ARE CORRECT IT WILL BEEP

TWICE.

I HAVE ALSO SEEN A TT TEST IN SOME AREAS AT: 890-751-5191



                                 COMING SOON:

         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    IN THE NEXT PART, WE WILL LOOK AT VARIOUS SWITCHING EQUIPMENT AND THE

NETWORK.





                               BREAK UP OF BELL:

         <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    THE OPERATING COMPANIES ARE NOT GOING TO CHANGE ALL THE SWITCHING EQUIPMENT

AROUND.  WHILE THERE WILL BE SOME CHANGES, MOST OF THE INFORMATION PROVIDED

HERE WILL REMAIN PERTINENT AFTER JANUARY 1, 1984. JUST SUBSTITUTE THE WORD

"FONE NETWORK" FOR BELL SYSTEM.





AU REVOIR,



*****BIOC

*=$=*AGENT

*****003



DECEMBER 8, 1983



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:  TAP, PHRED PHREEK, JUDAS GERARD, THE MAGICIAN, DARK PRIEST,

& MYSELF.  I WOULD ALSO LIKE TO THANK THE MULCHER ][ FOR HIS ASSISTANCE IN

DISTRIBUTING THIS TUTORIAL.











































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         ************* << BIOC AGENT 003'S COURSE IN >> *************

         *                                                          *

         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *

         *             %$   BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS  $%            *

         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *

         *                         PART III                         *

         *                                                          *

         ************************************************************



PREFACE:



    IN PART III, WE WILL DISCUSS THE DIALING PROCEDURES FOR DOMESTIC AS WELL AS

INTERNATIONAL DIALING.  WE WILL ALSO TAKE A LOOK AT THE TELEPHONE NUMBERING

PLAN.



NORTH AMERICAN NUMBERING PLAN

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



IN NORTH AMERICA, THE TELEPHONE NUMBERING PLAN IS AS FOLLOWS:



A)  A 3 DIGIT NUMBERING PLAN AREA (NPA) CODE, [IE, AREA CODE]



B)  A 7 DIGIT TELEPHONE # CONSISTING OF A 3 DIGIT CENTRAL OFFICE (CO) CODE PLUS

A 4 DIGIT STATION #.



    THESE 10 DIGITS ARE CALLED THE NETWORK ADDRESS OR DESTINATION CODE.  IT IS

IN THE FORMAT OF:



AREA CODE   TELEPHONE #

---------   -----------

   N*X       NXX-XXXX



WHERE:  N = A DIGIT FROM 2-9

        * = THE DIGIT 0 OR 1

        X = A DIGIT 0-9



AREA CODES

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    CHECK YOUR TELEPHONE BOOK OR THE SEPARATE LISTING OF AREA CODES FOUND ON

MANY BBS'S.  HERE ARE THE SPECIAL AREA CODES (SAC'S):



510 - TWX (USA)

610 - TWX (CANADA)

700 - NEW SERVICE

710 - TWX (USA)

800 - WATS

810 - TWX (USA)

900 - DIAL-IT SERVICES

910 - TWX (USA)



    THE OTHER AREA CODES NEVER CROSS STATE LINES, THEREFORE EACH STATE MUST

HAVE AT LEAST ONE EXCLUSIVE NPA CODE.  WHEN A COMMUNITY IS SPLIT BY A STATE

LINE, THE CO #'S ARE OFTEN INTERCHANGEABLE (IE, YOU CAN DIAL THE SAME # FROM 2

DIFFERENT AREA CODES)



TWX:

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



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    TWX (TELEX II) CONSISTS OF 5 TELETYPE-WRITER AREA CODES.  THEY ARE OWNED BY

WESTERN UNION.  THESE SAC'S MAY ONLY BE REACHED VIA OTHER TWX MACHINES.  THESE

RUN AT 110 BAUD.  BESIDES THE TWX #'S, THESE MACHINES ARE ROUTED TO NORMAL

TELEPHONE #'S.  TWX MACHINES ALWAYS RESPOND WITH AN ANSWERBACK. FOR EXAMPLE,

WU'S FYI TWX # IS (910) 988-5956, THE CORRESPONDING REAL NUMBER TO THIS IS

(201) 279-5956.  THE ANSWERBACK FOR THIS SERVICE IS "WU FYI MAWA."



    IF YOU DON'T WANT TO BUY A TWX MACHINE, YOU CAN STILL SEND TWX MESSAGES

USING EASYLINK [800/325-4112 - SEE TUC'S AND MY ARTICLE ENTITLED "HACKING

WESTERN UNION'S EASYLINK]



700:

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    AT THE TIME OF THIS WRITING, THE 700 EXCHANGE DOES NOT YET EXIST. AT&T

PLANS TO USE IT SOON THOUGH.  THEY PLAN TO MAKE IT A TYPE OF FANCY CALL

FORWARDING SERVICE.  IT WILL BE TARGETED TOWARDS SALESMEN ON THE RUN.



    TO UNDERSTAND HOW IT WORKS, I'LL EXPLAIN IT WITH AN EXAMPLE. LET'S SAY JOE

Q. SALESPIG WORKS FOR AT&T SECURITY AND HE IS ON THE RUN CHASING A PHREAK

AROUND THE COUNTRY WHO ROYALLY SCREWED UP AN IMPORTANT COSMOS SYSTEM.  LET'S

SAY THAT JOE'S 700 # IS (700) 382-5968. EVERY TIME JOE GOES TO A NEW HOTEL, HE

DIALS A SPECIAL 700 #, ENTERS A CODE, AND THE # WHERE HE IS STAYING.  NOW, IF

HIS BOSS RECEIVED SOME IMPORTANT INFO, ALL HE WOULD DO IS DIAL (700) 382-5968

AND IT WOULD RING WHEREVER JOE LAST PROGRAMMED IT TO.  NEAT, HUH?



800:

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    THIS SAC IS ONE OF MY FAVORITES SINCE IT ALLOWS FOR TOLL-FREE CALLS.



INWARD WATS (INWATS):  INWARD WIDE AREA TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE IS THE 800

#'S THAT WE ARE ALL FAMILIAR WITH.  800 #'S ARE SET UP IN SERVICE AREAS OR

BANDS.  THERE ARE 6 OF THESE.  BAND 6 IS THE LARGEST AND YOU CAN CALL A BAND 6

# FROM ANYWHERE IN THE US EXCEPT THE STATE WHERE THE CALL IS TERMINATED (THIS

IS WHY MOST COMPANIES HAVE ONE 800 # FOR THE COUNTRY AND THEN ANOTHER FOR JUST

ONE STATE).  BAND 5 INCLUDES THE 48 CONTIGUOUS STATES.  ALL THE WAY DOWN TO

BAND 1 WHICH INCLUDES ONLY THE STATES CONTIGUOUS TO THAT ONE. THEREFORE, LESS

PEOPLE CAN REACH A BAND 1 INWATS # THAT A BAND 6 #.



INTRASTATE INWATS #'S (IE, YOU CAN CALL IT FROM ONLY 1 STATE) ALWAYS HAVE A 2

AS THE LAST DIGIT IN THE EXCHANGE (IE, 800-NX2-XXXX).  THE NXX ON 800 #'S

REPRESENT THE AREA WHERE THE BUSINESS IS LOCATED.  FOR EXAMPLE, A # BEGINNING

WITH 800-431 WOULD TERMINATE AT A NEW YORK CO.



800 #'S ALWAYS END UP IN A HUNT SERIES IN A CO.  THIS MEANS THAT IT TRIES THE

FIRST # ALLOCATED TO THE COMPANY FOR THEIR 8P0 LINES; IF THIS IS BUSY IT WILL

THEN TRY THE NEXT #, ETC).  YOU MUST HAVE A MINIMUM OF TWO LINES PER EACH   800

#.  FOR EXAMPLE, TRAVELNET USES A HUNT SERIES.  IF YOU DIAL (800) 521-8400, IT

WILL FIRST TRY THE # ASSOCIATED WITH 8400; IF IT IS BUSY IT WILL GO TO THE NEXT

AVAILABLE PORT, ETC.  INWATS CUSTOMERS ARE BILLED BY THE # OF HOURS OF CALLS

THAT ARE MADE TO THEIR #.



OUTWATS (OUTWARD WATS):  OUTWATS ARE FOR MAKING OUTGOING CALLS ONLY. LARGE

COMPANIES USE OUTWATS SINCE THEY RECEIVE BULK-RATE DISCOUNTS. SINCE OUTWATS #

CANNOT HAVE INCOMING CALLS, THEY ARE IN THE FORMAT OF:





                                    Page 102









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



(800) *XX-XXXX



    WHERE * IS THE DIGIT 0 OR 1 WHICH CANNOT BE DIALED UNLESS YOU BOX THE CALL.

THE *XX IDENTIFIES THE TYPE OF SERVICE AND THE AREAS THAT THE COMPANY CAN

CALL.



REMEMBER: INWATS + OUTWATS = WATS EXTENDER (SEE PART I)

900:

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    THIS DIAL-IT SAC IS A NATIONWIDE DIAL-IT SERVICE.  IT IS USED FOR TAKING

TELEVISION POLLS AND OTHER STUFF.  THE FIRST MINUTE CURRENTLY COSTS AN

OUTRAGEOUS 50 CENTS AND EACH ADDITIONAL MINUTE COSTS 35 CENTS. BELL TAKES IN

ALOT OF REVENUE IN THIS WAY.



DIAL (900) 555-1212 TO FIND OUT WHAT IS CURRENTLY ON THE SERVICE.



CO CODES:

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    THESE IDENTIFY THE SWITCHING OFFICE WHERE THE CALL IS TO BE ROUTED.



THE FOLLOWING CO CODES ARE RESERVED NATIONWIDE:



555 - DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE

844 - TIME    ] THESE ARE NOW IN

936 - WEATHER ] THE 976 EXCHANGE

950 - FUTURE SERVICES

958 - PLANT TEST

959 - PLANT TEST

970 - PLANT TEST (TEMPORARY)

976 - DIAL-IT SERVICES



    ALSO, THE 3 DIGIT ANI & RINGBACK #'S ARE REGARDED AS PLANT TEST AND ARE

THUS RESERVED.  THESE NUMBERS VARY FROM AREA TO AREA.



950: [ALSO SEE PART I]

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



HERE ARE THE SERVICES THAT ARE CURRENTLY ON THE 950 EXCHANGE:



1000 - SPC

1022 - MCI EXECUNET

1033 - US TELEPHONE

1044 - ALLNET

1066 - LEXITEL

1088 - SBS SKYLINE



THESE SCC'S (SPECIALIZED COMMON CARRIERS) ARE FREE FROM FORTRESSES!



Publishers note: Most 950's now require the station code (1022, 1000, 1088,

etc.) to be five digits long. MCI 950-10222, US telefone 10333, ALLNET 10444,

etc. Look in "Equal Access and the American Dream" p.    for a complete list.

PLANT TESTS:

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



THESE INCLUDE ANI, RINGBACK, AND OTHER VARIOUS TESTS.





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976:

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    DIAL 976-1000 TO SEE WHAT IS CURRENTLY ON THE SERVICE.  ALSO, MANY BBS'S

HAVE A LISTING OF THESE #'S.





N11 CODES:

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    BELL IS TRYING TO PHASE SOME OF THESE OUT, BUT THEY STILL EXIST IN MANY

AREAS.



011 - INTERNATIONAL DIALING PREFIX

211 - COIN REFUND OPERATOR

411 - DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE

611 - REPAIR SERVICE

811 - BUSINESS OFFICE

911 - EMERGENCY



INTERNATIONAL DIALING

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    WITH INTERNATIONAL DIALING, THE WORLD HAS BEEN DIVIDED INTO 9 NUMBERING

ZONES.



TO MAKE AN INTERNATIONAL CALL, YOU MUST DIAL: INT. PREFIX + COUNTRY CODE + NAT.

#



    IN NORTH AMERICA, THE INTERNATIONAL DIALING PREFIX IS 011 FOR

STATION-TO-STATION CALLS AND 01 FOR OPERATOR- SERVICED CALLS.  IDDD STANDS FOR

INTERNATIONAL DIRECT DISTANCE DIALING.



    THE COUNTRY CODE, WHICH VARIES FROM 1 TO 3 DIGITS, ALWAYS HAS THE WORLD

NUMBERING ZONE AS THE FIRST DIGIT.  FOR EXAMPLE, THE COUNTRY CODE FOR THE

UNITED KINGDOM IS 44, THUS IT IS IN WORLD NUMBERING ZONE 4.



    SOME BOARDS MAY CONTAIN A COMPLETE LISTING OF OTHER COUNTRY CODES, BUT HERE

ARE A FEW:



001 - NORTH AMERICA (US, CANADA,ETC)

020 - EGYPT

258 - MOZAMBIQUE

034 - SPAIN

049 - GERMANY

052 - MEXICO (SOUTHERN PORTION)

061 - AUSTRALIA

007 - USSR

081 - JAPAN

098 - IRAN



    IF YOU CALL FROM AN AREA OTHER THAN NORTH AMERICA, THE FORMAT IS GENERALLY

THE SAME.  FOR EXAMPLE, LET'S SAY YOU WANTED TO CALL THE WHITE HOUSE FROM

SWITZERLAND.  FIRST YOU WOULD DIAL 00 (THE SWISS INTERNATIONAL DIALING PREFIX),

THEN 1 (THE US COUNTRY CODE), FOLLOWED BY 202-456-1414 (THE NATIONAL # FOR THE

WHITE HOUSE).



    ALSO, COUNTRY CODE 87 IS RESERVED FOR MARITIME MOBILE SERVICE, IE CALLING



                                    Page 104









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SHIPS:



871 - MARISAT (ATLANTIC)

872 - MARISAT (PACIFIC)

873 - MARISAT (INDIAN )



INTERNATIONAL SWITCHING:

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    IN NORTH AMERICA, THERE ARE CURRENTLY 7 NO. 4 ESS'S THAT PERFORM THE DUTY

OF ISC (INTERNATIONAL SWITCHING CENTERS). ALL INTERNATIONAL CALLS DIALED FROM

NUMBERING ZONE 1 WILL BE ROUTED THROUGH ONE OF THESE "GATEWAY CITIES."  THEY

ARE:



182 -  WHITE PLAINS, NY

183 -  NEW YORK, NY

184 -  PITTSBURGH, PA

185 -  ORLANDO, FL

186 -  OAKLAND, CA

187 -  DENVER, CO

188 -  NEW YORK, NY



    THE 18X SERIES ARE OPERATOR ROUTING CODES FOR OVERSEAS ACCESS (TO BE

FURTHER DISCUSSED WITH BLUE BOXES). ALL INTERNATIONAL CALLS USE A SIGNALING

SYSTEM CALLED CCITT.  IT IS AN INTERNATIONAL STANDARD FOR SIGNALING.



COMING SOON:

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    IN PART IV, WE WILL DISCUSS SWITCHING EQUIPMENT, VARIOUS OPERATORS, CO

TYPES, ETC.



PHREAKING LIVES IN '84,



*****BIOC

*=$=*AGENT

*****003



<<=-FARGO 4A-=>>

23-FEB-84



REFERENCES/

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:      NOTES ON THE NETWORK (AT&T), TAP (ROOM 603, 147W 42 ST,

NEW YORK, NY 10036),UNDERSTANDING TELEPHONE ELECTRONICS,AND MANY OTHERS/TUC,

MULCHER...





























                                    Page 105









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         ************* << BIOC AGENT 003'S COURSE IN >> *************

         *                                                          *

         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *

         *             %$   BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS  $%            *

         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *

         *                         PART IV                          *

         *                                                          *

         ************************************************************



PREFACE:

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    PART IV WILL DEAL WITH THE VARIOUS TYPES OF OPERATORS, OFFICE HIERARCHY, &

SWITCHING EQUIPMENT.





OPERATORS:

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    THERE ARE MANY TYPES OF OPERATORS IN THE NETWORK AND THE MORE COMMON ONES

WILL BE DISCUSSED.



TSPS OPERATOR:

____________________________________________________________



    THE TSPS (TRAFFIC SERVICE POSITION SYSTEM) OPERATOR IS PROBABLY THE BITCH

(OR BASTARD FOR THE PHEMALE LIBERATIONISTS) THAT MOST OF US ARE USE TO HAVING

TO DEAL WITH.



HERE ARE HER RESPONSIBILITIES:



1) OBTAINING BILLING INFORMATION FOR CALLING CARD OR 3RD NUMBER CALLS.



2) IDENTIFYING CALLED CUSTOMER ON PERSON-TO-PERSON CALLS.



3) OBTAINING ACCEPTANCE OF CHARGES ON COLLECT CALLS.



4) IDENTIFYING CALLING NUMBERS.  THIS ONLY HAPPENS WHEN THE CALLING # IS NOT

AUTOMATICALLY RECORDED BY CAMA (CENTRALIZED AUTOMATIC MESSAGE ACCOUNTING) &

FORWARDED FROM THE LOCAL OFFICE.  THIS COULD BE CAUSED BY EQUIPMENT FAILURES OR

IF THE OFFICE IS NOT EQUIPPED FOR CAMA (MOST ARE).



    <I ONCE HAD AN EQUIPMENT FAILURE HAPPEN TO ME & THE TSPS OPERATOR CAME ON

AND SAID, "WHAT # ARE YOU CALLING FROM?"  OUT OF CURIOSITY, I GAVE HER THE # TO

MY CO, SHE THANKED ME & THEN I WAS CONNECTED TO A CONVERSION THAT APPEARED TO

BE BETWEEN A FIRE MAN & HIS WIFE.  THEN IT STARTED RINGING THE PARTY I

ORIGINALLY WANTED TO CALL & EVERYONE PHREAKED OUT (EXCUSE THE PUN). I

IMMEDIATELY DROPPED THIS DUAL LINE CONFERENCE!>



    YOU SHOULDN'T MESS WITH THE TSPS OPERATOR SINCE SHE KNOWS WHERE YOU ARE

CALLING FROM.  SHE ALSO KNOWS WHETHER OR NOT YOU ARE AT A FORTRESS FONE & SHE

CAN TRACE CALLS QUITE READILY.  OUT OF ALL THE OPERATORS, SHE IS ONE OF THE

MOST DANGEROUS.



INWARD OPERATOR:

____________________________________________________________



    THIS OPERATOR ASSISTS YOUR LOCAL TSPS ("0") OPERATOR IN CONNECTING CALLS.



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SHE WILL NEVER QUESTION A CALL AS LONG AS THE CALL IS WITHIN HER SERVICE AREA.

SHE CAN ONLY BE REACHED VIA OTHER OPERATORS OR BY A BLUE BOX.  FROM A BB, YOU

WOULD DIAL KP+NPA+121+ST FOR THE INWARD OPERATOR THAT WILL HELP YOU CONNECT ANY

CALLS WITHIN THAT NPA AREA ONLY. (BLUE BOXING WILL BE DISCUSSED IN A FUTURE

PART OF BASIC TELCOM)



DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE OPERATOR:

____________________________________________________________



    THIS IS THE OPERATOR THAT YOU ARE CONNECTED TO WHEN YOU DIAL:  411 OR

NPA-555-1212.  SHE DOES NOT READILY KNOW WHERE YOU ARE CALLING FROM.  SHE DOES

NOT HAVE ACCESS TO UNLISTED #'S, BUT SHE DOES KNOW IF AN UNLISTED # EXISTS FOR

A CERTAIN LISTING.



    THERE IS ALSO A DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE FOR DEAF PEOPLE WHO USE

TELETYPEWRITERS IF YOU MODEM CAN TRANSFER BAUDOT (THE APPLE CAT CAN), THEN YOU

CAN CALL HER UP AND HAVE AN INTERESTING CONVERSATION WITH HER.  THE #

IS:800/855-1155. SHE USES THE STANDARD TELEX ABBREVIATIONS SUCH AS GA FOR GO

AHEAD. THEY TEND TO BE NICER & WILL TALK LONGER THAN YOUR REGULAR OPERATORS.

ALSO, THEY ARE MORE VULNERABLE INTO BEING TALKED OUT OF INFORMATION THROUGH THE

PROCESS OF "SOCIAL ENGINEERING" AS CHESHIRE CATALYST WOULD PUT IT.



OTHER OPERATORS HAVE ACCESS TO THEIR OWN DA BY DIALING KP+NPA+131+ST (MF).



    THIS IS A LITTLE OUT OF THE SCOPE OF THIS TUTORIAL, BUT MANY TELCO'S ARE

NOW CHARGING FOR CALLS TO DIR. ASST. YOU CAN BEAT THIS BY:



(1) COUNT HOW MANY CALLS YOU MAKE TO DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE IN A BILLING PERIOD.

GO TO A FORTRESS FONE & DIAL DA.  WHEN THE OPERATOR COMES ON, GIVE HER A NAME

THAT YOU KNOW HAS AN UNLISTED # OR ASK FOR A TOWN THAT ISN'T IN THE NPA.  SHE

WILL THEN ASK FOR YOUR # SO SHE CAN CREDIT THE CALL TO YOU. GIVE HER YOUR HOME

#, SHE DOESN'T KNOW THAT YOU ARE MAKING A FREE CALL FROM THE FORTRESS. JUST

MAKE SURE THAT YOU DON'T CREDIT YOURSELF FOR MORE CALLS THAN YOU ACTUALLY MADE

OR YOU MIGHT HAVE A FEW PROBLEMS!



(2) IF YOU HAVE A BAUDOT TERMINAL, USE THE 800 #, IT'S FREE & THERE IS ONE #

FOR ALL REQUESTS.



C/NA OPERATORS:

____________________________________________________________



    C/NA OPERATORS ARE OPERATORS THAT DO EXACTLY THE OPPOSITE OF WHAT DIRECTORY

ASSISTANCE OPERATORS ARE FOR.  SEE PART II, FOR MORE INFO ON C/NA & #'S.  IN MY

EXPERIENCES, THESE OPERATORS KNOW MORE THAN THE DA OP'S DO & THEY ARE MORE

SUSCEPTIBLE TO "SOCIAL ENGINEERING."  IT IS POSSIBLE TO BULLSHIT A C/NA

OPERATOR FOR THE NON-PUB DA # (IE, YOU GIVE THEM THE NAME & THEY GIVE YOU THE

ANOTHER IN THE NETWORK.



    PROBLEMS WITH AN OPERATOR?  ASK TO SPEAK TO THEIR SUPERVISOR... WHICH IS

THE EQUIVALENT OF THE MADAME IN A WHOREHOUSE (IF YOU WILL EXCUSE THE ANALOGY).



    BY THE WAY, SOME CO'S THAT WILL ALLOW YOU TO DIAL A 1 OR 0 AS THE 4TH

DIGIT, WILL ALSO ALLOW YOU TO CALL SPECIAL OPERATORS WITHOUT A BLUE BOX.  THIS

IS VERY RARE THOUGH!  FOR EXAMPLE, 212-121-1111 WILL GET YOU A NY INWARD

OPERATOR.



OFFICE HIERARCHY

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    EVERY SWITCHING OFFICE OFFICE IN NORTH AMERICA (THE NPA SYSTEM), IS

ASSIGNED AN OFFICE NAME & CLASS.  THERE ARE FIVE CLASSES OF OFFICES NUMBERED 1

THROUGH 5.  YOUR CO IS MOST LIKELY A CLASS 5 OR END OFFICE. ALL LONG-DISTANCE

(TOLL) CALLS ARE SWITCHED BY A TOLL OFFICE WHICH CAN BE A CLASS 4, 3, 2, OR 1

OFFICE.  THERE IS ALSO A 4X OFFICE CALLED AN INTERMEDIATE POINT.  THE 4X OFFICE

IS A DIGITAL ONE THAT CAN HAVE AN UNATTENDED EXCHANGE ATTACHED TO IT (KNOWN AS

A REMOTE SWITCHING UNIT-RSU).



    THE FOLLOWING CHART WILL LIST THE OFFICE #, NAME, & HOW MANY OF THOSE

OFFICES EXISTED IN NORTH AMERICA IN 1981.



CLASS       NAME       ABB  # EXISTING

----- ---------------- --- ------------

1   REGIONAL CENTER  RC         12

2   SECTIONAL CENTER SC         67

3   PRIMARY CENTER   PC        230

4   TOLL CENTER      TC       1,30

4P  TOLL POINT       TP          ?

4X  INTERMEDIATE PT  IP          ?

5   END OFFICE       EO     19,000

R   RSU              RSU         ?



    WHEN CONNECTING A CALL FROM ONE PARTY TO ANOTHER, THE SWITCHING EQUIPMENT

USUALLY TRIES TO FIND THE SHORTEST ROUTE BETWEEN THE CLASS 5 END OFFICE OF THE

CALLER & THE CLASS 5 END OFFICE OF THE CALLED PARTY. IF NO INTER-OFFICE TRUNKS

EXIST BETWEEN THE 2 PARTIES, IT WILL THEN MOVE UPTO THE NEXT HIGHEST OFFICE FOR

SERVICING (CLASS 4).  IF THE CLASS 4 OFFICE CANNOT HANDLE THE CALL BY SENDING

IT TO ANOTHER CLASS 4 OR 5 OFFICE, IT WILL BE SENT TO THE NEXT OFFICE IN THE

HIERARCHY (3). THE SWITCHING EQUIPMENT FIRST USES THE HIGH-USAGE INTEROFFICE

TRUNK GROUPS, IF THEY ARE BUSY IT THEN GOES TO THE FINAL TRUNK GROUPS ON THE

NEXT HIGHEST LEVEL. IF THE CALL CANNOT BE CONNECTED THEN, YOU WILL PROBABLY GET

A RE-ORDER (120IPM BUSY SIGNAL) SIGNAL.  AT THIS TIME, THE GUYS AT NETWORK

OPERATIONS ARE PROBABLY SHITTING IN THEIR PANTS AND TRYING TO AVOID THE DREADED

NETWORK DREADLOCK (AS SEEN ON TV!).





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    IT IS ALSO INTERESTING TO NOTE THAT 9 CONNECTIONS IN TANDEM IS CALLED

RING-AROUND-THE ROSY AND IT HAS NEVER OCCURRED IN TELEPHONE HISTORY.  THIS

WOULD CASE AN ENDLESS LOOP CONNECTION. [ A NEAT WAY TO REALLY SCREW-UP THE

NETWORK].



    THE 10 REGIONAL CENTERS IN THE US & THE 2 IN CANADA ARE ALL INTERCONNECTED.

THEY FORM THE FOUNDATION OF THE ENTIRE TELEPHONE NETWORK.  SINCE THERE ARE ONLY

12 OF THEM, THEY ARE LISTED BELOW:



CLASS 1 REGIONAL OFFICE LOCATION    NPA

----------------------------------  ---

DALLAS 4 ESS                        214

WAYNE, PA                           215

DENVER 4T                           303

REGINA NO.2 SP1-4W   [CANADA]       306

ST. LOUIS 4T                        314

ROCKDALE, GA                        404

PITTSBURGH 4E                       412

MONTREAL NO.1 4AETS  [CANADA]       504

NORWICH, NY                         607

SAN BERNARDINO, CA                  714

NORWAY, IL                          815

WHITE PLAINS 4T, NY                 914



    THE FOLLOWING DIAGRAM DEMONSTRATES HOW THE VARIOUS OFFICES MAY BE

CONNECTED:



        _________________________

      _|_          _|_          _|_     REGIONAL

     |   |        |   |        |   |    OFFICES

     | 1 | <=--=> | 1 | <=--=> | 1 |  <<==------

     |___|        |___|        |___|

                    |                    OTHERSX/

   _________________|_______________________|

 _|_      _|_    _|_    _|__      _|_

|   |    |   |  |   |  |    |    |   |

| 2 |    | 3 |  | 4 |  | 4P |    | 5 |

|___|    |___|  |___|  |____|    |___|

  |       |       |      |

  |____   |      _|__    |

 _|_  _|_ |   __|_  _|_   X

|   ||   ||  |    ||   |  |_____

| 3 || 4 ||  | 4X || 5 | _|__  _|_

|___||___||  |____||___||    ||   |

       |  |             | 4X || 5 |

     __|_ |             |____||___|

    |    ||_____________

    | 5R |       _______|_________

    |____|      |       |         |

      _|_      _|_     _|_      __|_

     |   |    |   |   |   |    |    |

     | R |    | 4 |   | 5 |    | 5R |

     |___|    |___|   |___|    |____|



NOTE: THE PRECEDING DIAGRAM USED SPECIAL SYMBOLS FROM AN APPLE //E THAT MAY NOT

BE VIEWED AS I INTENDED THEM IF YOU ARE NOT USING AN APPLE//E OR //C.



SWITCHING EQUIPMENT



                                    Page 109









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<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



    IN THE NETWORK, THERE ARE 3 MAJOR TYPES OF SWITCHING EQUIPMENT. THEY ARE

KNOWN AS:  STEP, CROSSBAR, & ESS.





STEP-BY-STEP (SXS)

____________________________________________________________



    THE STEP-BY-STEP, A/K/A THE STROWGER SWITCH OR TWO-MOTION SWITCH, WAS

INVENTED IN 1889 BY AN UNDERTAKER NAMED ALMON STROWGER.  HE INVENTED THIS

MECHANICAL SWITCHING EQUIPMENT BECAUSE HE FELT THAT THE BIASED OPERATOR WAS

ROUTING ALL REQUESTS FOR AN 'UNDERTAKER' TO HER HUSBAND'S BUSINESS. BELL

STARTED USING THIS SYSTEM IN 1918 AS OF 1978, OVER 53% OF THE BELL EXCHANGES

USED THIS METHOD OF SWITCHING.



    STEP-BY-STEP SWITCHING IS CONTROLLED DIRECTLY BY THE DIAL PULSES WHICH MOVE

A SERIES OF SWITCHES (CALLED THE SWITCH TRAIN) IN ORDER. WHEN YOU FIRST PICK UP

THE FONE UNDER SXS, A LINEFINDER ACKNOWLEDGES THE REQUEST (SOONER OR LATER) BY

SENDING A DIAL TONE.  IF YOU THEN DIALED 1234, THE EQUIPMENT WOULD FIRST FIND

AN IDLE SELECTOR SWITCH.  IT WOULD THEN MOVE VERTICALLY 1 PULSE, IT WOULD THEN

MOVE HORIZONTALLY TO FIND A FREE SECOND SELECTOR, IT WOULD THEN MOVE 2 VERTICAL

PULSES, STEP HORIZONTALLY TO FIND THE NEXT SELECTOR, ETC.  THUS THE FIRST

SWITCH IN THE TRAIN TAKES NO DIGITS, THE SECOND SWITCH TAKES 1 DIGIT, THE THIRD

SWITCH TAKES 1 DIGIT, & THE LAST SWITCH IN THE TRAIN (CALLED THE CONNECTOR)

TAKES THE LAST 2 DIGITS & CONNECTS YOUR CALLS. A NORMAL (10,000 LINE) EXCHANGE

REQUIRES 4 DIGITS (0000-9999) TO CONNECT A LOCAL CALL & THUS IT TAKES 4

SWITCHES TO CONNECT EVERY CALL (LINEFINDER, 1ST & 2ND SELECTORS, & THE

CONNECTOR) .



    WHILE IT WAS THE FIRST, SXS SUCKS FOR THE FOLLOWING REASONS:



[1] THE SWITCHED OFTEN BECOME JAMMED THUS THE CALLS OFTEN BECOME BLOCKED.



[2] YOU CAN'T USE DTMF (DUAL-TONE MULTI-FREQUENCY A/K/A TOUCH-TONE) DIRECTLY.

IT IS POSSIBLE THAT THE TELCO MAY HAVE INSTALLED A CONVERSION KIT BUT THEN THE

CALLS WILL GO THROUGH JUST AS SLOW AS PULSE, ANYWAY!



[3] THEY USE A LOT OF ELECTRICITY & MECHANICAL MAINTENANCE. (BAD FROM TELCO

POINT OF VIEW)



[4] EVERYTHING IS HARDWIRED.



    THEY CAN STILL HOOK UP PEN REGISTERS & OTHER SHIT ON THE LINE SO IT IS NOT

EXACTLY A PHREAK HAVEN.



YOU CAN IDENTIFY SXS OFFICES BY:



(1) LACK OF DTMF OR PULSING DIGITS AFTER DIALING DTMF.



(2) IF YOU GO NEAR THE CO, IT WILL SOUND LIKE A TYPEWRITER TESTING FACTORY.



(3) LACK OF SPEED CALLING, CALL FORWARDING, & OTHER CUSTOMER SERVICES.



(4) FORTRESS FONES THAT WANT YOUR MONEY FIRST (AS OPPOSED TO DIAL TONE FIRST

ONES).



    THE PRECEDING DON'T NECESSARILY IMPLY THAT YOU HAVE SXS BUT THEY SURELY



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GIVE EVIDENCE THAT IT MIGHT BE.  ALSO, IF ANY OF THE ABOVE CHARACTERISTICS

EXIST, IT CERTAINLY ISN'T ESS!  ALSO, SXS HAVE PRETTY MUCH BEEN ERADICATED FROM

LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS SUCH AS NYC (212).



CROSSBAR:

____________________________________________________________



    THERE ARE 3 MAJOR TYPES OF CROSSBAR SYSTEMS CALLED:  NO. 1 CROSSBAR (1XB),

NO. 4 CROSSBAR (4XB), & NO. 5 CROSSBAR (5XB).  5XB HAS BEEN THE PRIMARY END

OFFICE SWITCH OF BELL SINCE THE 60'S AND THUS IT IS IN WIDE-USE.



    CROSSBAR USES A COMMON CONTROL SWITCHING METHOD.  WHEN THERE IS AN INCOMING

CALL, A STORED PROGRAM DETERMINES ITS ROUTE THROUGH THE SWITCHING MATRIX.



POINT WHERE THESE 2 LINES MEET IN THE MATRIX IS THE CONNECTION.





ESS

____________________________________________________________



ELECTRONIC SWITCHING SYSTEM (ESS) THE PHREAK'S NIGHTMARE COME TRUE (OR ORWELL'S

PROPHECY AS 2600 PUTS IT)



    ESS IS BELL'S MOVE TOWARDS THE AIRSTRIP ONE SOCIETY DEPICTED IN ORWELL'S

1984. WITH ESS, EVERY SINGLE DIGIT THAT YOU DIAL IS RECORDED--EVEN IF IT IS A

MISTAKE.  THEY KNOW WHO YOU CALL, WHEN YOU CALL, HOW LONG YOU TALKED FOR, &

PROBABLY WHAT YOU TALKED ABOUT (IN SOME CASES).  ESS CAN (AND IS) ALSO

PROGRAMMED TO PRINT OUT #'S OF PEOPLE WHO MAKE EXCESSIVE CALLS TO 800 #'S OR

DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE. THIS IS CALLED THE "800 EXCEPTIONAL CALLING REPORT." ESS

COULD ALSO BE PROGRAMMED TO PRINT OUT LOGS OF WHO CALLS CERTAIN #'S--LIKE A

BOOKIE, A KNOWN COMMUNIST, A BBS, ETC THE THING TO REMEMBER WITH ESS IS THAT IT

IS A SERIES OF PROGRAMS WORKING TOGETHER.  THESE PROGRAMS CAN BE VERY EASILY

CHANGED TO DO WHATEVER THEY WANT IT TO DO.  ONE PHREAK WHOM I KNOW HAS SOME ESS

SOURCE CODE LISTING WHICH IS INCREDIBLY COMPLEX (AS WELL AS DOCUMENTED--GRACIAS

DIOS).  THIS SYSTEM MAKES THE JOB OF BELL SECURITY, THE FBI, NSA, & OTHER

ORGANIZATIONS THAT LIKE TO INVADE PRIVACY INCREDIBLY EASY.



    WITH ESS, TRACING IS DONE IN MICROSECONDS (EINE AUGENBLICK) & THE RESULTS

ARE PRINTED AT THE CONSOLE OF A BELL GESTAPO OFFICER.  ESS WILL ALSO PICK UP

ANY "FOREIGN" TONES ON THE LINE SUCH AS 2600 HZ!



    BELL PREDICTS THAT THE COUNTRY WILL BECOME TOTALLY ESS BY THE 1990'S.



    YOU CAN IDENTIFY ESS BY THE FOLLOWING WHICH ARE USUALLY ESS FUNCTIONS:



[1] DIALING 911 FOR HELP.

[2] DIAL-TONE-FIRST FORTRESSES.

[3] CUSTOM CALLING SERVICES SUCH AS:CALL FORWARDING, SPEED DIALING, & CALL

WAITING.  (ASK YOUR BUSINESS OFFICE IF YOU CAN GET THESE.)

[4] ANI (AUTOMATIC NUMBER IDENTIFICATION) ON LD CALLS.



    PHREAKING DOES NOT COME TO A COMPLETE HALT UNDER ESS THOUGH--JUST BE VERY



    DUE TO THE FACT THAT ESS SENDS A COMPUTER GENERATED "ARTIFICIAL RING,"

WHERE THE VOICE IS NOT CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO THE CALLED PARTIES LINE UNTIL HE



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PICKS UP, BLACK BOXES & INFINITY TRANSMITTERS WILL NOT WORK!



NOTE: ANOTHER INTERESTING WAY TO FIND OUT WHAT TYPE OF EQUIPMENT YOU ARE ON IS

TO RAID THE TRASH CAN OF YOU LOCAL CO--THIS ART WILL DISCUSSED IN A SEPARATE

ARTICLE SOON.



COMING SOON:

<><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><>



IN THE PART V, WE WILL START TO TAKE A LOOK AT TELEPHONE ELECTRONICS.



FURTHER READING:



FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THE ABOVE TOPICS, I SUGGEST THE FOLLOWING:



NOTES ON THE NETWORK, AT&T, 1980.



UNDERSTANDING TELEPHONE ELECTRONICS,TEXAS INSTRUMENTS, 1983.



AND SUBSCRIPTIONS TO:



TAP, ROOM 603, 147 W 42 ST, NEW YORK, NY 10036.     SUBSCRIPTIONS ARE

$10/YEAR.#BACK ISSUES ARE $0.75.      THE CURRENT ISSUES IS #90 (JAN/FEB 1984)



2600, BOX 752, MIDDLE ISLAND, NY 11953. SUBSCRIPTIONS ARE $10/YEAR. BACKISSUES

ARE $1 EACH.  THE CURRENT ISSUE IS #4 (APRIL 1984).



THEY ARE BOTH EXCELLENT SOURCES OF ALL SORTS OF INFORMATION (PRIMARILY

PHREAKING/HACKING).



NOTE: FOR THE MOST PART, I HAVE ASSUMED THAT YOU HAVE READ MY PREVIOUS 3

COURSES IN THE BASIC TELCOM SERIES.



HASTA LUEGO,



*****BIOC

*=$=*AGENT

*****003



APRIL 13, 1984 [THE YEAR OF BIG BROTHER]



<<=-FARGO 4A-=>>



































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         ************* << BIOC AGENT 003'S COURSE IN >> *************

         *                                                          *

         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *

         *             %$   BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS  $%            *

         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *

         *                         PART V                           *

         *                                                          *

         ************************************************************





PREFACE:



    PREVIOUS INSTALLMENTS OF THIS SERIES WERE FOCUSED ON TELEPHONY FROM A

NETWORK POINT-OF-VIEW.  PART V WILL DEAL WITH TELEPHONE ELECTRONICS FOCUSING

PRIMARILY ON THE SUBSCRIBER'S TELEPHONE. HERE-IN-AFTER SIMPLY REFERRED TO AS

"FONE."



WIRING:

____________________________________________________________



    ASSUMING A STANDARD ONE-LINE FONE, THERE ARE USUALLY 4 WIRES THAT LEAD OUT

OF THE FONE SET.  THESE ARE STANDARDLY COLORED RED, GREEN, YELLOW, & BLACK.

THE RED & GREEN SIRES ARE THE TWO THAT ARE ACTUALLY HOOKED UP TO YOUR CO.  THE

YELLOW WIRE IS SOMETIMES USED TO RING DIFFERENT FONES ON A PARTY LINE (IE, ONE

#, SEVERAL FAMILIES--FOUND PRIMARILY IN RURAL AREAS WHERE THEY PAY LESS FOR THE

SERVICE AND THEY DON'T USE THE FONE AS MUCH); OTHERWISE, THE YELLOW IS USUALLY

JUST IGNORED. ON SOME TWO-LINE FONES, THE RED & GREEN WIRES ARE USED FOR THE

FIRST FONE # AND THE YELLOW & BLACK ARE USED FOR THE SECOND LINE. IN THIS CASE

    IN TELEPHONY, THE RED & GREEN WIRES ARE OFTEN REFERRED TO AS TIP (T) & RING

(R).  THE TIP IS USUALLY THE MORE POSITIVE OF THE TWO WIRES.  THIS NAMING GOES

BACK TO THE OLD OPERATOR CORD BOARDS WHERE ONE OF THE WIRES WAS THE TIP OF THE

PLUG AND THE OTHER WAS THE RING (OF THE BARREL).

    A ROTARY FONE (AKA DIAL OR PULSE) WILL WORK FINE REGARDLESS WHETHER THE RED

(OR GREEN) WIRE IS CONNECTED THE TIP(+) OR RING(-).  A TOUCH-TONE (TM) FONE IS

A DIFFERENT STORY, THOUGH.  IT WILL NOT WORK EXCEPT IF THE TIP(+) IS THE GREEN

WIRE. [ALTHOUGH, SOME OF THE MORE EXPENSIVE DTMF FONES DO HAVE A RECTIFIER

BRIDGE WHICH COMPENSATES FOR POLARITY REVERSAL.]  THIS I WHY UNDER CERTAIN

(NON-DIGITAL) SWITCHING EQUIPMENT YOU CAN REVERSE THE RED & GREEN WIRES ON A

TOUCH-TONE FONE AND RECEIVE FREE DTMF SERVICE.  EVEN THOUGH IT WON'T BREAK DIAL

TONE, REVERSING THE WIRES ON A ROTARY LINE ON A DIGITAL SWITCH WILL CAUSE THE

TONES TO BE GENERATED.



VOLTAGES, ETC.

____________________________________________________________



    WHEN YOUR TELEPHONE IS ON-HOOK (IE, HUNG UP) THERE IS APPROXIMATELY 48

VOLTS OF DC CURRENT (VDC) FLOWING THROUGH THE TIP & RING.  WHEN THE HANDSET OF

A FONE IS LIFTED A FEW SWITCHES CLOSE WHICH CAUSE A LOOP TO BE CONNECTED (KNOWN

AS THE "LOCAL LOOP") BETWEEN YOUR FONE & THE CO.  ONCE THIS HAPPENS DC CURRENT

IS ABLE TO FLOW THROUGH THE FONE WITH LESS RESISTANCE. THIS CAUSES A RELAY TO

ENERGIZE WHICH CAUSES OTHER CO EQUIPMENT TO REALIZE THAT YOU WANT SERVICE.

EVENTUALLY, YOU SHOULD END UP WITH A DIAL TONE.  THIS ALSO CAUSES THE 48 VDC TO

DROP DOWN INTO THE VICINITY OF 13 VOLTS.  THE RESISTANCE OF THE LOOP ALSO DROPS

BELOW THE 2500 OHM LEVEL.



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    AS OF NOW, YOU ARE PROBABLY SAYING TO YOURSELF THAT THIS IS ALL NICE AND

TECHNICAL BUT WHAT THE HELL GOOD IS THE INFORMATION.  WELL, ALSO CONSIDER THAT

THIS VOLTAGE (& RESISTANCE) DROP IS HOW THE CO DETECTS THAT A FONE WAS TAKEN

OFF HOOK (PICKED UP).  IN THIS WAY, THEY KNOW WHEN TO START BILLING THE CALLING

NUMBER.  NOW WHAT DO YOU SUPPOSE WOULD HAPPEN IF A DEVICE SUCH AS A RESISTOR OR

A ZENER DIODE WAS PLACED ON THE CALLED PARTIES LINE SO THAT THE VOLTAGE WOULD

DROP JUST ENOUGH TO ALLOW TALKING BUT NOT ENOUGH TO START BILLING?  FIRST OFF,

THE CALLING PARTY WOULD NOT BE BILLED FOR THE CALL BUT CONVERSATION COULD BE

PURSUED. SECONDLY, THE CO EQUIPMENT WOULD THINK THAT THE FONE JUST KEPT ON

RINGING. THE TELCO CALLS THIS A "NO-NO" (TOLL FRAUD TO BE MORE SPECIFIC) WHILE

PHONE PHREAKS AFFECTIONATELY CALL THIS MUTE A BLACK BOX.



    THE FOLLOWING ARE INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO BUILD A SIMPLE BLACK BOX. OF

COURSE, ANYTHING THAT PREVENTS THE VOLTAGE FROM DROPPING WOULD WORK.

YOU ONE OR TWO PARTS:      A SPST TOGGLE SWITCH AND A 10,000 OHM (10 K), 1/2

WATT RESISTOR.  ANY ELECTRONICS STORE SHOULD STOCK THESE PARTS.



    NOW, CUT 2 PIECES OF WIRE (ABOUT 6 INCHES LONG) AND ATTACH ONE END OF EACH

WIRE TO ONE OF THE TERMINALS ON THE SWITCH.  NOW TURN YOUR K500 (STANDARD DESK

FONE) UPSIDE DOWN AND TAKE OFF THE COVER.  LOCATE THE 2 SCREWS ON THE NETWORK

BOX LABELED >F< AND >RR<.  WRAP THE RESISTOR BETWEEN THE 2 SCREWS MAKING SURE

THAT IT DOESN'T TOUCH ANY OTHER TERMINALS!.  NOW CONNECT ONE WIRE FROM THE

SWITCH TO THE RR TERMINAL. FINALLY, ATTACH THE REMAINING WIRE TO THE GREEN WIRE

(DISCONNECT IT FROM ITS TERMINAL).  NOW BRING THE SWITCH OUT THE REAR OF THE

FONE AND REPLACE THE COVER.



    PUT THE SWITCH IN A POSITION WHERE YOU RECEIVE A DIAL TONE.  MARK THIS

POSITION NORMAL.  MARK THE OTHER SIDE FREE.



    WHEN YOUR PHRIENDS CALL (AT A PREARRANGED TIME), QUICKLY LIFT & DROP THE

RECEIVER AS FAST A POSSIBLE.  THIS WILL STOP THE RINGING (DO IT AGAIN IF IT

DOESN'T) WITH OUT STARTING THE BILLING.  IT IS IMPORTANT THAT YOU DO IT QUICKLY

(LESS THAN ONE SECOND THEN PUT THE SWITCH IN THE FREE POSITION AND PICK UP THE

FONE.  KEEP ALL CALL SHORT AND PREFERABLY UNDER 15 MINUTES.



NOTE:      IF ANYONE PICKS UP AN EXTENSION IN THE CALLED PARTIES HOUSE AND THAT

FONE IS NOT SET FOR FREE THEN BILLING WILL START.



NOTE:      AN OLD WAY OF SIGNALING A PHRIEND THAT YOU ARE ABOUT TO CALL IS

MAKING A COLLECT CALL TO A NON-EXISTENT PERSON IN THE HOUSE.  SINCE YOUR FRIEND

WILL NOT ACCEPT THE CHARGES, HE WILL KNOW THAT YOU ARE ABOUT TO CALL AND THUS

PREPARE THE BLACK BOX    (OR VISA VERSA).



WARNING:     THE TELCO CAN DETECT BLACK BOXES IF THEY SUSPECT ONE ON YOUR LINE.

THIS IS DONE DUE TO THE PRESENCE OF AC VOICE SIGNAL AT THE WRONG DC LEVEL!



PICTORIAL DIAGRAM: (STANDARD ROTARY K500 FONE)

____________________________________________________________



 _____________________________________

|                                     |

***BLUE WIRE**>>F<                    |

|            *   *                    |

**WHITE WIRE**   *                    |

|                *                    |

|            RESISTOR                 |

|                *                    |



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|                *                    |

|              >RR<*******SWITCH****  |

|                                  *  |

****GREEN WIRE**********************  |

|                                     |

|_____________________________________|



NOTE:      THE BLACK BOX WILL NOT WORK UNDER ESS OR OTHER SIMILAR DIGITAL

SWITCHES SINCE ESS DOES NOT CONNECT THE VOICE CIRCUITS UNTIL THE FONE IS PICKED

UP (& BILLING STARTS).  INSTEAD, ESS USES AN "ARTIFICIAL"   COMPUTER GENERATED

RING.



RINGING:

____________________________________________________________



    TO INFORM A SUBSCRIBER OF AN INCOMING CALL, THE TELCO SENDS 90 VOLTS (RMS)

OF AC CURRENT DOWN THE LINE (AT AROUND 15 TO 60 HZ)  IN STANDARD FONES, THIS

CAUSES A METAL ARMATURE TO BE ATTRACTED ALTERNATELY BETWEEN TWO ELECTRO-MAGNETS

THUS STRIKING 2 BELLS.  OF COURSE, THE STANDARD BELL (PATENTED IN 1878 BY TOM

A. WATSON) CAN BE REPLACED BY A MORE MODERN ELECTRONIC BELL OR SIGNALING

DEVICE.



    ALSO, YOU CAN HAVE LIGHTS AND OTHER SIMILAR DEVICES IN LIEU OF (OR IN

CONJUNCTION WITH) THE BELL.  A SIMPLE NEON LIGHT (WITH ITS CORRESPONDING

RESISTOR) CAN SIMPLY BE CONNECTED BETWEEN THE RED & GREEN WIRES (USUALLY L1 &

L2 ON THE NETWORK BOX) SO THAT IT LIGHTS UP ON INCOMING CALLS.  A REGULAR 60

WATT LIGHT BULB CAN ALSO BE HOOKED UP USING A SIMPLE (120 VAC) RELAY.



WARNING:      90 & 120 VAC CAN GIVE QUITE A SHOCK.  EXERCISE EXTREME CAUTION IF

YOU WISH TO FURTHER PURSUE THESE TOPICS.



    ALSO INCLUDED IN THE RINGING CIRCUIT IS A CAPACITOR TO PREVENT THE DC

CURRENT FROM INTERFERING WITH THE BELL [A CAPACITOR WILL PASS AC CURRENT WHILE

IT WILL PREVENT DC CURRENT FROM FLOWING (BY STORING IT)].

    ANOTHER REASON THAT THE TELCO HATES BLACK BOXES IS BECAUSE RINGING USES

ALOT OF COMMON-CONTROL EQUIPMENT, IN THE CO, WHICH USE ALOT OF ELECTRICITY.

THUS THE RINGING GENERATORS ARE BEING TIED UP WHILE A FREE CALL IS BEING MADE.

USUALLY CALLS THAT ARE ALLOWED TO RING FOR A LONG PERIOD OF TIME MAY BE

CONSTRUED AS SUSPICIOUS.  SOME OFFICES MAY BE SET UP TO DROP A TROUBLE CARD FOR

LONG PERIODS OF RINGING THEN A "NO-NO" DETECTION DEVICE MAY BE PLACED ON THE

LINE.

    INCIDENTALLY, THE TERM "RING TRIP" REFERS TO THE CO PROCESS INVOLVED TO

STOP THE AC RINGING SIGNAL WHEN THE CALLING FONE GOES OFF HOOK.



NOTE:      IT IS SUGGESTED THAT YOU ACTUALLY DISSECT FONES TO HELP YOU BETTER

UNDERSTAND THEM. IT WILL ALSO HELP YOU TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPTS HERE

IF YOU ACTUALLY PROVE THEM TO YOURSELF.  FOR EXAMPLE, ACTUALLY TAKE THE VOLTAGE

READINGS ON YOUR FONE LINE [ANY SIMPLE MULTI-TESTER (A MUST) WILL DO.]

PHREAKING IS AN INTERACTIVE PROCESS NOT A PASSIVE ONE!



DIALING:

____________________________________________________________



    ON A STANDARD FONE, THERE ARE TWO COMMON TYPES OF DIALING:  PULSE & DTMF.

OF COURSE, SOME PEOPLE INSIST UPON BEING DIFFERENT AND DON'T USE THE DT THUS

LEAVING THEM WITH MF (MULTI FREQUENCY, AKA OPERATOR, BLUE BOX) TONES.  THIS IS

ANOTHER "NO-NO" AND THE TELCO SECURITY GENTLEMEN HAVE A SPECIAL KNACK FOR

DEALING WITH SUCH "PHREAKS" ON THE NETWORK.



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    WHEN YOU DIAL ROTARY, YOU ARE ACTUALLY RAPIDLY BREAKING & RECONNECTING

(MAKING) THE LOCAL LOOP ONCE FOR EVERY DIGIT DIALED. SINCE THE PHYSICAL

CONNECTION MUST BE BROKEN, YOU CANNOT DIAL IF ANOTHER EXTENSION (OF THAT #) IS

OFF-HOOK.  NEITHER OF THE FONES WILL BE ABLE TO DIAL PULSE UNLESS THE OTHER

HANGS UP.

    ANOTHER TERM OFTEN REFERRED TO IN TELEPHONE ELECTRONICS IS THE BREAK RATIO.

IN THE US, THERE ARE 10 PULSES PER SECOND (MAX).  WHEN THE CIRCUIT IS OPENED IT

IS CALLED THE BREAK INTERVAL. WHEN IT IS CLOSED IT IS CALLED THE MAKE INTERVAL.

IN THE US, THERE IS A 60 MILLISECOND (MS) BREAK PERIOD AND A 40 MS MAKE PERIOD.

(60+40=100 MS = 1/10 MINUTE).  THIS IS REFERRED TO AS A 60% BREAK INTERVAL.

SOME OF THE MORE SOPHISTICATED ELECTRONIC FONES CAN SWITCH BETWEEN A 60% & A

67% BREAK INTERVAL.  THIS IS DUE TO THE FACT THAT MANY FOREIGN NATIONS USE A

67% BREAK INTERVAL.

    HAVE YOU EVER BEEN IN AN OFFICE OR A SIMILAR FACILITY AND SAW A FONE

WAITING TO BE USED FOR A FREE CALL BUT SOME ASSHOLE PUT A LOCK ON IT TO PREVENT

OUTGOING CALLS?

    WELL, DON'T FRET PHELLOW PHREAKS, YOU CAN SIMULATE PULSE DIALING BY RAPIDLY

DEPRESSING THE SWITCHOOK.  (IF YOU DEPRESS IT FOR LONGER THAN A SECOND IT WILL

BE CONSTRUED AS A DISCONNECT.)  BY RAPIDLY SWITCHOOKING YOU ARE CAUSING THE

LOCAL LOOP TO BE BROKEN & MADE SIMILAR TO ROTARY DIALING!  THUS IF YOU CAN

MANAGE TO SWITCHOOK RAPIDLY 10 TIMES YOU CAN REACH AN OPERATOR TO PLACE ANY

CALL YOU WANT! THIS TAKES ALOT OF PRACTICE, THOUGH.  YOU MIGHT WANT TO PRACTICE

ON YOUR OWN FONE DIALING A FRIEND'S # OR SOMETHING ELSE. INCIDENTALLY, THIS

METHOD WILL ALSO WORK WITH DTMF FONES SINCE ALL DTMF LINES CAN ALSO HANDLE

ROTARY.

    ANOTHER PROBLEM WITH PULSE DIALING IS THAT IT PRODUCES HIGH-VOLTAGE SPIKES

THAT MAKE LOUD NOISES IN THE EARPIECE AND CAUSE THE BELL TO "TINKLE."  IF YOU

NEVER NOTICED THIS THEN YOUR FONE HAS A SPECIAL "ANTI-TINKLE" & EARPIECE

SHORTING CIRCUIT (MOST DO).  IF YOU HAVE EVER DISSECTED A ROTARY FONE (A MUST

FOR ANY SERIOUS PHREAK) YOU WOULD HAVE NOTICED THAT THERE ARE 2 SETS OF CONTACT

THAT OPEN AND CLOSE DURING PULSING (ON THE BACK OF THE ROTARY DIAL UNDER THE

PLASTIC COVER).  ONE OF THESE ACTUALLY OPENS AND

CLOSES THE LOOP WHILE THE OTHER MUTES THE EARPIECE BY SHORTING IT OUT. THE

SECOND CONTACTS ALSO ACTIVATES A SPECIAL ANTI-TINKLE CIRCUIT THAT PUTS A 340

OHM RESISTOR ACROSS THE RINGING CIRCUIT WHICH PREVENTS THE HIGH VOLTAGE SPIKES

FROM INTERFERING WITH THE BELL.

    DUAL TONE MULTI FREQUENCY (DTMF) IS A MODERN DAY IMPROVEMENT ON PULSE

DIALING IN SEVERAL WAYS.  FIRST OF ALL, IT IS MORE CONVENIENT FOR THE USER

SINCE IT IS FASTER AND CAN BE USED FOR SIGNALING AFTER THE CALL IS COMPLETED

(IE, SCC'S, COMPUTERS, ETC.).  ALSO, IT IS MORE UPTO PAR WITH MODERN DAY

SWITCHING EQUIPMENT (SUCH AS ESS) SINCE PULSE DIALING WAS DESIGNED TO ACTUALLY

MOVE RELAYS BY THE NUMBER OF DIGITS DIALED (IN SXS OFFICES).



    EACH KEY ON A DTMF KEYPAD PRODUCES 2 FREQUENCIES SIMULTANEOUSLY (ONE FROM

THE HIGH GROUP AND ANOTHER FROM THE LOW GROUP).



           _______________________________________________

LOW GROUP |           |           |           |           |

   697 HZ-|     Q     |    ABC    |    DEF    |           |

          |     1     |     2     |     3     |     A     |

          |___________|___________|___________|___________|

          |           |           |           |           |

   770 HZ-|    GHI    |    JKL    |    MNO    |           |

          |     1     |     2     |     3     |     B     |

          |___________|___________|___________|___________|

          |           |           |           |           |

   852 HZ-|    PRS    |    TUV    |    WXY    |           |

          |     1     |     2     |     3     |     C     |



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          |___________|___________|___________|___________|

          |           | OPERATOR  |           |           |

   941 HZ-|           |     Z     |           |           |

          |     *     |     0     |     #     |     D     |

          |___________|___________|___________|___________|

                |           |           |           |

             1209 HZ     1336 HZ     1477 HZ     1633 HZ

               HIGH GROUP



A PORTABLE DTMF KEYPAD IS KNOWN AS A WHITE BOX.



    THE FOURTH COLUMN (1633 HZ) IS NOT NORMALLY FOUND ON REGULAR FONES BUT IT

DOES HAVE SEVERAL SPECIAL USES.  FOR ONE, IT IS USED TO DESIGNATE THE PRIORITY

OF CALLS ON AUTOVON, THE MILITARY FONE NETWORK. THESE KEY ARE CALLED:  FLASH,

IMMEDIATE, PRIORITY, & ROUTINE (WITH VARIATIONS) INSTEAD OF ABCD.  SECONDLY,

THESE KEYS ARE USED FOR TESTING PURPOSES BY THE TELCO.  IN SOME AREA YOU CAN

FIND LOOPS AS WELL AS OTHER NEAT TESTS (SEE PART II) ON THE 555-1212 DIRECTORY

ASSISTANCE EXCHANGE. FOR THIS, YOU WOULD CALL UP AN DA IN CERTAIN AREAS [THAT

HAVE AN AUTOMATIC CALL DISTRIBUTOR (ACD)] AND HOLD DOWN THE "D" KEY WHICH

SHOULD BLOW THE OPERATOR OFF.  YOU WILL THEN HEAR A PULSING DIAL TONE WHICH

INDICATES THAT YOU ARE IN THE ACD INTERNAL TESTING MODE.  YOU CAN GET ON ONE

SIDE OF A LOOP BY DIALING A 6.  THE OTHER SIDE IS 7.  SOME PHREAKS CLAIM THAT

IF THE PERSON ON SIDE 6 HANGS UP, OCCASIONALLY THE EQUIPMENT WILL SCREW UP AD

START DIRECTING DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE CALLS TO THE OTHER SIDE OF THE LOOP.

ANOTHER ALLEGED TEST IS CALLED REMOB WHICH ALLOWS YOU TO TAP INTO LINES BY

ENTERING A SPECIAL CODE FOLLOWED BY THE 7 DIGIT NUMBER YOU WANT TO MONITOR.

THEN THERE IS THE POSSIBILITY OF MASS CONFERENCING.

    ACD'S ARE BECOME RARE THOUGH.  YOU WILL PROBABLY HAVE TO MAKE SEVERAL

NPA-555- 1212 CALLS BEFORE YOU FIND ONE.

    YOU CAN MODIFY REGULAR FONES QUITE READILY SO THAT THEY HAVE A SWITCH TO

CHANGE BETWEEN THE 3RD AND 4TH COLUMNS. THIS IS CALLED A SILVER BOX (AKA GREY

BOX) AD PLANS CAN BE FOUND IN TAP AS WELL AS ON MANY BBS'S.



TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER:

____________________________________________________________



    WHEN YOU TALK INTO THE TRANSMITTER, THE SOUND WAVES FROM YOUR VOICE CAUSE A

DIAPHRAGM TO VIBRATE AND PRESS AGAINST THE CARBON GRANULES (OR ANOTHER SIMILAR

SUBSTANCE).  THIS CAUSES THE CARBON GRANULES TO COMPRESS AND CONTRACT THUS

CHANGING THE RESISTANCE OF THE DC CURRENT FLOWING THROUGH IT.  THEREFORE, YOUR

AC VOICE SIGNAL IS SUPERIMPOSED OVER THE DC CURRENT OF THE LOCAL LOOP. THE

RECEIVER WORKS IN A SIMILAR FASHION WHERE THE SIMPLE TYPES UTILIZE A MAGNET,

ARMATURE, & DIAPHRAGM.



HYBRID/INDUCTION COIL:

____________________________________________________________



    AS YOU MAY HAVE NOTICED, THERE ARE TWO WIRES FOR THE RECEIVER AND TWO FOR

THE TRANSMITTER IN THE FONE, YET THE LOCAL LOOP CONSISTS OF 2 WIRES INSTEAD OF

4. THIS 4-WIRE TO 2-WIRE CONVERSION IS DONE INSIDE THE FONE BY A DEVICE KNOWN

AS AN INDUCTION COIL WHICH USES COUPLING TRANSFORMERS.

    THE REASON 2 SIRES ARE USED ON THE LOCAL LOOPS ARE BECAUSE IT IS ALOT

CHEAPER FOR THE TELCO.  ALTHOUGH, ALL OF THE INTER-OFFICE TRUNKS UTILIZE 4

WIRES.  THIS IS NECESSARY FOR FULL DUPLEX (IE, SIMULTANEOUS CONVERSATION ON

BOTH SIDES) AND FOR AMPLIFICATION DEVICES.  THERE ARE SIMILAR DEVICES IN THE

CO'S, KNOWN AS A HYBRID, THAT COUPLE THE 4-WIRE TRUNKS TO THE 2-WIRE LOCAL

LOOPS AND VISA-VERSA.





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MISCELLANEOUS:

____________________________________________________________



    IN THE TELEPHONE, THERE IS ALSO A BALANCING NETWORK CONSISTING OF A FEW

CAPACITORS & RESISTORS WHICH PROVIDE SIDETONE.  SIDETONE ALLOWS THE CALLER TO

HEAR HIS OWN VOLUME IN THE RECEIVER. HE CAN THEN ADJUST HIS VOICE ACCORDINGLY.

THIS PREVENTS PEOPLE FROM SHOUTING OR SPEAKING TOO SOFTLY WITHOUT NOTICING IT.



HOLD:

____________________________________________________________



    WHEN A TELEPHONE GOES OFF HOOK, THE RESISTANCE DROPS BELOW 2500 OHMS.  AT

THIS POINT, THE TELCO WILL SEND A DIAL TONE.  TO PUT SOMEONE ON HOLD YOU MUST

PUT A 1000 OHM RESISTOR (1 WATT) ACROSS THE TIP & RING BEFORE IT REACHES THE

SWITCHOOK.  IN THIS WAY, WHEN THE FONE IS HUNG UP (FOR HOLD) THE RESISTANCE

REMAINS BELOW 2500 OHMS WHICH CAUSES THE CO TO BELIEVE THAT YOU ARE STILL

OFF-HOOK.  YOU CAN BUILD A SIMPLE HOLD DEVICE USING THE FOLLOWING PICTORIAL

DIAGRAM:



(RED) O_________________________

 [L1]      |             |      |

           |             |      |

       1000 OHM          |      X

           |             |       X

       RESISTOR       RINGING   |

           |          CIRCUIT   |  -SWITCH

           |             |      |     HOOK

           /             |      |

          / SPST SWITCH  |      X

           |             |       X

           |             |      |

           |             |      |

(GREEN) O__|_____________|______|

  [L2]

--> TO REST OF FONE



CONCLUSION:

____________________________________________________________



NOTE:     MANY OF THE ELECTRONICS COMPONENTS OF NORMAL FONES  (K500) ARE

ENCLOSED IN THE NETWORK BOX (WHICH SHOULDN'T BE OPENED).



    I HAVE ASSUMED THAT THE READER HAS A BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF ELECTRONICS.  ALSO,

I HAVE ASSUMED THAT YOU HAVE READ THE 4 PREVIOUS INSTALLMENTS OF THIS SERIES

(AND HOPEFULLY ENJOYED THEM).



       IN PART VI, WE WILL TAKE A LOOK AT FORTRESS FONES.



SUGGESTED FURTHER READING:

____________________________________________________________



ELECTRONICS COURSES A-D, TAP, @ $.75 EACH.



& OTHER ASSORTED SOURCES...



TAP:  ROOM 603/147 W 42 ST./NEW YORK, NY 10036.  PLEASE SPECIFY BY BACKISSUE

#'S (NOT ARTICLE NAMES).  ALL BACK-ISSUES ARE $1 EACH. SUBSCRIPTIONS ARE

$10/YEAR (10 ISSUES). SAY THAT BIOC AGENT 003 SENT YOU.





































































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         ************* << BIOC AGENT 003'S COURSE IN >> *************

         *                                                          *

         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *

         *             %$   BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS  $%            *

         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *

         *                         PART VI                          *

         *                                                          *

         ************************************************************



REVISED:  27-OCT-84



Preface:



    This article will focus primarily on the standard Western Electric

single-slot coin telephone (aka fortress fone) which can be divided into 3

types:



- Dial-Tone First (DTF)



- Coin-First (CF):  (ie, it wants your $ before you receive a dial tone)



- Dial Post-Pay Service (PP):  you pay after the party answers



Depositing Coins (Slugs):

____________________________________________________________



    Once you have deposited your slug into a fortress, it is subjected to a

gamut of tests. The first obstacle for a slug is the magnetic trap.  This will

stop any light-weight magnetic slugs and coins. If it passes this, the slug is

then classified as a nickel, dime, or quarter.  Each slug is then checked for

appropriate size and weight. If these tests are passed, it will then travel

through a nickel, dime, or quarter magnet as appropriate.  These magnets set up

an eddy current effect which causes coins of the appropriate characteristics to

slow down so they will follow the correct trajectory.  If all goes well, the

coin will follow the correct path (such as bouncing off of the nickel anvil)

where it will hopefully fall into the narrow accepted coin channel.

    The rather elaborate tests that are performed as the coin travels down the

coin chute will stop most slugs and other undesirable coins, such as pennies,

which must then be retrieved using the coin release lever.

    If the slug miraculously survives the gamut, it will then strike the

appropriate totalizer arm causing a ratchet wheel to rotate once for every

5-cent increment (eg, a quarter will cause it to rotate 5 times).

    The totalizer then causes the coin signal oscillator to readout a

dual-frequency signal indicating the value deposited to ACTS (a computer) or

the TSPS operator. These are the same tones used by phreaks in the infamous red

boxes.

    For a quarter, 5 beep tones are outpulsed at 12-17 pulses per second (PPS).

A dime causes 2 beep tones at 5 - 8.5 PPS while a nickel causes one beep tone

at 5 - 8.5 PPS.  A beep consists of 2 tones:  2200 + 1700 Hz.

    A relay in the fortress called the "B relay" (yes, there is also an 'A

relay') places a capacitor across the speech circuit during totalizer read-out

to prevent the "customer" from hearing the red box tones.

    In older 3 slot phones:  one bell (1050-1100 Hz) for a nickel, two bells

for a dime, and one gong (800 Hz) for a quarter are used instead of the modern

dual-frequency tones.



TSPS & ACTS

____________________________________________________________



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    While fortresses are connected to the CO of the area, all transactions are

handled via the Traffic Service Position System (TSPS).  In areas that do not

have ACTS, all calls that require operator assistance, such as calling card and

collect, are automatically routed to a TSPS operator position.

    In an effort to automate fortress service, a computer system known as

Automated Coin Toll Service (ACTS) has been implemented in many areas.  ACTS

listens to the red box signals from the fones and takes appropriate action.  It

is ACTS which says, "Two dollars please (pause) Please deposit two dollars for

the next ten seconds" (and other variations). Also, if you talk for more than

three minutes and then hang-up, ACTS will call back and demand your money.

ACTS is also responsible for Automated Calling Card Service.

    ACTS also provide trouble diagnosis for craftspeople (repairmen

specializing in fortresses).  For example, there is a coin test which is great

for tuning up red boxes.  In many areas this test can be activated by dialing

09591230 at a fortress (thanks to Karl Marx for this information).  Once

activated it will request that you deposit various coins. It will then identify

the coin and outpulse the appropriate red box signal.  The coins are usually

returned when you hang up.

    To make sure that there is actually money in the fone, the CO initiates a

"ground test" at various times to determine if a coin is actually in the fone.

This is why you must deposit at least a nickel in order to use a red box!



Green Boxes:

____________________________________________________________



    Paying the initial rate in order to use a red box (on certain fortresses)

left a sour taste in many red boxer's mouths thus the GREEN BOX was invented.

The green box generates useful tones such as COIN COLLECT, COIN RETURN, and

RINGBACK.  These are the tones that ACTS or the TSPS operator would send to the

CO when appropriate. Unfortunately, the green box cannot be used at a fortress

station but it must be used by the CALLED party.



Here are the tones:



COIN COLLECT       700 + 1100 Hz

COIN RETURN       1100 + 1700 Hz

RINGBACK           700 + 1700 Hz



    Before the called party sends any of these tones, an operator released

signal should be sent to alert the MF detectors at the CO. This can be

accomplished by sending 900 + 1500 Hz or a single 2600 Hz wink (90 ms) followed

by a 60 ms gap and then the appropriate signal for at least 900 ms.

    Also, do not forget that the initial rate is collected shortly before the 3

minute period is up.

    Incidentally, once the above MF tones for collecting and returning coins

reach the CO, they are converted into an appropriate DC pulse (-130 volts for

return & +130 volts for collect). This pulse is then sent down the tip to the

fortress.  This causes the coin relay to either return or collect the coins.

    The alleged "T-Network" takes advantage of this information.  When a pulse

for COIN COLLECT (+130 VDC) is sent down the line, it must be grounded

somewhere.  This is usually either the yellow or black wire. Thus, if the wires

are exposed, these wires can be cut to prevent the pulse from being grounded.

When the three minute initial period is almost up, make sure that the black &

yellow wires are severed; then hang up, wait about 15 seconds in case of a

second pulse, reconnect the wires, pick up the fone, hang up again, and if all

goes well it should be "JACKPOT" time.





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Physical Attack:

____________________________________________________________



    A typical fortress weighs roughly 50 lbs. with an empty coin box. Most of

this is accounted for in the armor plating.  Why all the security?  Well, Bell

contributes it to the following:



        "Social changes during the 1960's made the multislot coin station a

prime target for:  vandalism, strong arm robbery, fraud, and theft of service.

This brought about the introduction of the more rugged single slot coin station

and a new environment for coin service."



As for picking the lock, I will quote Mr. Phelps:



        "We often fantasize about 'picking the lock' or 'getting a master

key.'  Well, you can forget about it. I don't like to discourage people, but it

will save you from wasting alot of your time--time which can be put to better

use (heh, heh)."



    As for physical attack, the coin plate is secured on all four side by

hardened steel bolts which pass through two slots each.  These bolts are in

turn interlocked by the main lock.

    One phreak I know did manage to take one of the 'mothers' home (which was

attached to a piece of plywood at a construction site; otherwise, the permanent

ones are a bitch to detach from the wall!). It took him almost ten hours to

open the coin box using a power drill, sledge hammers, and crow bars (which was

empty -- perhaps next time, he will deposit a coin first to hear if it slushes

down nicely or hits the empty bottom with a clunk.)

    Taking the fone offers a higher margin of success.  Although this may be

difficult often requiring brute force and there has been several cases of back

axles being lost trying to take down a fone!  A quick and dirty way to open the

coin box is by using a shotgun.  In Detroit, after ecologists cleaned out a

municipal pond, they found 168 coin phones rifled.

    In colder areas, such as Canada, some shrewd people tape up the fones using

duct tape, pour in water, and come back the next day when the water will have

froze thus expanding and cracking the fone open.In one case:



        "unauthorized coin collectors" where caught when they brought $6,000 in

change to a bank and the bank became suspicious...



    At any rate, the main lock is an eight level tumbler located on the right

side of the coin box.  This lock has 390,625 possible positions (5 ^ 8, since

there are 8 tumblers each with 5 possible positions) thus it is highly pick

resistant!  The lock is held in place by 4 screws.  If there is sufficient

clearance to the right of the fone, it is conceivable to punch out the screws

using the drilling pattern below (provided by Alexander Mundy in TAP)



























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                                   Chapter 5



   What is covered in these last few articles, is the essence of phreaking,

blue boxing & equal access.  These last articles, I hope will be the final

stage of phreak education for now.  Basic telecommunications 7 is a brief intro

to the art of blue boxing, while Better Homes & Blue Boxing will cover it in

full.  Equal access will be an interesting switch, it is installed in my area

already and I have been investigating it.  One thought is to call MCI operators

and box through them, over MCI lines...





































































































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         ************* << BIOC AGENT 003'S COURSE IN >> *************

         *                                                          *

         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *

         *             %$   BASIC TELECOMMUNICATIONS  $%            *

         *             $%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$%$            *

         *                         PART VII                         *

         *                                                          *

         ************************************************************



Preface:



    After most neophyte phreaks overcome their fascination with Metro codes and

WATS extenders, they will usually seek to explore other avenues in the vast

phone network.  Often they will come across references such as "simply dial KP

+ 2130801050 + ST for the Alliance teleconferencing system in LA.". Numbers

such as the one above were intended to be used with a blue box; this article

will explain the fundamental principles of the fine art of blue boxing.



Genesis:

____________________________________________________________



    In the beginning, all long distance calls were connected manually by

operators who passed on the called number verbally to other operators in

series.  This is because pulse (aka rotary) digits are created by causing

breaks in the DC current (see Basic Telcom V). Since long distance calls

require routing through various switching equipment and AC voice amplifiers,

pulse dialing cannot be used to send the destination number to the end local

office (CO).



    Eventually, the demand for faster and more efficient long distance (LD)

service caused Bell to make a multi-billion dollar decision. They had to create

a signaling system that could be used on the LD Network. Basically, they had

two options:



[1]     To send all the signaling and supervisory information (ie, ON & OFF

HOOK) over separate data links.  This type of signaling is referred to as

out-of-band signaling.

                           -or-

[2]      To send all the signaling information along with the conversation

using tones to represent digits.  This type of signaling is referred to as

in-band signaling.



    Being the cheap bastard that they naturally are, Bell chose the latter (and

cheaper) method -- IN-BAND signaling.  They eventually regretted this, though

(heh, heh)...



IN-BAND SIGNALING PRINCIPLES:

____________________________________________________________



    When a subscriber dials a telephone number, whether in rotary or touch-tone

(aka DTMF), the equipment in the CO interprets the digits and looks for a

convenient trunk line to send the call on its way.  In the case of a local

call, it will probably be sent via an inter-office trunk; otherwise, it will be

sent to a toll office (class 4 or higher -- see Telcom IV) to be processed.



    When trunks are not being used there is a 2600 Hz tone on the line; thus,

to find a free trunk, the CO equipment simply checks for the presence of 2600

Hz. If it doesn't find a free trunk the customer will receive a re-order signal



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(120 IPM busy signal) or the "all circuits are busy..." message.   If it does

find a free trunk it "seizes" it -- removing the 2600 Hz.  It then sends the

called number or a special routing code to the other end or toll office.



    The tones it uses to send this information are called multi-frequency (MF)

tones.  An MF tone consists of two tones from a set of six master tones which

are combined to produce 12 separate tones.  You can sometimes hear these tones

in the background when you make a call but they are usually filtered out so

your delicate ears cannot hear them. These are NOT the same as touch-tones.



    To notify the equipment at the far end of the trunk that it is about to

receive routing information, the originating end first sends a Key Pulse (KP)

tone.  At the end of sending the digits, #he originating end then sends a STart

(ST) tone. Thus to call 914-359-1517, the equipment would send KP + 9143591517

+ ST in MF tones.  When the customer hangs up, 2600 Hz is once again sent to

signify a disconnect to the distant end.



History:

____________________________________________________________



    In the November 1960 issue of The Bell System Technical Journal, an article

entitled "Signaling Systems for Control of Telephone Switching" was published.

This journal, which was sent to most university libraries, happened to contain

the actual MF tones used in signaling.  They appeared as follows:



Digit                Tones

-----                -----

  1              700 +  900 Hz

  2              700 + 1100 Hz

  3              900 + 1100 Hz

  4              700 + 1300 Hz

  5              900 + 1300 Hz

  6             1100 + 1300 Hz

  7              700 + 1500 Hz

  8              900 + 1500 Hz

  9             1100 + 1500 Hz

  0             1300 + 1500 Hz

  KP            1100 + 1700 Hz

  ST            1500 + 1700 Hz

  11  (*)        700 + 1700 Hz

  12  (*)        900 + 1700 Hz

  KP2 (*)       1300 + 1700 Hz



(*)  Used only on CCITT SYSTEM 5 for special international calling.



    Bell caught wind of blue boxing in 1961 when it caught a Washington state

college student using one.  They originally found out about blue boxes through

police raids and informants. In 1964, Bell Labs came up with scanning

equipment, which recorded all suspicious calls, to detect blue box usage.

These units were installed in CO's where major toll fraud existed. AT&T

Security would then listen to the tapes to see if any toll fraud was actually

committed.  Over 200 convictions resulted from the project. Surprisingly

enough, blue boxing is not solely limited to the electronics enthusiast; AT&T

has caught businessmen, film stars, doctors, lawyers, college students, high

school students and even a millionaire financier (Bernard Cornfeld) using the

device.  AT&T also said that nearly half of those that they catch are

businessmen.





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    Of course, phone phreaks have achieved an almost cult status. They have

also had their fair share of media.  In October 1971, Esquire published the

infamous "Secrets of the Little Blue Box" article which featured phreaks such

as Captain Crunch, who took his name from the cereal which one gave away

whistles that produced a perfect 2600 Hz pitch; Joe Engressia, the blind

phreak; and Mark Bernay, one of the nation's first and oldest phreaks. Others

such as Apple computer co-founders Steve Wozniak & Steve Jobs have also had

blue box backgrounds. 1971 also saw the publication of the first issue of YIPL,

the phone phreak newsletter, (now TAP) under the editorship of supreme yippie

Abbie Hoffman.



Usage:

____________________________________________________________



    To use a blue box, one would usually make a free call to any 800 number or

distant directory assistance (NPA-555-1212).  This, of course, is legitimate.

When the call is answered, one would then swiftly press the button that would

send 2600 Hz down the line.  This has the effect of making the distant CO

equipment think that the call was terminated and it leaves the trunk hanging.

Now, the user has about 10 seconds to enter in the telephone number he wished

to dial -- in MF, that is.  The CO equipment merely assumes that this came from

another office and it will happily process the call. Since there are no records

(except on toll fraud detection devices!) of these MF tones, the user is not

billed for the call.  When the user hangs up, the CO equipment simply records

that he hung up on a free call.



Detection:

____________________________________________________________



    Bell has had 20 years to work on detection devices; therefore, in this day

and age, they are rather well refined.  Basically, the detection device will

look for the presence of 2600 Hz where it does not belong.  It then records the

calling number and all activity after the 2600 Hz.  If you happen to be at a

fortress fone, though, and you make the call short, your chances of getting

caught are significantly reduced (see Telcom VI). Incidentally, there have been

rumors of certain test numbers (see Telcom II) that hook directly into trunks

thus avoiding the need for 2600 Hz and detection!



    Another way that Bell catches boxers is to examine the CAMA (Centralized

Automatic Message Accounting) tapes. When you make a call, your number, the

called number, and time of day are all recorded.  The same thing happens when

you hang up.  This tape is then processed for billing purposes. Normally, all

free calls are ignored. But Bell can program the billing equipment to make note

of lengthy calls to directory assistance.  They can then put a pen register

(aka DNR) on the line or an actual full-blown tap.  This detection can be

avoided by making short-haul (aka local) calls to box off of.



    It is interesting to note that NPA+555-1212 originally did not return

answer supervision.  Thus the calls were not recorded on the AMA/CAMA tapes.

AT&T changed this though for "traffic studies!"



CCIS:

____________________________________________________________



    Besides detection devices, Bell has begun to gradually redesign the network

using out-of-band signaling.  This is known as Common Channel Inter-office

Signaling (CCIS).  Since this signaling method sends all the signaling

information over separate data lines, blue boxing is impossible under it.



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    While being implemented gradually, this multi-billion dollar project is

still strangling the fine art of blue boxing. Of course until the project is

totally complete, boxing will still be possible. It will become progressively

harder to find places to box off of, though.  In areas with CCIS, one must find

a directory assistance office that doesn't have CCIS yet.  Area codes in Canada

and predominately rural states are the best bets.  WATS numbers terminating in

non-CCIS cities are also good prospects.



Pink Noise:

____________________________________________________________



    Another way that may help to avoid  detection is too add some "pink noise"

to the 2600 Hz tone. Since 2600 Hz tones can be simulated in speech, the

detection equipment must be careful not to misinterpret speech as a disconnect

signal.  Thus a virtually pure 2600 Hz tone is required for disconnect.



    Keeping this in mind, the 2600 Hz detection equipment is also probably

looking for pure 2600 Hz or else is would be triggered every time someone hit

that note (highest E on a piano =2637 Hz).  This is also the reason that the

2600 Hz tone must be sent rapidly; sometimes, it won't work when the  operator

is saying "Hello, hello."  It is feasible to send some "pink noise" along with

the 2600 Hz.  Most of this energy should be above 3000 Hz.  The pink noise

won't make it into the toll network (where we want our pure 2600 Hz to hit) but

it should make it past the local CO and thus the fraud detectors.



Construction:

____________________________________________________________



    While step-by-step details for the construction of a blue box is beyond the

scope of this tutorial, it is worthwhile to mention some of the details.



    First there are some alternatives but they are not as good as an actual

blue box.  Many computers are capable of generating MF tones. Thus, your local

phriendly software pirate should have a program compatible for your computer.



    However, it is highly advisable not to box from home as stated in The Ten

Commandments (as interpreted for phreaks by Fred Steinbeck -- TAP #86).



I.     Box thou not over thine home telephone wires, for those who doest must

surely bring the full wrath of the Chief Special Agent down upon thy heads.



    Another alternative that has a moderate success rate involves recording the

tones from a phriend with a box or computer onto a cassette tape.  They can

then be used at a fortress.



    As for actual construction techniques, TAP has devoted many issues to blue

boxing.  Basically, a blue box is merely a device capable of generating two

different tones simultaneously. There are two basic construction methods that I

will outline below for the electronics hobbyist.



    The first involves the use of two 555 timer chips (or a 556 -- i.e., two

555's in one chip).  It offers excellent frequency and voltage stability.

Also, it does not need a diode matrix keypad but used double-pole switches

instead.  Schematics for this type of box can be found in TAP issue #29.



    The other common box makes use of two Intersil 8038CC Function Generators.

It does require a diode matrix keypad though, potentiometers, an LM-100 voltage



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regulator, a 741 Op-amp, and a handful of other parts.  The schematics for this

type of blue box can be found in TAP #26. Both designs draw about 20 ma of

current.



    Also, most blue boxes use telephone earpieces (with the varistor removed)

for speakers.  These can be easily liberated from fortress fones with a small

coping saw.



    Usually, the hardest part about building a blue box is the calibration. A

frequency counter is a must and an oscilloscope won't hurt.



    Some boxes also take timing into account.  It is feasible on the ESS

systems that they check to see if the digits are of uniform length.  If they

aren't, they are probably from a blue box and a trouble card may be dropped.

With this in mind, the Bell standard for MF pulses and interdigit intervals is

around 75 ms.  It varies with the equipment used since ESS can handle higher

speeds and doesn't need interdigit intervals.



Applications:

____________________________________________________________



    Besides dialing normal calls free, i.e., KP+NPA+NNX+XXXX+ST, blue boxes

offer the entire network for exploration.  Emergency break-ins, service

monitoring (aka taps), stacking tandems (the art of busying out all trunks

between two points), re-routing calls, conference calls, and much, much more

... Inward Operator City Codes



         Usually, the INWARD operator for an area is simply KP + NPA + 121 +

ST.  In some area codes, though, there are several large cities and thus



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several inwards.  To find the inward for a specific city, you would say "916

756, operator route, please" to the R&R operator who will then tell you "916

plus 001 plus."  This means that KP+ 916 + 001 + 121 + ST will get you an

inward for Sacramento, CA (916-756).



... City names



         If you want to know the city that corresponds to an area code and

exchange, you simply tell the R&R, "Place name, 914 390, please." In this

example, the R&R operator will respond with "White Plains, NY."



... International Directory Assistance



         If you need a directory route for London, you could say

"International, London, England.  TSPS directory route, please."  The R&R

operator will respond with "Directory to London, England. Country code 44 plus

1 plus 986 plus 3611." Therefore to get a DA operator in London, you would

route yourself to an international sender and KP + 04419863611 + ST.



... Country & City codes



         If you need to know the country and city code for an international

number you can say "International, Sydney, Australia, TSPS numbers route,

please" and get "Country code 61 plus 2."



... International Inwards Routes



         To get routing codes for international inwards say "International,

London, England, TSPS inward route, please." The R&R Operator will respond with

"Country code 44 plus 121."



    Finally, to get language assistance for completing a foreign call you can

tell the foreign inward, "United States calling.  Language assistance in

completing a call to (called party) at (called number)."



151      --  Overseas incoming (212 +& 914+)

160-XX0  --  Various Overseas Operators

161      --  Trouble reporting operator (defunct)

181      --  Coin Refund Operator

18X      --  Overseas senders



    To make an international call, one would KP + 011 + 0CC + ST where CC is

the country code.  This will route you to the appropriate overseas sender. You

will then receive a 480 Hz dial tone.  Here you enter KP + 0CC + city code +

local number + ST and the call is on its way.



    Country codes can be either 1, 2, or 3 digits but they must be padded for

three digits to create a pseudo-country code with extra zero's if necessary.

For example, England, country code 44, becomes 044.



    To see which international sender a certain country (lets use French

Guiana, country code 594, for example) goes through, you can dial KP + 011 +

594 + ST, wait for the Proceed to Send tone then KP + 000 + 0000 + ST and you

will receive a recording saying which ISC (International Switching Center) it

is.  For the example it will say, "This is the international switching center

in Pittsburg, PA -- This is a recording - 4121."  You can actually route calls

to certain senders yourself (KP + NPA + 18X + ST) but it is better off not to

since it may look suspicious if a call is sent through a sender that it



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shouldn't go through.  Here are the senders:



182  -- White Plains, NY

183  -- New York, NY

184  -- Pittsburg, PA

185  -- Orlando, FL

186  -- Oakland, CA

187  -- Denver, CO

188  -- New York, NY



    Also, there tends to be alot of talk about the Code 11, Code 12, KP2, STP,

ST3P, & ST2P keys.  While they do exist the blue boxer need not concern himself

with them.  The first three are used on CCITT System 5.  This is the signaling

system that the International Senders use to send information to other

countries.  These codes are usually added automatically just like the language

assistance digit [which distinguishes operator (or blue box) dialed calls from

customer dialed calls].  The STP, ST3P, & ST2P tones are used when equipment is

communicating with the TSPS.  These also are automatically added when needed in

most cases.



[see Telcom III for more on International Switching Centers (ISC)]



11XXX   -- miscellaneous operators

11501   -- universal cordboard operator

11511   -- conference operator

11521   -- mobile operator

11531   -- marine operator

11541   -- LD incoming switchboard

11551   -- leave word for time & charges (neat stuff)

11561   -- same as 11551 but for hotel/motels

11571   -- overseas operators (language assistance)



    The 11XXX series is interesting scanning material.



Miscellaneous Routing Codes :

____________________________________________________________



    Alliance Teleconferencing has several numbers, a few of which are listed

below:



KP + 213 080 XXXX + ST

KP + 305 025 XXXX + ST

KP + 312 001 XXXX + ST

XXXX = 1050, 1100, or a few others



    Also, at KP + 317 009 + ST there is a MF tone checker.  After the

beep-kerclunk, dial in KP + 999 1234567 890 + ST and it will repeat the digits

that you pulsed if they are of the right frequency.



Tandem Scanning:

____________________________________________________________



    To find all sorts of interesting things, you must look.  Begin scanning

three digit codes in your area (i.e., KP + 000 + ST, KP + 001 + ST, etc.). Keep

track of all of your results. Sometimes you must probe things, send additional

digits and see what happens, send touch-tone, send it 2600 Hz, rip it apart.

You never know, you may run into something phun, like a computer that checks CC

numbers.



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    Incidentally, in some exchange you can dial inwards and other box codes

directly!  For example, 914-121-1111 will get you a NY inward. The only problem

is that a 0 or 1 as the first digit of the exchange is usually *prohibited in

customer dialing. Somebody may have "accidentally" changed this screening code

on your ESS's computer, though -- you never know and it can't hurt to try.

WATS translation numbers also take up some of the 0XX & 1XX codes.



    Finally, certain tones on the blue box can also be used for other purposes.

An MF "2" corresponds to COIN COLLECT while "KP" corresponds to COIN RETURN.

Thus every blue box is also a green box (see Telcom VI).



Coming soon:



Telcom VIII will deal with cordless phones, mobile phones, and other neat

things.



Be careful and have phun,



*****BIOC

*=$=*Agent

*****003













































































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The Mark Tabas encounter series presents:



         -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=

                         Better Homes and Blue Boxing



                                    Part I



                              Theory of Operation

         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-



  To quote Karl Marx, blue boxing has always been the most noble form of

phreaking. As opposed to such things as using an MCI code to make a free fone

call, which is merely mindless pseudo-phreaking, blue boxing is actual

interaction with the Bell System toll network. It is likewise advisable to be

more cautious when blue boxing, but the careful phreak will not be caught,

regardless of what type of switching system he is under.



  In this part, I will explain how and why blue boxing works, as well as where.

In later parts, I will give more practical information for blue boxing and

routing information.



  To begin with, blue boxing is simply communicating with trunks. Trunks must

not be confused with subscriber lines (or "customer loops") which are standard

telefone lines. Trunks are those lines that connect central offices. Now, when

trunks are not in use (i.e., idle or "on-hook" state) they have 2600Hz applied

to them. If they are two-way trunks, there is 2600Hz in both directions. When a

trunk IS in use (busy or "off-hook" state"), the 2600Hz is removed from the

side that is off-hook. The 2600Hz is therefore known as a supervisory signal,

because it indicates the status of a trunk; on hook (tone) or off-hook (no

tone). Note also that 2600Hz denoted SF (single frequency) signalling and is

"in-band." This is very important. "In-band" means that is is within the band

of frequencies that may be transmitted over normal telefone lines. Other SF

signals, such as 3700Hz are used also. However, they cannot be carried over the

telefone network normally (they are "out-of-band") and are therefore not able

to be taken advantage of as 2600Hz is.



  Back to trunks. Let's take a hypothetical phone call. You pick up your fone

and dial 1+806-258-1234 (your good friend in Armarillo, Texas). For ease, we'll

assume that you are on #5 Crossbar switching and not in the 806 area. Your

central office (CO) would recognize that 806 is a foreign NPA, so it would

route the call to the toll centre that serves you. [For the sake of accuracy

here, and for the more experienced readers, note that the CO in question is a

class 5 with LAMA that uses out-of-band SF supervisory signalling]. Depending

on where you are in the country, the call would leave your toll centre (on more

trunks) to another toll centre, or office of higher "rank". Then it would be

routed to central office 806-258 eventually and the call would be completed.

Illustration:



A---CO1-------TC1------TC2----CO2----B



A=you

CO1=your central office

TC1=your toll office.

TC2=toll office in Amarillo.

CO2=806-258 central office.

B=your friend (806-258-1234)



  In this situation it would be realistic to say that CO2 uses SF in-band



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(2600Hz) signalling, while all the others use out-of-band signalling (3700Hz).

If you don't understand this, don't worry too much.  I am pointing this out

merely for the sake of accuracy. The point is that while you are connected to

806-258-1234, all those trunks from YOUR central office (CO1) to the 806-258

central office (CO2) do *NOT* have 2600Hz on them, indicating to the Bell

equipment that a call is in progress and the trunks are in use.



  Now let's say you're tired of talking to your friend in Amarillo

(806-258-1234) so you send a 2600Hz down the line. This tone travels down the

line to your friend's central office (CO2) where it is detected.  However, that

CO thinks that the 2600Hz is originating from Bell equipment, indicating to it

that you've hung up, and thus the trunks are once again idle (with 2600Hz

present on them). But actually, you have not hung up, you have fooled the

equipment at your friend's CO into thinking you have. Thus,it disconnects him

and resets the equipment to prepare for the next call. All this happens very

quickly (300-800ms for step-by-step equipment and 150-400ms for other

equipment).



  When you stop sending 2600Hz (after about a second), the equipment thinks

that another call is coming towards it (e.g. it thinks the far end has come

"off-hook" since the tone has stopped. It could be thought of as a toggle

switch: tone --> on hook, no tone -->off hook. Now that you've stopped sending

2600Hz, several things happen:



1) A trunk is seized.



2) A "wink" is sent to the CALLING end from the CALLED end indicating that the

CALLED end (trunk) is not ready to receive digits yet.



3) A register is found and attached to the CALLED end of the trunk within about

two seconds (max).



4) A start-dial signal is sent to the CALLING end from the CALLED end

indicating that the CALLED end is ready to receive digits.



Now, all of this is pretty much transparent to the blue boxer. All he really

hears when these four things happen is a <beep><kerchunk>. So, seizure of a

trunk would go something like this:



1> Send a 2600Hz

2> Terminate 2600Hz after 1-2 secs.

3> [beep][kerchunk]



  Once this happens, you are connected to a tandem that is ready to obey your

every command. The next step is to send signalling information in order to

place your call. For this you must simulate the signalling used by operators

and automatic toll-dialing equipment for use on trunks. There are mainly two

systems, DP and MF.  However, DP went out with the dinosaur , so I'll only

discuss MF signalling. MF (multi-frequency) signalling is the signalling used

by the majority of the inter- and intra-lata network. It is also used in

international dialing known as the CCITT no.5 system.



  MF signalling consists of 7 frequencies, beginning with 700Hz and separated

by 200Hz. A different set of two of the 7 frequencies represent the digits 0

thru 9, plus an additional 5 special keys. The frequencies and uses are as

follows:



Frequencies (Hz)  Domestic    Int'l



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--------------------------------------

 700+900             1          1

 700+1100            2          2

 900+1100            3          3

 700+1300            4          4

 900+1300            5          5

1100+1300            6          6

 700+1500            7          7

 900+1500            8          8

1100+1500            9          9

1300+1500            0          0

 700+1700           ST3p       Code 11

 900+1700           STp        Code 12

1100+1700           KP         KP1

1300+1700           ST2p       KP2

1500+1700           ST         ST



  The timing of all the MF signals is a nominal 60ms, except for KP, which

should have a duration of 100ms. There should also be a 60ms silent period

between digits. This is very flexible, however, and most Bell equipment will

accept outrageous timings.



  In addition to the standard uses listed above, MF pulsing also has expanded

usages known as "expanded inband signalling" that include such things as coin

collect, coin return, ringback, operator attached, and operator released. KP2,

code 11, and code 12 and the ST_ps (STart "primes") all have special uses which

will be mentioned only briefly here.



  To complete a call using a blue box, once seizure of a trunk has been

accomplished by sending 2600Hz and pausing for the <beep><kerchunk>, one must

first send a KP. This readies the register for the digits that follow.  For a

standard domestic call, the KP would be followed by either 7 digits (if the

call were in the same NPA as the seized trunk) or 10 digits (if the call were

not in the same NPA as the seized trunk). [Exactly like dialing a normal fone

call]. Following either the KP and 7 or 10 digits, a STart is sent to signify

that no more digits follow. Example of a complete call:



1> Dial 1-806-258-1234

2> wait for a call-progress indication (such as ring, busy, recording, etc.)

3> Send 2600Hz for about 1 second.

4> Wait for about 2 seconds while a trunk is seized.

5> Send KP+305+994+9966+ST



  The call will then connect if every-thing was done properly. Note that if a

call to an 806 number were being placed in the same situation, the area code

would be omitted and only KP+ seven digits+ST would be sent.



  Code 11 and code 12 are used in international calling to request certain

types of operators. KP2 is used in international calling to route a call other

than by way of the normal route, whether for economic or equipment reasons.



  STp, ST2p, and ST3p (prime, two prime, and three prime) are used in TSPS

signalling to indicate calling type of call (such as coin-direct dialed).



   This has been Part I of Better Homes and Blue Boxing. I hope you enjoyed and

learned from it. If you have any questions, comments, threats or insults,

please fell free to drop me a line. If you have noticed any errors in this text

(yes, it does happen), please let me know and perhaps a correction will be in



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order.  Part II will deal mainly with more advanced principles of blue boxing,

as well as routings and operators.



  Note 1: other highly trunkable areas include: 816,305,813,609,205. I

personally have excellent luck boxing off of 609-953-0000. Try that if you have

any trouble.











































































































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         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

                         Better Homes and Blue Boxing



                                    Part II



                            Practical Applications

         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-



(It is assumed that the reader has read and understood Part I of this series).



  The essential purpose of blue boxing in the beginning was merely to receive

toll services free of charge. Though this can still be done, blue boxing has

essentially outlived its usefulness in this area. Modern day "extenders" and

long distance services provide a safer and easier way to make free fone calls.

However, you can do things with a blue box that just can't be done with

anything else. For ordinary toll-fraud, a blue box is impractical for the

following reasons:



1. Clumsy equipment required (blue box or equivalent)

2. Most boxed calls must be made through an extender. Not for safety reasons,

but for reasons I'll explain later.

3. Connections are often sacrificed because considerable distances must be

dialed to cross a seizable trunk, in addition to awkward routing.



  As stated in reason #2, boxed calls are usually made through an extender.

This is for billing reasons. If you recall from Part i, 2600Hz is used as a

"supervisory" signal. That is, it signals the status of a trunk--"on-hook" or

"off-hook." When you seize a trunk (by briefly sending 2600Hz), your end (the

CALLING end) goes on hook for the duration of the 2600Hz and then goes off-hook

once again when the 2600Hz is terminated.  The CALLED end recognizes that a

call is on the way and attaches a register, which interprets the digits which

are to be sent. Now, understand that even though your end has come off-hook (no

2600Hz present), the other end is still on-hook. You may wonder then, why, if

the other end (the CALLED end) is still on-hook, there is no 2600Hz coming the

other way on the trunk, when there should be. This is correct.  2600Hz *IS*

present on the trunk when you seize it and afterwards, but you cannot hear it

because of a Band Elimination Filter (BEF) at your central office.



  Back to the problem. Remember that when you seize a trunk, 2600Hz is indeed

coming the other way on the trunk because the CALLED end is still on-hook, but

you don't actually hear it because of a filter. However, the Bell equipment

knows it's there (they can "hear" it). The presence of the 2600Hz is telling

the billing equipment that your call has not yet been completed (i.e., the

CALLED end is still on-hook). When finally you do connect with your boxed call,

the 2600Hz from the called end terminates.  This tells the billing equipment

that someone picked up the fone at the CALLED end and you should begin to be

billed. So you do start to get billed, but for the call to the trunk, NOT the

boxed call. Your billing equipment thinks that you've connected with the number

you used to seize the trunk. Illustration:



1. You call 1+806-258-2222 (directly)

2. Status of trunks:



<----------------------------------->

(You)                    806-258-2222

No 2600Hz-------> <------------2600Hz



  When you seize a trunk (before the number you called answers) there is no



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affect on your billing equipment.  It simply thinks that you're still waiting

for the call to complete (the CALLED end is still on-hook; it is ringing, busy,

going to recorder or intercept operator.



  Now, let's say that you've seized a trunk (806-258-2222) and for example,

KP+314+949+1705+ST. The call is routed from the tandem you seized to:

314-949-1705. Illustration:



<------------------>O<--------------->

(You)              806         314-949

    tandem

No 2600Hz----------> <----------2600Hz



  Note that the entire path towards the right (the CALLED end) has no 2600Hz

present and is therefore "off-hook." The entire path towards the left (the

CALLING end) does have 2600Hz present on it, indicating that the CALLED end has

not picked up (or come "off-hook"). When 314-949-1705 answers, "answer

supervision" is given and the 2600Hz towards the left (the CALLING end)

terminates. This tells your billing equipment, which thinks that you're still

waiting to be connected with 806-258-2222, that you've finally connected.

Billing then begins to 806-258-2222. Not exactly an auspicious beginning for an

aspiring young phone phreak.



  To avoid this, several actions may be taken. As previously mentioned, one may

avoid being charged for the number called to seize a trunk by using an extender

(in which case the extender will get billed). In some areas, boxing may be

accomplished using an 800 number, generally in the format of 800-858-xxxx (many

Amarillo numbers) or 800-NN2-xxxx (special intra-state class in-WATS numbers).

However, boxing off of 800 numbers is impossible in many areas. In my area,

Denver, I am served by #1A ESS and it is impossible for me to box off of any

800 number.



  Years ago, in the early days of blue boxing (before my time), phreaks often

used directory assistance to box off of because they were "free" long distance

calls. However, because of competitive long distance companies, directory

assistance surcharges are now $0.50 in many areas. It is additionally advised

that directory assistance numbers not be used to box from because of the

following:



  Average DA calls last under 2 minutes. When you box a call, chances are that

it will last considerably longer. Thus, the Bell billing equipment will make a

note of calls to directory assistance that last a long time. A call to a

directory assistant lasting for 4 hours and 17 minutes may appear somewhat

suspicious.



  Although the date, time, and length of a DA call do not appear on the bill,

it is recorded on AMA tape and will trip a trouble report if it were to last

too long. This is how most phreaks were discovered in the old days. Also,

sometimes too many calls lasting too long to one 800 number may raise a few

eyebrows at the local security office.



  Assuming you can complete a blue box call, the following are listed routings

for various Bell internal operators.  These are in the format of KP+NPA+

special routing+1X1+ST, which I will explain later. The 1X1 is the actual

operator routing, and NPA and NPA+ special routing are used for out-of-area

code calls and out-of-area code calls requiring special routing, respectively.



KP+101+ST ...... Toll test board.



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KP+121+ST ...... Inward Operator.

KP+131+ST ...... Directory assistance.

KP+141+ST ...... was rate & route. Now only works in 312, 815, 717, and a few

others. It has been replaced with a universal rate & route number

800+141+1212.

KP+151+ST ...... Overseas completion operator (inbound). Works only in certain

NPAs, such as 303.

KP+181+ST ...... In some areas, toll station for small towns.



  Thus, if you seize a trunk in 806 NPA and wanted an inward (in 806), then you

would dial KP+121+ST. If you wanted a 312 inward and were dialing on an 806

trunk, an area code would be required.  Thus, you would dial KP+312+121+ST.

Finally, some places in the network require special routing, in addition to an

area code. An example is Franklin Park, Ill. It requires a special routing of

032. For this, you would dial KP+312+032+121+ST for a Franklin Park inward

operator.



  Special routings are in the format of 0XX. They are used primarily for load

balance, so that traffic flow may be evenly distributed. About half of the

exchanges in the network require special routing. Note that special routings

are NEVER EVER EVER used to dial normal telephone numbers, only operators.



  Operator functions:



TOLL TEST BOARD- Generally a cordboard position that assists in trunk testing.

They are not used by operators, only switchmen.



INWARD- Assists the normal TSPS (0+) operator in completing calls out of the

TSPS's area. Also, inwards perform emergency interrupts when the number to be

interrupted is out of the area code of the original (TSPS) operator. For

example, a 303 operator has a customer that needs an emergency interrupt on

215-647-6969. The 303 operator gets the routing for the inward that covers

215-647, since she cannot do the interrupt herself. The routing is found to be

only 215+ (no special routing required). So, the 303 operator keys

KP+215+121+ST. An inward answers and the 303 says to her, "Inward, this is

Denver. I need an emergency interrupt on 215-647-6969. My customer's name is

Mark Tabas." The inward will then do the interrupt (off the line, of course).

If the number to be interrupted had required special routing, such as, say,

312-456-1234 (spec routing 032), then the 303 operator would dial

KP+312+032+121+ST for the inward to do that interrupt.



DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE- These are the normal NPA+555+1212 operators that assist

customers with obtaining telefone directory listings. Not much toll-fraud

potential here, except maybe $0.50.



RATE AND ROUTE-   These operators are reached by dialing KP+800+141+1212+ST.

They assist normal (TSPS) operators with rates and routings (thus the name).

The only uses I typically have for them are the following:



 1. Routing-

    Information-    In the above example, when the 303 operator needed to dial

an inward that served 215-647, she needed to know if any special routing was

required and, if so, what it was. Assuming she would use rate and route, she

would dial them and say nicely, "Operator's route, please, for 215-647." Rate &

route would respond with "215 plus."  This means that the operator would dial

KP+215+121+ST to reach the inward that serves 215-647.  If there were special

routing required, such as in 312-456, rate & route would respond with "312 plus

032 plus." In that case, the operator would dial KP+312+032+ST for the inward



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that serves 312-456.



  It is good practice to ask for "operator's route" specifically, as there are

also "numbers route" and "directory routes." If you do not specifically ask for

operator's route, rate & route will generally assume that is what you want

anyway.



"Numbers"   route refers to overseas calls. Example, you want to know how to

reach a number in Geneva, Switzerland (and you already have the number). You

would call routing and say "Numbers route, please, Geneva, Switzerland." The

operator would respond with: "Mark 41+22. 011+041+ST (plus) 041+22" The "Mark

41+22" has to do with billing, so disregard it. The 011+041 is access to the

overseas gateway (to be discussed in Part iii) and the 041+ 22+ is the routing

for Geneva from the overseas sender.



"Directory" routings are for directory assistance overseas. Example: you want a

DA in Rome, Italy. You would call rate & route and say, "Directory routing

please, for Rome, Italy." They would respond with "011+039+ST (plus) 039+1108

STart." As in the previous example, the 011+039 is access to the overseas

gateway. The 039+1108 is a directory assistant in Rome.



 2. Nameplace information-  Rate & Route will give you the location of an NPA+

exchange. Example: "Nameplace please, for 215-648." The operator would respond

with "Paoli, Pennsylvania." This isn't especially useful, since you can get the

same information (legally) by dialing 0, but using rate & route is often much

faster and it avoids having to hang up when you are already on a trunk.



*NOTE*   On Rate & Route: As a blue boxer, always ask for "IOTC" routings.

(e.g., "IOTC operator's route", "IOTC numbers route", etc.) This tells them

that you want cordboard-type routings, not TSPS, because a blue boxer is

actually just a cordboard position (that Bell doesn't know about).



OVERSEAS COMPLETION

OPERATOR (inbound)-  These operators (KP+151+ST) assist in  the completion of

calls coming in to the United States from overseas. There are KP+151+ST

operators only in a few NPAs in the country (namely 303). To use one, you would

seize a trunk and dial KP+303+151+ST. Then you would tell the operator, for

example, "This is Bangladesh calling. I need U.S.  number 215-561-0562 please."

[in a broken Indian accent]. She would connect you, and the bill would be sent

to Bangladesh (where I've been billing my KP+151+ST calls for two years).



Other internal Bell Operators.



KP+11501+ST ...... universal operator

KP+11511+ST ...... conference op

KP+11521+ST ...... mobile op

KP+11531+ST ...... marine op

KP+11541+ST ...... long distance terminal

KP+11551+ST ...... time & charges op

KP+11561+ST ...... hotel/motel op

KP+11571+ST ...... overseas (outbound) op



  These 115X1 operators are identical in routing to the 1X1 operators listed

previously, with one exception. If special routing is required (0XX), then the

trailing 1 is left off.



Examples:





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A 312 universal op ... KP+312+11501+ST

A Franklin Park (312-456) universal op (special routing 032 required)........

KP+312+032+1150+ST  [The trailing 1 of 11501 is left off].



Purposes of 115X1 operators.



UNIVERSAL- Used for collect/callback calls to coin stations.



CONFERENCE- This is a cordboard conference operator who will set up a

conference for a customer on a manual operation basis.



MOBILE- Assists in completion of calls to mobile (IMTS) type telefones.



MARINE- Assists in completion of calls to ocean going vessels.



LONG DISTANCE TERMINAL- Now obsolete.Was used for completion of long distance

calls.



TIME & CHARGES- Will give exact costs of calls. Used to time calls and inform

customer of exactly how much it cost.



HOTEL/MOTEL- Handles calls to/from hotels and motels.



OVERSEAS

COMPLETION (outbound)- assists in completion of calls to overseas points. Only

works in some, if any NPAs, because overseas assistance has been centralized to

IOCC (covered in Part III).



  Note that all KP+1X1+ST and KP+115X1+ST operators automatically assume that

you are a TSPS or cordboard operator assisting a customer with a call. DO NOT

DO ANYTHING TO JEOPARDIZE THIS! If you do not know what to do, don't call these

operators! Find out what to do first.



  This concludes Part II. There is one final part in which I will explain

overseas dialing, IOCC (International Overseas Completion Centre), RQS

(Rate/Quote System), and some basic scanning.















































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         =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

                         Better Homes and Blue Boxing



                                   Part III



                              Advanced Signalling

=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-



(It is assumed that the reader has read and understood parts i & ii before

proceeding to this part).



  In Parts I & II, I covered basic theory and domestic signalling and

operators. In this part I will explain overseas direct boxing, the IOCC, the

RQS, and some basic scanning methods.



Overseas Direct Boxing.



  Calling outside of the United States and Canada is accomplished by using an

"overseas gateway." There are 7 over-seas gateways in the Bell System, and each

one is designated to serve a certain region of the world. To initiate an

overseas call, one must first access the gateway that the call is to be sent

on. To do this automatically, decide which country you are calling and find its

country code.  Then, pad it to the left with zeros as required so it is three

digits. [Add 1, 2, or 3 zeros as required].



Examples:



Luxembourg (352) is 352 (stays the same)

Spain (34)   becomes 034 (1 zero added)

U.S.S.R. (7) becomes 007 (2 zeros added)



  Next, seize a trunk and dial KP+011+ CC+ST. Note that CC is the three digit

padded country code that you just determined by the above method. [For

Luxembourg, dial KP+011+352+ST, Spain KP+011+034+ST, and the U.S.S.R. KP+011+

007+ST]. This is done to route you to the appropriate overseas gateway that

handles the country you are dialing. Even though every gateway will allow you

to dial every dialable country, it is good practice to use the gateway that is

designated for the country you are calling.



  After dialing KP+011+CC+ST (as CC is defined above) you should be connected

to an overseas gateway. It will acknowledge by sending a wink (which is audible

as a <beep><kerchink> and a dial tone. Once you receive international dial

tone, you may route your call one of two ways: a) as an operator-originated

call, or b) as a customer-originated call. To go as a operator-originated call,

key KP+ country code (NOT padded with zeros)+ city code+number+ST. You will

then be connected, providing the country you are calling can receive

direct-dialed calls. The U.S.S.R. is an example of a country that cannot.



Example of a boxed int'l call:



To make a call to the Pope (Rome, Italy), first obtain the country code, which

is 39. Pad it with zeros so that it is 039. Seize a trunk and dial

KP+011+039+ST. Wait for sender dial tone and then dial KP+39+6+6982+ST.  39 is

the country code, 6 is the city code, and 6982 is the Pope's number in Rome. To

go as an operator-originated call, simply place a zero in front of the country

code when dialing on the gateway. Thus, KP+0+39+6+6982+ST would be dialed at

sender dial tone. Routing your call as operator-originated does not affect much

unless you are dialing an operator in a foreign country



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  To dial an operator in a foreign country, you must first obtain the operator

routing from rate & route for that country. Dial rate & route and if you're

trying to get an operator in Yugoslavia, say nicely, "IOTC Operator's route,

please, for Yugoslavia." [In larger countries it may be necessary to specify a

city].  Rate & route will respond with, "38 plus 11029". So, dial your overseas

gateway, KP+011+038+ST, wait for sender dial tone, and key KP+0+38+11029+ST.

You should then get an operator in Yugoslavia. Note that you must prefix the

country code on the sender with a 0 because presumably only an operator here

can dial an operator in a foreign country.



  When you dial KP+011+CC+ST for an overseas gateway, it is translated to a

3-digit sender code of the format 18X, depending on which sender is designated

to handle the country you are dialing. The overseas gateways and their 3-digit

codes are listed below.



182 ..... White Plains, NY

183 ..... New York, NY

184 ..... Pittsburg, PA

185 ..... Orlando, FL

186 ..... Oakland, CA

187 ..... Denver, CO

188 ..... New York, NY



  Dialing KP+182+ST would get you the sender in White Plains, and KP+183+ST

would get the sender in NYC, etc., but the KP+011+CC+ST is highly suggested (as

previously mentioned). To find out what sender you were routed to after dialing

KP+011+CC+ST, dial (at int'l dial tone): KP+0000000+ST.



  If you have difficulty in reaching a sender, call rate and route and ask for

a numbers route for the country you're dialing. Sometimes, KP+011+ padded

country code+ST will not work.  I have found this in many 3-digit country

codes. Luxembourg, country code 352, for example, should be KP+011+352+ST

theoretically. But it is not. In this case, dial KP+011+ 003+ST for the

overseas gateway. If you have trouble, try dialing KP+00+ first digit of

country code+ST, or call rate The IOCC.



  Sometimes when you call rate and route and ask for an "IOTC numbers route" or

"IOTC operators route" for a foreign country, you will get something like

"160+700" (as in the case of the Soviet Union). This means that the country is

not dialable directly and must be handled through the International Overseas

Completion Centre (IOCC). For an IOCC routing, pad the country code to the

RIGHT with zeros until it is 3 digits. Then KP+160 is dialed, plus the padded

country code, plus ST.  Examples:



The U.S.S.R. (7) ...... KP+160+700+ST

Japan (81) ............ KP+160+810+ST

Uraguay (598) ......... KP+160+598+ST



  You will then be routed to the IOCC in Pittsburg, PA, who will ask for

country, city, and number being dialed.  Many times they will ask for a

ringback [thanks to Telenet Bob] so have a loop ready. They will then place the

call and call you back (or sometimes put you through directly). Some calls,

such as to Moscow, take several hours.



The Rate Quote System (RQS).



  The RQS is the operator's rate/quote system. It is a computer used by TSPS



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(0+) operators to get rate and route information without having to dial the

rate and route operator. In Part ii, I discussed getting an inward routing for

dialing-assistance and emergency interrupts from the rate and route operators

(KP+800+141+1212+ST). The same information is available from RQS. Say you want

the inward routing for 305-994. You would seize a trunk and dial KP+009+ST (to

access the RQS).  Sometimes, if you seize a trunk in an NPA not equipped with

RQS, you need to dial an NPA that is equipped with RQS first, such as 303.

Anyway, after you dial KP+009+ST or KP+303+009+ST, you will receive a wink

(<beep><kerchink>) and then RQS dial tone. At RQS dial tone, for an inward

routing for 305-994 you would dial KP+06+305+994+ST. That is,

KP+06+NPA+exchange+ST. RQS will respond with "305 plus 033 plus". This means

you would dial KP+305+033+121+ST for an inward that services 305-994.  If no

special routing were required, RQS would have responded with "305 plus" and you

would simply dial: KP+305+121+ST for an inward.



  Another RQS feature is the echo feature. You can use it to test your blue

box. Dial RQS (KP+009+ST) and then key KP+07+1234567890+ST. RQS will respond

with voice identification of the digits it recognized, between the KP+07 and

ST.



  RQS can also be used for rates and directory routings, but those are seldom

needed, so they have been omitted here.



Simple Scanning.



  If you're interested in scanning, try dialing on a trunk, routings in the

format of KP+11XX1+ST. Begin with 11001 and scan to 11991. There are lots of

interesting things to be found there, as Doctor Who (413 area) can tell you.

Those 11XX1 routings can also be prefixed with an NPA, so if you want to scan

area code 212, dial KP+212+ 11XX1+ST.



  There, now you know as much about blue boxing as most phreaks. If you read

and understand the material, and put aside preconceived ideas of what blue

boxing is that you may have acquired from inexperienced people or other

bulletin boards, you should be well on you way to an enlightening career in

blue boxing. If you follow the guidelines in Part I to box, you should have no

problem with the fone company. Comments made by "phreaks" on bulletin boards

that proclaim "tracing" of blue boxers are nonsense and should be ignored

(except for a passing chuckle).



NOTE 1: CCIS and the downfall of blue boxing.



CCIS stands for Common Channel Inter-office Signalling. It is a signalling

method used between electronic switching systems that eminiates the use of

2600Hz and 3700Hz supervisory signals, and MF pulsing. This is why many places

cannot be boxed off of; they employ CCIS, or out-of-band signalling, which will

not respond to any tones that you generate on the line. Eventually, all

existing toll equipment will be upgraded or replaced with CCIS or T-carrier. In

this case, we'll all be boxing with microwave dishes. Until then (about 1995 by

current BOC/AT&T estimates), have fun!



If you have ANY questions about this text, please feel free to drop me a line.

I will respond to all mail, messages, etc. Insults are also welcomed. And if

you discover anything interesting scanning, be sure to let me know.



Mark Tabas

$LOD$





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This text was prepared in full by Mark Tabas for:



K.A.O.S.

Philadelphia, PA.

[215-465-3593].



Any sysop may freely download this text and use it on his/her BBS, provided

that none of it be altered in any way.



Technical acknowledgements:



Karl Marx, X-Man, High-Rise Joe, Telenet Bob, Lex Luthor, TUC, John Doe, Doctor

Who (413 area), The Tone Sweep, Mr. Silicon, K00L KAT, The Glump.



References:



1. Notes on the BOC Intra-LATA Networks Bell System publication, 1983.

2. Notes on the Network Bell System publication, 1983.

3. Engineering and Operations in the Bell System Bell System publication,

4. Notes on Distance Dialing Bell System publication, 1968.

5. Early Medieval Architecture.

.......................................

(c) February 6, 1900         Mark Tabas

.......................................





































































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                          BY FRED STEINBECK (TAP #88)



        IT SEEMS THAT FEWER AND FEWER PEOPLE HAVE BLUE BOXES THESE DAYS, AND

THAT IS REALLY TOO BAD.  BLUE BOXES, WHILE NOT ALL THAT GREAT FOR MAKING FREE

CALLS (SINCE THE TPC CAN TELL WHEN THE CALL WAS MADE, AS WELL AS WHERE IT WAS

TOO AND FROM), ARE REALLY A LOT OF FUN TO PLAY WITH.  SHORT OF BECOMING A REAL

LIVE TSPS OPERATOR, THEY ARE ABOUT THE ONLY WAY YOU CAN REALLY PLAY WITH THE

NETWORK.

        FOR THE FEW OF YOU WITH BLUE BOXES, HERE ARE SOME PHRASES WHICH MAY

MAKE LIFE EASIER WHEN DEALING WITH THE RATE & ROUTE (R&R) OPERATORS.  TO GET

THE R&R OP, YOU SEND A KP + 141 + ST.  IN SOME AREAS YOU MAY NEED TO PUT

ANOTHER NPA BEFORE THE 141 (I.E., KP + 213 + 141 + ST), IF YOU HAVE NO LOCAL

R&R OPS.

        THE R&R OPERATOR HAS A MYRIAD OF INFORMATION, AND ALL IT TAKES TO GET

THIS DATA IS MUMBLING CRYPTIC PHRASES.  THERE ARE BASICALLY FOUR SPECIAL

PHRASES TO GIVE THE R&R OPS.  THEY ARE NUMBERS ROUTE, DIRECTORY ROUTE, OPERATOR

ROUTE, AND PLACE NAME.

        YOU GET AN R&R AN AREA CODE FOR A CITY, ONE CAN CALL THE R&R OPERATOR

AND ASK FOR THE NUMBERS ROUTE.  FOR EXAMPLE, TO FIND THE AREA CODE FOR CARSON

CITY, NEVADA, WE'D ASK THE R&R OP FOR "CARSON CITY, NEVADA, NUMBERS ROUTE,

PLEASE." AND GET THE ANSWER, "RIGHT... 702 PLUS." MEANING THAT 702 PLUS 7

DIGITS GETS US THERE.

        SOMETIMES DIRECTORY ASSISTANCE ISN'T JUST NPA + 131.  THE WAY TO GET

THESE ROUTINGS IS TO CALL R&R AND ASK FOR "ANAHEIM, CALIFORNIA, DIRECTORY

ROUTE, PLEASE." OF COURSE, SHE'D TELL US IT WAS 714 PLUS, WHICH MEANS 714 + 131

GETS US THE D.A. OP THERE.  THIS IS SORT OF POINTLESS EXAMPLE, BUT I COULDN'T

COME UP WITH A BETTER ONE ON SHORT NOTICE.

        LET'S SAY YOU WANTED TO FIND OUT HOW TO GET TO THE INWARD OPERATOR FOR

SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA.  THE FIRST SIX DIGITS OF A NUMBER IN THAT CITY WILL BE

REQUIRED (THE NPA AND AN NXX).  FOR EXAMPLE, LET US USEM 916 756. WE WOULD CALL

R&R, AND WHEN THE OPERATOR ANSWERED, SAY, "916 756, OPERATOR ROUTE, PLEASE."

THE OPERATOR WOULD SAY, "916 PLUS 001 PLUS."  THIS MEANS THAT 916 + 001 + 121

WILL GET YOU THE INWARD OPERATOR FOR SACRAMENTO.

      DO YOU KNOW THE CITY WHICH CORRESPONDS TO 503-640?  THE R&R OPERATOR

DOES, AND WILL TELL YOU THAT IT IS HILLSBORO, OREGON, IF YOU SWEETLY ASK FOR

"PLACE NAME, 503 640, PLEASE."

        FOR EXAMPLE, LET'S SAY YOU NEED THE DIRECTORY ROUTE FOR SVEG, SWEDEN.

SIMPLY CALL R&R, AND ASK FOR, "INTERNATIONAL, BADEN, SWITZERLAND.  TSPS

DIRECTORY ROUTE, PLEASE."  IN RESPONSE TO THIS, YOU'D GET, "RIGHT... DIRECTORY

TO SVEG, SWEDEN.  COUNTRY CODE 46 PLUS 1170."  SO YOU'D ROUTE YOURSELF TO AN

INTERNATIONAL SENDER, AND SEND 46 + 1170 TO GET THE D.A. OPERATOR IN SWEDEN.

        INWARD OPERATOR ROUTINGS TO VARIOUS COUNTRIES ARE OBTAINED THE SAME WAY

"INTERNATIONAL, LONDON, ENGLAND, TSPS INWARD ROUTE, PLEASE." AND GET "COUNTRY

CODE 44 PLUS 121."  THEREFORE, 44 PLUS 121 GETS YOU INWARD FOR LONDON.

        INWARDS CAN GET YOU LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE IF YOU DON'T SPEAK THE

LANGUAGE. TELL THE FOREIGN INWARD, "UNITED STATES CALLING.  LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

IN COMPLETING A CALL TO (CALLED PARTY) AT (CALLED NUMBER)."

        R&R OPERATORS ARE PEOPLE ARE PEOPLE TOO, Y'KNOW.  SO ALWAYS BE POLITE,

MAKE SURE USE OF 'EM, AND DIAL WITH CARE.



NOTE:  AS A RESULT OF THE BREAK-UP, R&R IS NOW KP+800+141+1212+ST

















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                                 Verification

                               By Fred Steinbeck



>From TAP issue # 88  10-83



   There has been a great deal of controversy in the realm of phreakdom over a

mysterious subject known under a number of different names, including

"Verification", "Autoverification", "Verify", "Autoverify", "Verify Busy", and

even "VFY BY".  All of these names basically mean the same thing: the ability

to listen to another person's telephone line from any telephone in the

direct-dialable world.

   Needless to say, Bell System is very tight lipped about knowledge regarding

verification.  Indeed, the infamous book 'Notes on long distance dialing' ('68

edition) says, "Care must be taken to insure that the customer never gains

verification capabilities."  With a printed policy like that, you can imagine

what their real-world policy is like!  Even their own rate and route operators

will not give verification on routing codes (at least in my experience), one

even responding, "What?! You must be crazy! We don't give those out!" Before

you get too far into this article, I will state simply: I don't know how to

verify. However, I have been fooling with various things related to it, and

collecting information on it for some time now. Therefore, while I can't do it

(yet), I may be able to point some other bright TAPer on the right track, and

perhaps he or she will show us all how.  If you have knowledge not covered in

this article, but don't want to write an article on your own, please send your

ideas, comments, or information to Project Verify, C/O TAP   Verify has also

been called "Autoverify", and I have no idea why.  This is not, to my

knowledge, a Bell System term (at least I've never seen it in any manuals)  As

far as I know, there is verify, which means being able to listen to speech

(kind of; see below) on a line, and there is the "Emergency Interrupt which

allows you to take part in the conversation taking place on the line in

question.  It has been suggested that "Autoverify" is the same as an emergency

interrupt , but I tend to disagree with this idea.  It should be noted that the

verification circuitry does not actually let an operator listen to a

conversation without making a beep on the line every so often.  Instead, she

will hear encrypted speech.  However, I believe with the proper methods, verify

can be converted to an emergency interrupt.

   Verification is normally done either by your normal "0" (TSPS) operator, if

the call is in your home NPA (HNPA), or by an inward operator (IO).  If the

call is outside your HNPA, your normal operator will call the IO for the

NPA,and say, "Verify Busy" or "Emergency Interrupt" please, 555 1212."  The IO

will perform whatever magic he or she must, and then report back.  If the call

is in your HNPA, though, the "0" operator can do the verification herself by

using the "VFY BY" key on her keyshelf.  However, in some areas, the operator

uses a routing code to accomplish verification, and this the is loop hole we

shall attack.

  It follows that if a IO or "0" operator can do it, so can we, with a blue box

Now, courtesy of Robert Allen (who brought it to my attention) and Susan

Thunder (who apparently discovered it), here is what used to work for getting

operators to hook you into conversations with other people (i.e.,let you listen

to them till you hung up): You'd call the operator and say "Operator, TSPS

Maintenance Engineer Calling.  Ring forward to 001 + NPA + 7d, ring back to my

number, hit ring forward, no AMA, and then position release.

   This creates some problems, and you must be familiar with the TSPS

console(by dialing "0"), you are on the "back", or incoming part of a loop.

When she places a call for you, the call goes out on the "forward", or outgoing

part of the loop.  If an operator wants to make a call, she punches KP FWD

(keypulse forward), the number, and ST. Ring FWD puts a 90 volt ringing signal

across the forward part of the line (and may dial the number as well).  The



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problem arises from the fact that I don't know if Ring FWD will actually dial a

call, and if there is some other subtle difference between it an KP FWD.

   Let us assume ringing forward makes a call from the TSPS console to whatever

number is given.  Ring back causes your phone to ring (it is assumed you hung

up after giving her your instructions; if you didn't you'd hear an annoying 90

volts across the earpiece...) "No AMA" means "no automatic message accounting",

so nobody gets billed for the call, although it will show up on a tape

somewhere.  "Position Release" removes the operator from the circuit, and

allows her to receive other calls.  This leaves an unaccounted-for ring

forward.

   The verification circuit, as you know, likes to encrypt conversation, which

is something we don't want.  Well, the second Ring FWD sends another  90 volts

crashing against the verify circuitry, which Juda Gerad thinks removes the

voice encryption from the line, puts the operator (and you) in circuit, and

puts a beep tone on the line every five seconds.  This seems to make sense, and

I am inclined to agree with him.

   The bit about "....001 + NPA + 7D" causes the thought "MF routing code" to

spring immediately to mind.  Now, the above trick was supposed to work in the

213 NPA.  I have tried both "KP+001+213+7D+ST", and some other area codes.  I

generally get nothing, a reorder signal, or a tandem recording.

   Here's some food for thought: On an official Telco sheet I have, labeled "

213 NPA MF Routing Codes", 001 is listed as "VFY BY", or verify busy for the

213 NPA.  002 is listed for the 805 NPA.  Ma Bell likes to have standardized

routing codes, such logical, then, that 001 would be a sort of "standard"

verify code, and other prefixes would be tacked on at 002,003, etc. However, I

have heard from a retired operator that verification codes are different from

area to area, and are not always nice numbers like 001, 002.  Ah, well, a guy

can hope, can't he?

   Some suggestions for future attacks on this dilemma: Everyone call your

operators and subtly ask questions.  I have found the tend to give information

out easier if you ask for something that you would ordinarily have to be a

company employee to know about, such as rate steps, operator routings, etc.

    Casually let slip that you used to be (or still are) an operator, or that

you work for company security.  Also, you might want to blue box some codes

like 001 followed by your NPA and the last 7D of a busy number.  If you get a

sort of "whispery noise", try blasting the line with a ringing signal (you

might piggyback another line onto yours and call the piggyback to generate the

90 volts) and see if that does anything.











































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                      ===================================

                      EQUAL ACCESS AND THE AMERICAN DREAM

                      ===================================





by



Mark Tabas

P.O. Box 620401

Littleton, CO 80162



July 7, 1985







  The American Dream means many things to many people.  To the small, typical

businessman, it means building a good, strong business based on hard work and

perseverance; indeed, with nothing limiting his potential but he amount of work

he is willing to put into his business.  To a large businessman, the American

Dream means living and working in a country where a single corporation can have

a profit exceeding the gross national product of an entire third world nation.

    To the individual, the American Dream is the right to choose -- everything

from one's breakfast cereal to a long-distance service, as well as the formal

right outlined by our founding fathers: those of life, liberty, and the pursuit

of happiness.

  To the phone phreak, I think the American Dream is, in a sort of twisted way,

the uninhibited pursuit of knowledge.  This quest could scarcely remain

unchecked in many other countries.  Analogous to this quest is the thriving of

the Bell System, which until January 1, 1984 consisted of the American

Telephone and Telegraph Company, the largest corporation in the history of the

world.  Did the American Dream die on January first or did the divestiture of

AT&T cause a giant step forward for competition and free enterprise in the

United States?  I do not know.  I do know that the other nations of the world

were amazed that the United States would dissolve the entity that brought the

finest and most universal telephone system in the world, and did so at a time

when the majority of the rest of the world was still using two dixie cups and a

string.

  The unfairness of the situation is that AT&T built the telephone system of

this nation and is now being bound and gagged and having its possessions

distributed to others, whom AT&T also wrought.  All in the name of fairness,

free competition, and "equal access".  Where was was MCI during the century

that AT&T built he communications system of this nation?  Well, I believe in

Equal Access, Wholly.  And, since I believe in equal access and its

implications for equality for all so strongly, I feel that MCI, Sprint, and

others should take the same amount of time to build their respective toll

networks: 100 years. Therefore, if the United States Justice Department were

truly the fair and just administrator that it portrays itself to be, MCI would

not have a hand in the long-distance cache until about 2080.  That's only

fair.

  There is no doubt that MCI is a sub-standard organization.  They consist of

incompetent employees, inferior equipment, and an inferior marketing strategy.

They are mockingly imitative of AT&T, except in the quality of their service,

which is practically unusable.  It is also interesting that with less than 2%

market share, MCI calls itself "the nation's long-distance company."  The point

to this diatribe is this.  It's time for these long-distance companies such as

MCI and Sprint to grow up.  With Equal Access, they are going to become real

long-distance companies, not the joke organizations they are now, and I think

it may just take them one hundred years to do so.



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                                 ============

                                 Equal Access

                                 ============



  Equal Access, as it applies to the telecommunications industry, is "the

requirement that each Bell Operating Company provide exchange access to all

long-distance carriers that is equal in type and quality to that provided AT&T

communications."  This is the official provision set forth by the United States

Justice Department in the Modification of the Final Judgment, August 24, 1982.

All this means is that each long-distance-distance company will have "equal

access" to all of the same types of services that AT&T currently enjoys.  There

are four types of long-distance carrier services, divided into "feature

groups."  They follow.



FG A:   "line side access."  This is the standard 7-digit dialup+code (for

billing purposes) +destination telephone number.  It is currently in use by

most long-distance carriers.



FG B:   "trunk side access."  These are the 950 exchange numbers. They also

utilize an authorization code for billing.  As with FG A, automatic     number

identification (ANI) (i.e. calling number) is not provided to the carrier, but

will be in the future.



FG C:   "1+ dialing."  Currently, only AT&T is able to get this type of

service. It is 1/0+7 of 10 digit direct long distance dialing.  ANI (for

billing) is provided.



FG D:    "equal access."  This will allow for 1/0+7 or 10 digit direct

long-distance dialing (presubscription carrier) and 10xxx+1/0+7 or 10 digit

long-distance dialing (alternate carrier).  ANI for billing is provided at the

long-distance carrier's option.  Billing may also be handled by the individual

long distance company or the local Bell Operating Company.



  Feature groups C and D are mutually exclusive (i.e. both cannot exist in a

particular area at the same time).  Areas which have Feature Group C (AT&T

long-distance only) are non-Equal Access, and areas which have Feature Group D

(multiple long distance carriers) are Equal Access regions.

  Feature Group B, the 950 exchange numbers will be used in areas in which it

is not feasible to provide with Equal Access, such as step-by-step offices

(yes, they CAN have 950 numbers), some crossbar offices, and some independent

telcos, which are not bound by the provisions of Equal Access and may provide

to their customers any type of long-distance service(s) they wish.  The 950

exchange is now active in many areas.  It is mainly used as a universal

"roaming" access port for many long-distance carriers, but when an office is

converted to Equal Access, the 950 capability is removed.  Thus, in an Equal

Access region, one cannot complete a call to a 950 telephone number.

  I personally am looking very forward to Equal Access.  My area is not

scheduled for full implementation of it until late 1985 or early 1986, and by

this time many of the alternate long distance carriers' networks will be in

place (or well under way).  Think about what Equal Access means.  Equality for

all long distance carriers.  Access to common facilities, such as: busy-line

verification lines, Bell System information, signalling specifications. etc.

After full implementation of Equal Access, one will be able to take advantage

of and manipulate the services of more than just one carrier.  It will no

longer be phreaks vs. AT&T.

  When your area is ready to initiate Equal Access, you will receive a notice

in the mail informing you of some of the details of Equal Access, and will ask



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you to specify your choice of "primary carrier." In some cases you will need to

specify both inter-LATA carrier (IC), which handles calls out of your LATA

(Local Access and Transport Area), and an international carrier (INC), which

will handle calls destined for other countries.  Recent market studies have

shown that between 80 and 90 per cent of residential customers will continue to

be served by AT&T for their long-distance service after Equal Access.  So much

for competition.

  You will probably be faced with many long-distance companies to choose from,

including but not limited to: AT&T, MCI, Sprint, ITT, Western Union, Dial U.S.,

Call America, TMC, and U.S. Telephone. Whichever you choose will become your

"primary carrier."  Your primary carrier will handle your call each time you

pick up you fone and dial 1+7 or 10 digits or 0+7 or 10 digits, inter-LATA

only. That is, if you dial a toll call that is within your LATA, it will be

handled by your local telephone company (Bell), not by your primary carrier,

even though it is a toll call.  Let's use an example.  The state of Colorado

consists of two LATAs.  For this example, I will use three cities in Colorado:

Denver (in LATA1), Sterling (LATA1 also), and Colorado Springs (in LATA2).

Note here that even though Denver ad Sterling are in the same LATA, and Denver

and Colorado Springs are not, Sterling is actually much farther away from

Denver than Colorado Springs.  This is because LATA boundaries were designed

giving consideration to high toll-traffic regions, to bring in revenue.  Toll

traffic between Denver and Colorado Springs is very high, so the two cities

were placed in separate LATAs (or, more correctly, they were separated by a

LATA boundary).  Toll traffic between Denver and Sterling is very low, of the

two cities were allowed to remain in the same LATA.  Now, if everyone in

Colorado Springs were to pack up and move to Sterling (though who knows what

the hell for), the LATA boundaries in Colorado would be changed so that Denver

and Sterling were in different LATAs.  The primary factor in determining LATAs

is money.

  If I made a call to Sterling from my home in Denver, the call would be routed

entirely via Mountain Bell long-distance facilities.  No long distance carrier

would be involved because Denver and Sterling are in LATA1.  If I made a call

to Kelley, the blonde babe in Colorado Springs, the call would be handled by a

long distance carrier (in this case, AT&T) because Denver is in LATA1 and

Colorado Springs is in LATA2.  Here is a table to simplify this:



Customer dials          LATA          Carrier

-----------------------------------------------------------------

7 digits                same          Bell

1+7 digits              same          Bell

1+7 digits              diff          LD carrier (currently AT&T)

1+10 digits             diff          LD carrier (currently AT&T)

-----------------------------------------------------------------



  Note several things here.  First, not all areas need to dial a 1 when dialing

any number, local or long distance, but the central offices will still discern

whether the call is in the same LATA as the customer or a different one and

handle the call appropriately. Secondly, some step-by-step offices require a

1+NPA to be dialed for calls within the same LATA and, in fact, all numbers

outside of the office itself.  But, for the most part, the above table is

standard for common switching networks.



                              ==================

                              Alternate Carriers

                              ==================



  Your normal long distance carrier will handle all your toll calls which cross

over LATA boundaries when you dial directly, 1+.  If you wish to place your



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call via another carrier's network, whether for cost, quality, or circuit

availability reasons, you may do so in Equal Access regions.  To access an

alternate long distance carrier after Equal Access, a customer dials

10xxx+1/0+7 or 10 digit telefone number.  Note that xxx is the "carrier access

code (CAC)."  A few CACs currently in use are listed below.



220 ........ Western Union   666 ........ Lexitel

222 ........ MCI             777 ........ Sprint

333 ........ US Telefone     888 ........ SBS

444 ........ Allnet



  Thus, in an Equal Access region, to dial Fred in Orlando, a customer would

dial 1+305+994+9966 to place his call on his primary carrier, or to place it on

another network, he could dial: 10222+1+305+994+9966, and the call would go

over MCI facilities (in this case).  Eventually, after many more long distance

services get into the act, there will be a directory of the various long

distance companies and their CACs, and deciding which carrier to use for any

particular call to get the bet rate will be beyond the ability of everyone

except phone phreaks.



                               ================

                               The 950 Exchange

                               ================



  As discussed, the 950 central office exchange is currently a "roaming" access

port for various long distance carriers.  In areas that have 950, the access to

carriers is standardized.  Thus, someone travelling to several different areas

need only know the 950 number of the carrier he uses to access it from any area

(provided that it have 950 active).  Originally, the 950 exchange was designed

to correspond with the 10xx carrier access code used for Equal Access.  For

example, 950-1022 would be the same carrier as 1022 (+telephone number).

However, it was later found that the 100 codes available for use as 10xx CACs

would be insufficient to handle he number of long distance carriers.  So, the

common carrier access code was increased by one digit, to 10xxx, thus

increasing the number of possible CACs to 1000. To keep the 950 exchange

consistent with the non CAC, the Bell Operating Companies have opted to change

the 950-10xx to 950-0xxx. The xxx in the 950-0xxx remains the same as the xxx

in the 10xxx carrier access code.  The new modified 950 numbering pan is now

active in Philadelphia (Bell Atlantic) among other areas.

  After Equal Access is well under way, the 950 exchange will be used in

certain areas that cannot be equipped for the standard Equal Access dialing

plans.  This includes step-by-step, #1 crossbar, #5 crossbar, #2ESS, and #3ESS

offices.  Customers in areas served by these types of switching equipment will

dial 950-0xxx, wait for acknowledgement tone from the carrier, and then dial a

"personal identification number" and destination telefone number,and the call

will be completed on the selected carrier's facilities.  Initially, billing

will be handled by the carrier itself, and supervisory information and ANI will

not be provided by the local Bell Operating Company.

  There are three main advantages to the 950 central office exchange and

protocol.  They are: a) universal access for all areas, b) 950-exchange numbers

are "trunk side access."  This means that the long distance carrier has direct

trunks going to it from a Bell toll office or local central office.  These

trunks are interoffice lines, not customer type (POTS) lines, and supposedly

insure higher quality of connection.  And, c) 950-exchange numbers are toll and

message unit free.  On metered-usage (i.e., not "flat rate") customer lines,

they cost nothing.  In most areas they are free from coin stations, with

Colorado as one notable exception.





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                                     =====

                                     Costs

                                     =====



  Each long-distance carrier must choose the type(s) of service it wishes to

provide to its customers.  These different types of service were outlined

earlier as "Feature Groups."  The costs of these Feature Groups vary directly

with the complexity and quality of the service itself.  The following table

outlines the cost to the carrier of each available Feature Group.  It is based

on the monthly rate per line for 9000 minutes of circuit use, and assumes the

carrier and Bell switch are 15 miles apart.



FG              non-Equal Access            Equal Access

--------------------------------------------------------

A                  $329.94                    $709.20

B                   329.94                     721.80

C                   752.40                    ** N/A **

D                  ** N/A **                   752.40

--------------------------------------------------------



  These figures are a lot more significant than they might appear. They

indicate that after Equal Access, in order to compete with the giants such as

AT&T, MCI, etc., smaller long distance companies will use Feature Group A or B

type service in order to provide significantly lower rates to their customers

than companies subscribing to Feature Group D service (like AT&T, MCI, etc).

This will cause a unique type of equilibrium to form.  Customers willing to

dial an access number, authorization code, and destination number and put up

with lower quality service will be able to save a lot of money. This seems

faintly reminiscent of pre-Equal Access times....



                             ====================

                             Directory Assistance

                             ====================



  Each Bell Operating Company will be responsible for providing intra-LATA

operator services.  When a customer dials (1)+411 or (1)+555+1212 for local

directory assistance, he will reach a Bell operator who will service requests

for listed numbers within the customer's LATA.  Requests for numbers in LATAs

other than the calling customer's may be handled at the discretion of the local

operating company.  Initially, the Bell Operating Companies will meet the

responsibility for providing directory assistance services by contracting it to

a long distance carrier or carriers (currently AT&T).  All inter-LATA directory

assistance services will be provided by the inter-LATA carrier (IC).  ICs may

also provide 800 Enterprise service or other toll free type directory

assistance services.  See table.



=================================================================

Intra-LATA:

=================================================================

  HNPA            411/555-1212         BOC

 *FNPA            NPA+555-1212         BOC

  HNPA            10xxx+555-1212       intra-LATA carrier

 *FNPA            10xxx+NPA+555-1212   intra-LATA carrier



=================================================================

Inter-LATA:

=================================================================

  HNPA            (10xxx)+1+555-1212       IC



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  FNPA            (10xxx)+1+NPA+555-1212   IC

=================================================================

* When LATA boundaries cross NPA boundaries (rare).

FNPA = Foreign Numbering Plan Area (area code).

HNPA = Home Numbering Plan Area (area code).



  At first glance, the above table appears somewhat complex.  But, if you

understand the concept of LATAs and carriers, it is easily understood.

Essentially, all local Bell Operating Companies will maintain their own

directory assistance services.  When a customer dials 411 or 555-1212, he will

reach a BOC directory assistant. Additionally, each long distance carrier that

wishes to provide directory assistance to its customers will also have DA

facilities. And, when a customer dials a directory assistant (NPA+555-1212) on

a carrier, he will reach an operator of that particular long distance carrier.

The key here is LATAs.  If a customer wants to find a number that is within his

LATA, no long distance carrier is involved.  It is handled strictly by the

Local Bell Operating Company.  If a customer is seeking a number that is not

within his LATA, he must use the services of an inter-LATA (long-distance)

carrier.



                            ======================

                            TSPS Operator Services

                            ======================



  Traffic Service Position System (TSPS) operator services will be handled much

in the same fashion as directory assistance services, with a few differences.

As with DAs, each Bell Operating Company and each inter-LATA carrier will

maintain its own TSPS operator facilities (or cordboard I suppose, if they

cannot afford TSPS).  When a customer dials simply 0 (operator), he will reach

a BOC TSPS operator.  The BOC TSPS will be able to handle all types of

intra-LATA operator-assisted traffic including (but not limited to): collect,

third party billing, Bell credit card, coin, verification and emergency

interrupt, and requests for emergency aid.  BOC TSPS will be unable to complete

calls for customers outside of the customer's LATA.  Thus, inter-LATA operator

assistance will be handled by an inter-LATA carrier TSPS (IC TSPS).  An IC TSPS

will handle all previously mentioned types of calls that require inter-LATA

transport (i.e., the call originates and terminates in different LATAs).  When

a customer dials 0+NXX-XXXXX or 0+NPA+NXX-XXXX, the central office will

determine if the call is destined for another LATA.  If it is not, the call

will be sent to the Bell TSPS for appropriate handling.  If the call is bound

for another LATA (and his determination is made based on the NXX or NPA+NXX),

then the call will be sent off to the customer's primary long-distance carrier

(since only 0+ was dialed).  If the customer wishes to use a different

carrier's operator services, he would dial 10xxx+0+number, and the carrier

specified by the 10xxx carrier access code would receive the call.  Note: if a

customer dials 10xxx+0+number, and the call is an intra-LATA call, he will get

a recording, "We're sorry, the number you dialed cannot be reached with the

carrier access code you dialed.  Please check the code and try again or call

your carrier for assistance."  (Western Electric KS-22550 central office tape

list no. 46.)  Until the Bell Operating Companies can install their own TSPS

facilities and networks, they will (continue to) lease capacity from AT&T TSPS.

That is, AT&T will handle the intra-LATA traffic for the BOCs on a contract

basis.  In the meantime, AT&T will continue to handle its own long-distance

operator services while the other inter-LATA carriers will have to implement

their own operator networks from scratch.  My estimation is that you won't be

able to dial 10222+0 for an MCI TSPS operator until sometime around the year

2590.  And even then they will probably be cordboard.

  In addition to the changes in TSPS described above, there will be certain



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modifications to the software and hardware involved in the TSPS operator

system.  Most critical, and of paramount importance to the telecommunications

enthusiast is changes in circuit associated signalling (CAS).  This is

signalling to and from the TSPS facility. When a customer dials 0 (operator) or

10xxx+0 (IC operator), a succession of events occurs.  First, the end office

seizes a trunk to the appropriate operator facility (this assumes that no

access tandem is involved).  The operator service facility responds with a wink

(proceed signal) and the end office outpulses the CALLED number (or KP+ST if 0

only dialed).  The operator service (OS) facility will then come off-hook to

signal that it is ready to receive ANI information. The end office outpulses

the ANI information in the format of KP+II+7 digits+ST (or ST').  If there is

ANI failure, a KP+02+ST (or ST') will be sent.  "ST'" stands for STart "prime",

and is indicative of a coin call (i.e., dial 0 from a coin station).  A normal

ST terminating the ANI sequence means that the call is originating from a

noncoin station.  See table for ultimate description.



Inter-LATA calls MF-pulsed



type of call       customer dials    cld num          ANI

============================================================

noncoin:

============================================================

  direct dialed    10xxx+1+7/10d   KP+7/10d+ST''   KP+II+7d+ST

  operator assist  10xxx+0         KP+ST'''        KP+II+7d+ST

  special toll     10xxx+0+7/10d   KP+7/10d+ST'''  KP+II+7d+ST



============================================================

coin:

============================================================

  direct dialed    10xxx+1+7/10d   KP+7/10d+ST     KP+II+7d+ST

  operator assist  10xxx+0         KP+ST'          KP+II+7d+ST

  special toll     10xxx+0+7/10d   KP+7/10d+ST'    KP+II+7d+ST



=============================================================================

Intra-LATA calls

=============================================================================

noncoin:

=============================================================================

  direct dialed       10xxx+1+7/10d        KP+7/10d+ST''         KP+II+7d+ST'

  operator assist     10xxx+0              KP+ST'''              KP+II+7d+ST'

  special toll        10xxx+0+7/10d        KP+7/10d+ST'''        KP+II+7d+ST'



=============================================================================

coin:

=============================================================================

  direct dialed       10xxx+1+7/10d        KP+7/10d+ST           KP+II+7d+ST'

  operator assist     10xxx+0              KP+ST'                KP+II+7d+ST'

  special toll        10xxx+0+7/10d        KP+7/10d+ST'          KP+II+7d+ST'

=============================================================================

Note: ST=Start, ST'=STart prime, ST''=Start double prime, ST'''=STart triple

prime.



  Once again, the above table appears somewhat intimidating in its complexity.

All these STs, ST primes, etc.  Actually, the only purpose of the starts is to

distinguish to the TSPS machine exactly what type of call the customer is

placing and from what type of telefone he is calling.  "Special toll" calls are

collect, credit card, and third-party billing type calls.  Here is an example

of a complete dialing and outpulsing sequence for an operator service call:



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from a coin fone, a customer dials 0+ (or 10xxx+) 303+979-9997.  The central

office would seize a trunk to the operator service facility and outpulse:

KP+303+979-9997+ST'.  This indicates to the operator service facility that the

call is a special toll call originating from a coin telephone.  The OS facility

comes off-hook and the central office would then outpulse KP+00+232+9969+ST.

This is he ANI information, and the ST indicates that the call is inter-LATA

(if it were intra-LATA, the sequence would be terminated with ST' instead).

  Perhaps now I should explain screening.  Certain telefones are "screened"

against placing certain types of calls.  A screening code is a two digit

information carrier.  For instance, 00 is "identified line" (no special

treatment), 01 is multiparty ONI (operator number identification), 02 is ANI

failure, 06 is hotel/motel, 07 is coinless (hospital/inmate fone), 08 is

inter-LATA restricted, 68 is hotel inter-LATA restricted, 78 is coinless

(hospital inmate) inter-LATA restricted, etc.  A 98 is an AT&T Charge-A-Call

fone (those blue fuckers).  More screening codes are allocated as they are

needed. Note that the original TSPS screening design only allowed for single

digit information digits.  They were later found to be insufficient.

  I believe that the operator services have been adequately covered, so I will

now move on to other aspects of Equal Access.



                                 =============

                                 Routing Codes

                                 =============



  The TTC (terminating toll centre) and special routing codes will continue to

be used in inter-LATA networks.  These 0xx and 1xx type codes, which sometimes

precede operator routing codes, will be assigned to various ICs on an

individual basis.  When 0xx and 1xx codes serve as pseudo-central office code,

they will be coordinated such that it will avoid IC conflicts.  The

Numbering/Dialing Planning Group of the Central Services Organization (sounds

like some sort of Communist governing body) will provide assistance where the

assignment of coordinated codes is necessary.



                              ==================

                              Special Area Codes

                              ==================



  Special area codes, also called Service Area Codes (SACs) presented the

designers of Equal Access with an interesting problem.  SACs are N00 type area

codes, such as 700, 800, and 900.  They are used for special services and

unlike normal area codes, are not associated with a particular state or region.

Each long distance carrier will be allocated its own exchanges in each service

area code.  Thus, when a customer places a call to a number in a service area

code, the central office will examine the exchange of the telefone number and

route the call over the proper carrier's facilities.  The customer will be

totally oblivious to this process. Current SACs include 700 (teleconferencing),

800 (toll free services), and 900 (dial-it services).  There are currently

plans under way to implement the 600 area code, although its exact uses are not

yet clear.



                               ================

                               Signalling to IC

                               ================



  Each long distance carrier that wishes to serve a particular LATA must

establish a point of presence (POP) in that LATA.  A carrier's POP is a toll

office that receives toll traffic destined for another LATA.  A POP is a centre

for inter-LATA transport of toll traffic. This traffic will be directed to it



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from a Bell central office, either an end office or an access tandem (AT).  An

access tandem is simply a Bell office which directs long distance traffic from

a number of local end offices to a number of different inter-LATA carriers.  To

pass call details (such as called and calling numbers) from the Bell local

office to the inter-LATA carrier, a signalling system was designed that employs

current multifrequency (MF) signalling protocol.  When a customer dials

10xxx+(1/0)+(NPA)+NXX+, the end office will seize a trunk to the appropriate IC

as determined by the 10xxx CAC (or primary carrier if no CAC is dialed).  Note:

this happens as soon as the customer finishes dialing the exchange, even though

he may still be dialing the last four digits of he telefone number.  After the

the signal to proceed.  Then, the end office will send ANI information, in the

format of: KP+II+10 digit ANI+ST.  If the carrier is not to receive ANI

information from the Bell Operating Company (i.e., they are not paying for it),

then only KP+ST is sent. Presumably, by now the customer has completed dialing

the last four digits of the destination telefone number, so the end office will

send: KP+7 or 10 digit CALLED number+ST.  Note several things here: 1) The IC

does not send a wink when it is ready to receive CALLED number information.  2)

ANI information is ten digits, plus a two-digit screening code, and 3) The

central office's outpulsing to the IC overlaps the customer's dialing.

  Some ANI screening codes include: 00 (identified POTS), 01 (ONI multiparty),

02 (ANI failure), 06 (hotel without room identification), 07 (coinless,

hospital, inmate, etc.), 08 (inter-LATA restriction), 10 (test call), 20 (AIOD

calls, listed DN sent), 27 (coin call), and 95 (test call).  These are the same

or similar as the screening codes used in operator service signalling.

  In addition to the domestic signalling design outlined above, a new

international signalling system has been designed for use with Equal Access.

It also uses two-stage, overlapping outpulsing.  After a customer has completed

dialing (10xxx)+011+CC (CC is country code), the Bell end office will seize a

trunk to he appropriate IC (or international carrier, if direct routing is

available).  The IC/INC will respond with a wink, and the end office will

outpulse: KP+1NX+YXX+CCC+ST.  Each of these three groups of routing information

indicate something different abut the international call being placed. The 1NX

is the "international system routing code, one for each type of call routing."

I have absolutely no idea what that means, and no one I have talked to at Bell,

AT&T, MCI, CCITT, ITT, the CSO and FCC have any idea either.  Next, the YXX is

the carrier routing code.  It is actually XXX, Which is the three digits of the

10xxx CAC for the particular carrier being accessed.  Finally, CCC is the

country code, padded with a zero if necessary.

  One may wonder why the CAC is signalled forward when a trunk is seized

directly to the carrier itself.  The reason for this is that in some cases a

direct trunk to the carrier is not available and the call must be routed

through an access tandem, which is responsible for routing calls to a variety

of different long distance carriers.



                             ====================

                             Switch Compatibility

                             ====================



  Full-feature Equal Access will become available first for Western Electric

#1ESS switching systems.  It will be available first in generic 1E8 (1AE8 for

#1A ESS).  Later, generic 5E2 for #5ESS, generic 2B4 for #2B ESS, generic

BCS-16 for Northern Telecom DMS-100, and generics 209 and 302 for DMS-10 will

provide full-feature Equal Access capabilities in those types of end office

switching equipment.  The Western Electric #4ESS, #1 and 1A ESS, #5ESS, and the

Northern Telecom DMS-200 machines which serve as toll offices or access tandems

will be capable of receiving the new Equal Access signalling format, after

required generic development.  Other switches (such as all crossbar offices)



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will not be able to handle the new signalling format.



                                     =====

                                     LATAs

                                     =====



  LATAs, Local Access and Transport Areas, are the entire key to the

administration of Equal Access.  They can be thought of as miniature area

codes.  A telefone call can never cross a LATA boundary except on an inter-LATA

carrier.  However, there are certain exceptions to this. For example, in the

state of Colorado, which consists of two LATAs, the local Bell Operating

Company (Mountain Bell), which serves as the intra-LATA (i.e., calls to/from

the same LATA) carrier, may also serve as inter-LATA (to/from different LATAs)

carrier within Colorado.

  There are also exceptions in the corridor region of the New York/New

Jersey/Pennsylvania area.

  The forty-eight continental United States consist of 161 LATAs. Some states,

such as Deleware, consist of only one LATA, while others, such as Illinois, can

have up to 14 or more.  Each LATA is given a name.  For instance, Pennsylvania

consists of six LATAs: Philadelphia, Capital, Northeast, Altoona, Pittsburgh,

and Erie (independent telco).



                                ==============

                                A Few Thoughts

                                ==============



  In 1973, Chrysler, A&P, RCA, Phillips Petroleum, S.S. Kresge, Boeing

Aircraft, International Harvester, Woolworth's, Greyhound, Firestone, Litton,

and General Foods, among others, each reported annual profits of less than $150

million.  In that same year, the Telephone Company wrote off, as being

uncollectable, debts of $150 million.

  In 1974, the Bell System had direct interests in at least 276 organizations,

many of them not related to the telefone industry. Bell also had interlocking

financial arrangements with such corporations as the Chase Manhattan Bank, IBM,

Prudential Insurance, Sears Roebuck, General Motors, U.S. Steel, and Lever

Brothers.  Should the need have arisen, the Bell System in 1974 could have

exercised control of 400 billion dollars, fully one-third of that year's gross

national product.



From: Hyde, J. Edward, The Phone Book. Henry Regnery Publishing Company,

Chicago Illinois, 1976.  ISBN 0-8092-8008-6.



  There are many viewpoints as to the future course of the telefone industry.

The general consensus among most Telco employees is that the children of AT&T

(i.e., the seven regional holding companies into which the Bell System was

divided) will someday be reassembled into the original Bell System, and all

will be well and good in the world of telecommunications again.  I tend to

disagree with this.  I think that within three decades the entire telefone

industry will be consolidated and nationalized.  It will be owned and operated

entirely by the United States Federal Government.  This will accomplish several

goals of the government.  First, the immense revenue from telefone services

will provide great financial resources for the federal government.  Rates for

telefone services will skyrocket far out of the range of affordability, quality

of service will deteriorate to a point of unusability, and meanwhile

politicians will get rich.

  Second, once the government controls the telefone system, monitoring the

general public will become infinitely easier.  Big Brother will be able to keep

and eye, or rather, an ear on the general population, and giant step forward in



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ultimate government control of peoples' lives will be achieved.  Most people

won't know anything about this, and even if they do, they won't give a shit

because by then the fucking government will have already invaded every

remaining private aspect of the individual's life.

  To those who find it utterly unthinkable that the federal government would

ever assume control of the telefone industry, I would call attention to the

situation that existed between 1917 and 1919.  During this time the government

controlled the phone system of the United States.  J. Edward Hyde sums it up

beautifully:



     Between 1917 and 1919, the Federal Government did control the phone

industry.  Since then, the most charitable historians have blamed the

subsequent mess on the First World War.  Others blame it on the democrats.  But

the fact is that it was a fiasco of the bureaucracy's own making, combined with

intracompany sabotage.

     Today, in those countries where the phone service is nationally owned, the

service runs from poor to nonexistent.  Would you want the government that gave

you the Russian wheat deals, Defense Department     overruns, Amtrak, and the

Postal Service handling your phone problems?



From: Hyde, J. Edward, The Phone Book. Henry Regnery Publishing Company,

Chicago, Illinois, 1976.  ISBN 0-8092-8008-6, p. 170.



Technical References:



Notes on the BOC intra-LATA Networks.  American Telephone & Telegraph Company,

1983.



The Phone Book.  J. Edward Hyde, 1976.



Bell System Technical Journal.  Volume 58, Number 5.



Engineering and Operations in the Bell System.  American Telephone & Telegraph

Company, 1983.





Acknowledgements:   Karl Marx, Telenet Bob, and the scores of Telco employees

in Denver, White Plains, Omaha, and North Jersey who were very helpful in

patiently answering my many questions about Equal Access.



Thanks to Mack the Knife for magnetic transfer of this illustrious file, a

tedious task for which I have no time.



Thanks to the following printers for their cooperation and professional manner

in helping me with final production of this file:



Kinko's Print Shop

7155 West Colfax

Lakewood, CO



Office Products and Printing

5035 S. Kipling Suite B4

Littleton, CO



This has been a Mark Tabas Encounter Series production.  Questions, comments,

and requests may be addressed to:



Tabas



                                    Page 158









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P.O. Box 620401

Littleton, CO 80162



Requests for copies of this or any other Encounter Series file are honored for

free, but please enclose a self-addressed medium sized first class mailing

envelope with 73 cents postage.



Special thanks to Steve Reger, who was kind enough to shoot my neighbor's dog,

whose incessant barking constantly distracted me as I labored to complete this

file.



(for Amy) cl/KIABB!/jd































































































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               Equal Access and Modem Autodialers by Shadow 2600



    Now that AT&T is being divested of its local telephone companies, phone

customers across the nation have to choose their long distance carrier as equal

access is phased in.  Advertising campaigns emphasize such aspects as low rates

and operator assistance, but no one mentions a factor that will affect modem

users who use auto dialers for long distance calls.  Not all of the alternate

long distance carriers provide called party answering supervision on all calls.

Called party answering supervision basically has the telephone company start

billing only when the called party answers the telephone.  However, many of the

alternate long distance companies still operate with the "fixed timeout" basis

for charging.  That is, if a call is held for a fixed length of time (usually

30 seconds) the charging starts, whether or not the call was answered.  This

could cause modem owners large bills if they use autodialers to make long

distance calls.  Modems are usually set up to wait up to one minute when

attempting to make a call, and thus have to timeout through busy signals, long

call setup sequences, extender waits, and similar problems.  This could result

in many billed but never answered calls.



    Some of the other carriers provide it on calls to some cities, and others

not support it at all.  Only AT&T Communications provides called party

answering supervision on all calls to all points at this time.  It is almost

impossible to get information on how a long distance company charges its calls

as as they don't want to reveal how their billing is handled.  The alternate

carriers get called party supervision when the destination location goes equal

access.  However, there has been no quick action on the part of the alternate

long distance companies to make use of the supervision data as they would have

to get equipment for passing the information back to the billing computer at

the originating point.  Thus called party answering supervision information

often ends up being ignored by these carriers even when available.  Another

point to remember is that called party answering supervision's availability

depends on whether the destination has equal access, not the originating

location.  The lower long distance rates of alternate long distance rates must

be weighed against the time out problem as it affects autodialing modems.  One

way to circumvent this is merely to set your modem to a shorter

waiting-for-connect time, but this may not provide enough time for the call to

go through.  [For more information on this and other telecommunications topics

call the Private Sector BBS at (201) 366- 4431]











































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==Phrack Inc.==

Volume One, Issue Two, Phile #6 of 9



                Toward Universal Information Services Via ISDN

                DDDDDD DDDDDDDDD DDDDDDDDDDD DDDDDDDD DDD DDDD

                                 by Taran King



                From PROTO newsletter of AT&T Bell Laboratories

         ------------------------------------------------------------

Phase one, the Present.

DDDDD DDDD DDD DDDDDDDD

  The local network of today, although still largely voice-oriented, is already

on the path to Universal Information Services.  Lightguide fiber is

dramatically expanding the capacity of local networks, helping to lower the

costs and increase the demand for high-band width, Information Age services.

And public networks are increasingly digital and geared for data and special

 services.  For example:



o   The AT&T Network Systems 5ESS (TM <riiiight>) switch, designed by Bell

Laboratories, can serve as the hub of a local deployment of remote modules at

locations up to 100 miles from a host central office.



o   The Integrated Special Services Network (ISSN) is a channel network that

provides special services, customer control options and digital private lines

rearrangeable under software control. The ISSN incorporates digital carrier

terminating equipment such as the D4 Channel Bank, D5 Digital Terminal System

and Digital Access and Cross-connect System (DACS).



o   The New Centrex is bringing greater levels of customer control, improved

services and a broad range of data capabilities to the business customer.



   Today's public networks consist of multiple or overlay networks. The public

switched network, or circuit network, mainly for voice, is the base network.

Two kinds of overlay networks provide special services.  Channel networks carry

private lines leased by large customers and transmit much of today's data and

image traffic; they also handle traffic for network operations support.  Packet

networks carry data communications, while packet switching is used internally

to public networks for common channel signaling to set up, route and take down

calls, or to give customers information. "Overlay networks help

telecommunications companies efficiently meet growing demand for digital

transmission and special services," says Stan Johnston, Market Planning

Manager, Network Systems Evolution, in AT&T Network Systems. "Their integration

into a single network, however, would be still more effective."



Phase two, the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).

DDDDD DDDD DDD DDDDDDDDDD DDDDDDDD DDDDDDD DDDDDDD DDDDDDD



  The ISDN is a concept to which AT&T is committed - and it's the foundation

for Universal Information Services.  The central idea of ISDN, as AT&T Network

Systems sees it, is to provide an individual user a link to the local central

into two 64,000-bit channels, which may carry voice or data or both, and one

16,000-bit channel for packetized signaling information or data transport.

Such a link provides convenient "integrated" network access by accommodating

voice, data and signaling over a single line.

  The ISDN will make it easier for a customer to get varied services from

public and private networks.  More bandwidth for big customers will be

available through another ISDN access standard, the extended digital subscriber



                                    Page 161









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



line, which provides 1.5 billion bits per second as 24 channels of 64,000 bits

each.

   In 1986, new software from Bell Labs will enable the 5ESS switch to

accommodate ISDN-sized 144,000-bit channels that standardize and simplify

subscribers' use of local networks.  AT&T is committed to future products that

will also be ISDN-compatible.  Other vendors, too, some of whom already plan to

build premises, terminal, and other equipment to ISDN standards, will make ISDN

a cooperative effort.

   By providing integrated digital access to networks, ISDN will make important

progress toward the goal of Universal Information Services. But overlay

networks will continue to divvy up the transport job.  And messages needing

less than 144,000 bits per second will not fill their allotted bandwidth,

leaving capacity under utilized.



Phase three, Universal Information Services.

DDDDD DDDDDD DDDDDDDDD DDDDDDDDDDD DDDDDDDDD

   Rooted in the fertile ground of 5ESS switches, ISDN equipment and

technologies such as wideband packet transport, Universal Information Services

will bear fruit during the 1990s.  From a single kind of network will hang

services as different as apples, oranges and pears. Just as network access was

integrated in ISDN, transport functions will increasingly be integrated by

powerful new network equipment evolved from equipment developed for the ISDN.

Where customers once got standard-sized ISDN channels, they'll get big

bandwidth for large jobs, little bandwidth for small jobs.







































































                                    Page 162









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



                TOWARD UNIVERSAL INFORMATION SERVICES VIA ISDN



Phase one, the present. The local network of today, although still largely

voice oriented, is already on the path to Universal Information Services.

Lightguide fiber is dramatically expanding the capacity of local networks,

helping to lower the costs and increase the demand for high-bandwidth,

Information Age services. And public networks are increasingly digital and

geared for data and special services.  For example:



   *  The AT&T Network Systems 5ESS switch, designed by Bell Laboratories, can

serve as the hub of a local digital network through deployment of remote

modules at locations up to 100 miles from a host central office.



   *  The Integrated Special Services Network (ISSN) is a channel networks that

provides special services, customer control options and digital private lines

rearrangeable under software control. The ISSN incorporates digital carrier

terminating equipment such as the D4 Channel Bank, D5 Digital Terminal System

and Digital Access and Cross-connect Systems (DACS).



   *  The New Centrex is bringing greater levels of customer control, improved

services and a broad range of data capabilities to the business customer.



 Todays public networks consist of multiple or overlay networks.  The public

switched network, or circuit network, is the base network.  Two kinds of

overlay networks provide special services.  Channel networks carry private

lines leased by large customers and transmit much of today's data and image

traffic; they also handle traffic for network operations support.  Packet

networks carry data communications, while packet switching is used internal to

public networks for common channel signaling to set up, route and take down

calls, or to give customers information.

   "Overlay networks help telecommunications companies efficiently meet growing

demand for digital transmission and special services," says Stan Johnston,

Market Planning Manager, Network Systems Evolution, in AT&T Network Systems.

"Their integration into a signal network, however, would be still

more effective."

   Phase two, the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).  The ISDN is a

concept to which AT&T is commited--and it's the foundation for Universal

Information Services.  The central idea of ISDN, as AT&T Network Systems sees

it, is to provide an individual user a link to the local central office of

generous bandwidth--a digital subscriber line that can carry 144,000 bits per

second.  The bandwidth is subdivided into two 64,000-bit channels, which may

carry voice or data or both, and one 16,000-bit channel for packetized

signaling information or data transport.  Such a link provides convenient

"integrated" network access by accommodating voice, data and signaling over a

single line.

   The ISDN will make it easier for a customer to get varied services from

public and private networks.  More bandwidth for big customers will be

available through another ISDN access standard, the extended digital subscriber

line, which provides 1.5 million bit per second as 24 channels of 64,000 bits

each.

   In 1986, new software from Bell Labs will enable the 5ESS switch to

accommodate ISDN-sized 144,000-bit channels that standardize and simplify

subscribers' use of local networks.  AT&T is committed to future products that

will also be ISDN-compatible.  Other vendors, too, some of whom already plan to

build premises, terminal and other equipment to ISDN standards, will make ISDN

a cooperative effort.

   By providing integrated digital access to networks, ISDN  will make

important progress toward the goal of Universal Information Services.  But



                                    Page 163









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



overlay networks will continue to divvy up the transport job.  And messages

needing less than 144,000 bits per second will not fill their allotted

bandwidth, leaving capacity underutilized.

   Phase three, Universal Information Services.  Rooted in the fertile ground

of 5ESS switches, ISDN equipment and technologies such as wideband packet

transport, Universal Information Services will bear fruit during the 1990s.

>From a single kind of network will hang services as different as apples,

oranges and pears.  Just as network access was integrated in ISDN, transport

functions will increasingly be integrated by powerful new equipment evolved

from equipment developed for the ISDN.  Where customers once got standard-

sized ISDN channels, they'll get big bandwidth for large jobs, little bandwidth

for small jobs.



*** retyped from PROTO, AT&T Bell Laboratories report to executives on new

technologies, without written permission from the editors.  (heh, heh.)



Subscriptions:  $15.00 per year, published bi-monthly.  Send check payable to

"Bell Laboratories PROTO," to PROTO Circulation Manager, Room 3E-230, 150 John

F. Kennedy Parkway, Short Hills, N.J.  07078.



:LIQUID:CRYSTAL:

wisdom is safety









































































                                    Page 164









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==Phrack Inc.==

Volume One, Issue Two, Phile #7 of 9



         @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

         @                                                          @

         @                   _  _        _______                    @

         @                  | X/ |      / _____/                    @

         @                  |_||_|etal / /hop                       @

         @                  __________/ /                           @

         @                 /___________/                            @

         @            Headquarters of Phrack Newsletter             @

         @                     (314) 432-0756                       @

         @                    Proudly Presents                      @

         @                      MCI Overview                        @

         @                   Written on 11/16/85                    @

         @                           by                             @

         @                                                          @

         @              Knight Lightning & Taran King               @

         @                                                          @

         @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@



MCI Communications Corporation, headquartered in Washington, D.C., provides a

full range of domestic and international telecommunications services, including

voice and data, telex and cable, paging and mobile telephone, and time

sensitive message delivery.



Since its founding in 1968, MCI has grown to more than $1.6 billion in annual

sales and serves more than 1.9 million business, residential and government

customers through its four major business units:



MCI Telecommunications



MCI Airsignal



MCI International



MCI Digital Information Services





MCI TELECOMMUNICATIONS



   MCI Telecommunications provides domestic interstate long distance service

throughout all 50 states, plus Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and major

calling areas of Canada.  It is also authorized to provide varying degrees of

intrastate long distance service in some states.



MCI also is the first long distance carrier other than AT&T to offer direct

dial service overseas.  International telephone service is available to all

residential and commercial customers (with the exception of Private Line

customers).  In October, 1984 the first international service agreements were

announced with the following countries:  Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, East

Germany, Greece, United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom.



Total capital investment in MCI's long distance network is approximately $2

billion.  MCI's network, the second largest in the U.S., employs microwave

optical fiber, satellite and various digital transmission technologies.



Subscribers - Domestic Long Distance (as of 10/84)



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-----------   ----------------------

Residential              1.4 million

Commercial                .3 million

     Total               1.7 million



Operations - (as of 10/84)

Network Miles...20,543 (microwave, optical fiber, satellite)

Circuits.......238,000

Employees........9,500 (full-time, approx.)



MCI AIRSIGNAL



MCI Airsignal provides personal message delivery and car telephone services.

MCI Message Service is offered in more than 50 metropolitan areas.  In 1984,

service will commence in New York City, Baltimore-Washington, Los Angeles, and

Chicago.  MCI car telephone service is offered in 20 markets.



Personal Message Delivery Service



ALPHANUMERIC MESSAGE SERVICE



Displays up to 40-character message using letters and/or numbers. Memory and

recall ability.  Alerts subscriber with a silent visual alert or a soft tone.



DISPLAY MESSAGE SERVICE



Displays up to 24-digit message (e.g., phone number, stock quotes, sales

figures, coded messages).  Memory and recall capability.  Alerts customer to

message with a silent visual alert or a soft tone.



TONE MESSAGE SERVICE



Notifies customer of a message with a soft tone.



VOICE MESSAGE SERVICE



Receives message in actual voice of caller.



EXPRESS MESSAGE SERVICE



Receives and stores messages.  Instantly alerts subscriber via pager when a

message is received.



Car Telephone Service



Enables customers to place calls to or receive calls from anywhere in the

world, 24 hours a day, as they travel in their cars.  With the advent of new

cellular technology, both the quality and the accessibility of car telephone

service will vastly improve.



MCI has thus far obtained franchises to operate a new kind of mobile phone

service,  cellular telephone, in Minneapolis and Pittsburgh, and has received

favorable decisions from FCC administration law judges authorizing service in

Los Angeles, Denver-Boulder, and Kansas City. MCI has applied for licenses to

provide cellular service in 81 metropolitan areas.



MCI Airsignal Branch Sales Offices





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Personal Message Service/Conventional Mobile Phone Service



Birmingham                             (205)  942-2924

Sacramento                             (916)  444-2350

Memphis                                (901)  682-9658

Cleveland                              (216)  464-7311

Dallas                                 (214)  788-5111

Fresno                                 (209)  486-7410

Las Vegas                              (702)  382-7461

Denver                                 (303)  778-7878

Portland                               (503)  227-2556

Philadelphia                           (215)  677-9845

Atlanta                                (404)  252-2114

West Florida                           (813)  875-3404

Minneapolis                            (612)  544-8175

Kansas City                            (913)  648-8090

Miami                                  (305)  491-0122

Pittsburgh                             (412)  343-1611

Houston                                (713)  464-2516

Bakersfield                            (805)  832-2346



Cellular Telephone Offices



            Minneapolis-St. Paul                   (612)  544-3312

            Los Angeles                            (714)  527-0385

            Elsewhere in California                (800)  344-3455

            Headquarters - Washington, D.C.        (202)  429-9660





MCI INTERNATIONAL



MCI International provides private-line voice service to several overseas

countries, and data and message services, including telex, cablegram, leased

channel, and packet switching communications, to more than 200 overseas points.

MCI has moved into two new areas of service:  International direct-dial

telephone service and international electronic mail and hard-copy delivery

services.



International Record Services



TELEX SERVICE   (domestic and international) permits instantaneous, two-way,

written communications with other subscribers worldwide.  Customers can send

messages at any time, even though the receiving terminal may be unattended. MCI

International offers access to its telex service from a variety of terminals

and networks; not only subscribers with telex terminals but also those with

communicating word processors, data terminals or computers that communicate

over telephone lines can take advantage of MCI International telex service.  To

subscribers connected to its own telex network, MCI International offers World

Message Services--a package of communications offerings including telex,

cablegram and MCI Mail services.  Various service enhancements are available to

save time, improve operating efficiency and simplify records keeping for telex

users.



CABLEGRAM SERVICE, the traditional means of international written

communications, offers flexibility in delivery and economical rates for shorter

messages.  Cablegrams can be delivered to virtually any overseas

point.Subscribers with telex terminals or various other types of equipment can

access and TELUS cablegram switch and take advantage of such service



                                    Page 167









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



enhancements as abbreviated addressing and departmental billing.



LEASED

CHANNEL SERVICE  provides an exclusive line between a U.S. firm and it's

overseas office for private communications 24 hours a day.  Each MCI

International leased channel is tailored to meet the needs of a specific

customer for teleprinter, facsimile, voice and/or data traffic. For subscribers

with several offices requiring private communications with each other, MCI

International offers a versatile message-switching service. Voice/data leases

can be configured to meet a whole array of communicating needs; for example,

one channel might carry data traffic from a computer at night, voice

communications during office hours, and simultaneous teleprinter messages at

any time.  Data channels can handle requirements for traffic at any speed from

1200 bits per second to 1.544 megabits per second.



IMPACS SERVICE   uses packet-switching technology to provide international

communications service between data terminals and computers.  Impacs offers

on-line, real-time connections and enables many types of incompatible systems

to communicate.  Impacs service offers virtually error-free transmission

because of the error-detection and retransmission capability of the network.



INSTALINK SERVICE allows businesses overseas to use regular telex equipment to

access remote computing systems and databases in the U.S.  Subscribers can

retrieve data from a computer-based information service or use a computing

system connecting to a packet-switching network in the U.S.



INTERNATIONAL

FACSIMILE SERVICE enables subscribers to send duplicates of original documents

overseas quickly and efficiently, even when neither the sender or the receiver

has facsimile transmission equipment, or when the sender and receiver have

incompatible equipment.



DATEL SERVICE  provides automatic or voice-coordinated data transmission at

speeds up to 2400 bits per second. Either digital or analog facsimile traffic

can be transmitted via Datel.  Datel facilities are conditioned to ensure

high-quality transmission.  The MCI International switching center allows

communications between incompatible terminals.



MARITIME SERVICES   provide instant, high--quality contact between ships at sea

or offshore rigs, and between these vessels and land-based subscribers

worldwide.



International Voice Services



PRIVATE

LINE SERVICE   provides, fast, easy access to a single overseas location at an

economical monthly rate.  This technically efficient system maximizes the use

of line capacity by recognizing idle time and assigning a speaker to a

transmission path only when the path is needed.  Users can dial a four-digit

extension from a regular business phone to reach a key overseas location.



International Mail Services



WORLD

MESSAGE SERVICE   subscribers can access the domestic electronic mail and

hard-copy delivery offerings of MCI Mail.  In addition, MCI International is

developing fast, low-cost services that will deliver electronic messages and

high-quality printed documents worldwide.



                                    Page 168









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Customer Service



THE CUSTOMER TROUBLE REPORTING ASSISTANCE CENTER at MCI International addresses

customer concerns such as equipment maintenance and service performance

questions.  Customer service specialists, on duty 24 hours a day on business

days, answer questions and electronically route service requests to technicians

nationwide.



MCI DIGITAL INFORMATION SERVICES CORP.



MCI Digital Information Services, MCI's newest unit, provides high-speed,

low-cost, time-sensitive message delivery (MCI Mail), either electronically or

via hard copy.



MCI Mail   provides time-sensitive document delivery to anyone, anywhere vial

MCI's long-distance telephone network.  MCI Mail can reach a recipient

instantly, in four hours or less, or overnight by noon the next day.  Prices

are as much as 90 percent lower than comparable time-sensitive mail delivery

services.  MCI Mail can be delivered electronically, terminal to terminal, or

laser printed on letterhead stationery with the customer's signature.



MCI Mail customers can even order gifts and services direct through MCI Mail,

ranging from software and paper for personal computers to investment advisory

services to travel specials.



There are no sign-up, monthly service charges or "connect time" charges for MCI

Mail.  MCI Mail can be used by virtually any personal computer, word processor,

electronic typewriter, data terminal, telex, or other digital communications

device.  The service is accessed by a local telephone call or 800 number.



MCI Mail



INSTANT delivery to an "electronic" mailbox.



FOUR-HOUR paper delivery by courier to 17 major metropolitan areas regardless

of point of origin.



OVERNIGHT paper delivery by courier by noon the next day in 20,000 continental

U.S. cities.



MCI LETTER transmitted electronically to the MCI digital postal center nearest

its destination, then delivered locally by the U.S. Postal Service.



TELEX DISPATCH enables MCI Mail subscribers to transmit messages to the more

than 1.6 million telex subscribers worldwide.



VOLUME MAIL enables customers to send large mailings in a variety of letter

formats, at substantial savings in delivery time and expense.



         ============================================================

              Look for more MCI Files coming to Metal Shop soon!



                 This has been a Knight Lightning Presentation

         ============================================================









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                               Reference Tables



   Just some notes that you will always try to find but can never!

















































































































                                    Page 170









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==Phrack Inc.==

Volume One, Issue One, Phile #5 of 8



                            Using MCI Calling Cards

                                      by

                               Knight Lightning

                                    of the

                                  2600 Club!



How to dial international calls on MCI:



               "Its easy to use MCI for international calling."



1.  Dial your MCI access number and authorization code (code = 14 digit number,

however the first 10 digits are the card holders NPA+PRE+SUFF).



2.  Dial 011



3.  Dial the country code



4.  Dial the city code and the PRE+SUFF that you want.



Countries served by MCI:



Country                          code|Country                     code

-------------------------------------|--------------------------------

Algeria..........................213 |New Zealand..................064

Argentina........................054 |Northern Ireland.............044

Australia........................061 |Oman.........................968

Belgium..........................032 |Papua New Guinea.............675

Brazil...........................055 |Qatar........................974

Canada................Use Area Codes |Saudi Arabia.................966

Cyprus...........................357 |Scotland.....................044

Denmark..........................045 |Senegal......................221

Egypt............................020 |South Africa.................027

England..........................044 |Sri Lanka....................094

German Democratic Republic           |Sweden.......................046

(East Germany)...................037 |Taiwan.......................886

Greece...........................030 |Tanzania.....................255

Jordan...........................962 |Tunisa.......................216

Kenya............................254 |United Arab Emirates.........971

Kuwait...........................965 |Wales........................044

Malawi...........................265 |

======================================================================



Thats 33 countries in all. To get the extender for these calls dial 950-1022 or

1-800-624-1022.



For local calling:



1.  Dial 950-10222 or 1-800-624-1022



2.  Wait for tone



3.  Dial "0", the area code, the phone number, and the 14 digit authorization

code. You will hear 2 more tones that let you know you are connected.



  - Knight Lightning -->  The 2600 Club!



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=====================================================================





















































































































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            AT&T INTERNATIONAL DIALING COUNTRY CODES AS OF 2-17-85



                             FILE BY:  Lock Lifter

                          +=========================+



*UNITED KINGDOM/IRELAND

------------------------------------

IRELAND.........................353

UNITED KINGDOM...................44



*EUROPE

------------------------------------

ANDORRA..........................33

AUSTRIA..........................43

BELGIUM..........................32

CYPRUS..........................357

CZECHOLSLOVAKIA..................42

DENMARK..........................45

FINLAND.........................358

FRANCE...........................33

GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC.......37

GERMANY, FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF.....49

GIBRALTAR.......................350

GREECE...........................30

HUNGARY..........................36

ICELAND.........................354

ITALY............................39

LIECHTENSTEIN....................41

LUXEMBOURG......................352

MONACO...........................33

NETHERLANDS......................31

NORWAY...........................47

POLAND...........................48

PORTUGAL........................351

ROMANIA..........................40

SAN MARINO.......................39

SPAIN............................34

SWEDEN...........................46

SWITZERLAND......................41

TURKEY...........................90

VATICAN CITY.....................39

YUGOSLAVIA.......................38



*CENTRAL AMERICA

------------------------------------

BELIZE..........................501

COSTA RICA......................506

EL SALVADOR.....................503

GUATEMALA.......................502

HONDURAS........................504

NICARAGUA.......................505

PANAMA..........................507



*AFRICA

------------------------------------

ALGERIA.........................213

CAMEROON........................237

EGYPT............................20



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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



ETHIOPIA........................251

GABON...........................241

IVORY COAST.....................225

KENYA...........................254

LESOTHO.........................266

LIBERIA.........................231

LIBYA...........................218

MALAWI..........................265

MOROCCO.........................212

NAMIBIA.........................264

NIGERIA.........................234

SENEGAL.........................221

SOUTH AFRICA.....................27

SWAZILAND.......................268

TANZANIA........................255

TUNISIA.........................216

UGANDA..........................256

ZAMBIA..........................260

ZIMBABWE........................263



*PACIFIC

------------------------------------

AMERICAN SAMOA..................684

AUSTRAILIA.......................61

BRUNEI..........................673

FIJI............................679

FRENCH POLYNESIA................689

GUAM............................671

HONG KONG.......................852

INDONESIA........................62

JAPAN............................81

KOREA, REPUBLIC OF...............82

MALAYSIA.........................60

NEW CALEDONIA...................687

NEW ZEALAND......................64

PAPUA NEW GUINEA................675

PHILIPPINES......................63

SAIPAN..........................670

SINGAPORE........................65

TAIWAN..........................886

THAILAND.........................66



*INDIAN OCEAN

------------------------------------

PAKISTAN.........................92

SRI LANKA........................94



*SOUTH AMERICA

------------------------------------

ARGENTINA........................54

BOLIVIA.........................591

BRAZIL...........................55

CHILE............................56

COLOMBIA.........................57

ECUADOR.........................593

GUYANA..........................592

PARAGUAY........................595

PERU.............................51



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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



SURINAME........................597

URUGUAY.........................598

VENEZUELA........................58



*NEAR EAST

------------------------------------

BAHRAIN.........................973

IRAN.............................98

IRAQ............................964

ISRAEL..........................972

JORDAN..........................962

KUWAIT..........................965

OMAN............................968

QATAR...........................974

SAUDI ARABIA....................966

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES............971

YEMEN ARAB REPUBLIC.............967



*CARIBBEAN/ATLANTIC

------------------------------------

FRENCH ANTILLES.................596

GUANTANAMO BAY (US NAVY BASE)....53

HAITI...........................509

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES............599

ST. PIERRE AND MIQUELON.........508



*INDIA

------------------------------------

INDIA............................91



*CANADA

------------------------------------

TO CALL CANADA, DIAL 1 + AREA CODE +

LOCAL NUMBER.



*MEXICO

------------------------------------

TO CALL MEXICO, DIAL 011 + 52 + CITY CODE+ LOCAL NUMBER.



***NOTES :DO NOT FORGET ABOUT THE TIME DIFFERENCE WHEN CALLING OUTSIDE OF YOUR

TIME ZONE. CALLING CARDS CAN BE USED OVER SEAS TO CALL BACK INTO THE U.S. FOR

FURTHER INFORMATION CALL TOLL-FREE 1-800-874-0000. DIAL '#' AFTER THE COMPLETE

NUMBER TO MAKE THE CALL GO THROUGH FASTER.

































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                    **************************************

                    *                                    *

                    *    International Dialing Codes     *

                    *         Country + Routing          *

                    *                                    *

                    *      (Typed by The Dagda Mor)      *

                    *       (Edited by The Jammer)       *

                    *                                    *

                    **************************************



To dial international calls:



International Access Code + Country code + Routing code



Example :



To call Frankfurt, Germany, you would do the following:



011 + 49 + 611 + (# wanted) + # sign(octothrope)



The # sign at the end is to tell Bell that you are done entering in all the

needed info.



Here is the list of Country Codes, listed next to the country, and the routing

codes listed next to the city.



Andorra- 33          Argentina- 54

-------              ---------

all points- 078      Buenos Aires- 1





Australia- 61        Austria- 43

---------            -------

Melbourne- 3         Innsbruck- 5222

Sydney- 2            Vienna- 222





Bahrain- 973         Belgium- 32

-------              -------

no routing needed    Antwerp- 31

                     Brussels- 2





Belize- 501          Bolivia- 591

------               -------

no routing needed    La Paz- 2





Brazil- 591          Chile- 56

------               -----

Brasilia-61          Santiago- 2

Rio de Janeiro- 21   Valparaiso- 31

Sao Paulo- 11





China- 86            Colombia- 56

-----                --------

Tainan- 62           none needed



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Taipei- 2





Costa Rica- 506      Cyprus- 357

----- ----           ------

no routing needed    Nicosia- 21





Denmark- 45          Ecuador- 593

-------              -------

Aalborg- 8           Cuenca- 4

Copenhagen 1 or 2    Quito- 2





El Salvador- 503     Fiji- 679

----------           ----

no routing needed    none needed





France- 33           Germany- 49

------               -------

Bordeaux- 56         Berlin- 30

Marseille- 91        Bonn- 228

Nice- 93             Frankfurt- 661

Paris- 1             Munich- 89





German. Rep- 37      Greece- 30

------- ---          ------

                     Rhodes- 241





Guam- 671            Guatamala- 502

----                 ---------

no routing needed    Guatemala City- 2





Guyana- 592          Haiti- 509

------               -----

Georgetown- 02       Port Au Prince- 1





Hoduras- 504         Hong Kong- 852

-------              ---- ----

no routing needed    Hong Kong- 5

                     Kowloon- 3





Indonesia- 62        Iran- 98

---------            ----

Jakarta- 21          Teheran- 21





Iraq- 964            Ireland- 353

----                 -------

Baghdad- 1           Dublin- 1

                     Galway- 91



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Israel- 978          Italy- 39

------               -----

Haifa- 4             Florence- 55

Jerusalem- 2         Naples- 81

Tel Aviv- 3          Rome- 6

                     Venice- 41





Ivory Coast- 225     Japan- 81

----- -----          -----

no routing needed    Hiroshima- 822

                     Tokyo- 3

                     Yokohama- 45





Kenya- 254           Korea- 82

-----                -----

Nairobi- 2           Pusan- 51

                     Seoul- 2





Kuwait- 965          Liberia- 231

------               -------

no routing needed    none needed





Libya- 218           Lechtenstein- 4

-----                ------------

Tripoli- 21          All points- 75





Luxembourg- 352      Malaysia- 60

----------           --------

no routing needed    Kuala Lumpur- 3





Monaco- 33           Netherlands- 31

------               -----------

All points- 93       Amsterdam- 20

                     Rotterdam- 10

                     The Hague- 70





New Caledonia- 687   New Zealand- 64

--- ---------        --- -------

no routing needed    Auckland- 9

                     Wellinton- 4





Nicaragua- 505       Nigeria- 234

---------            -------

Managua- 2           Lagos- 1





Norway- 47           Panama- 507

------               ------



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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



Bergen- 5            none needed

Oslo- 2





Papua New Guinea-675 Paraguay- 595

----- --- ------     --------

no routing needed    Asuncion- 21





Peru- 51             Phillippines- 63

----                 ------------

Arequipa- 542        Manila- 2

Lima- 14



Portugal- 351        Romania- 40

--------             -------

Lisbon- 19           Bucuresti- 0





San Marino- 39       Saudi Arabia- 966

--- ------           ----- ------

All points- 541      Riyadh- 1





Senegal- 221         South Africa- 27

-------              ----- ------

no routing needed    Cape Town- 21

                     Pretoria- 12





Spain- 34            Sri Lanka- 94

-----                --- -----

Barcelona- 3         Colombo- 1

Canary Is.- 28

Madrid- 1

Seville- 54





Suriname- 597        Sweden- 46

--------             ------

no routing needed    Goteborg- 31

                     Stockholm- 8





Switzerland- 41      Tahiti- 689

-----------          ------

Berne- 31            none needed

Geneva- 22

Lucerne- 41

Zurich- 1





Thailand- 66         Tunisia- 216

--------             -------

Bangkok- 2           Tunis- 1





Turkey- 90           United Arab



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------               Emirates- 971

Istanbul- 11         --------

                     Abu Dhabi- 2

                     Ajman- 6

                     Al Ain- 3

                     Aweir- 49

                     Dubai- 4

                     Fujairah- 91

                     Jebel Dhana- 5

                     Sharjah- 6

                     Umm-Al-Quwain- 6





United Kingdom- 44   USSR- 7

------ -------       ----

Belfast- 232         Kiev- 044

Cardiff- 222         Leningrad- 812

Edinburgh- 31        Minsk- 017

Glasgow- 41          Moscow- 095

Liverpool- 51        Tallinn- 0142

London- 1



Vatican City- 39     Venezuela- 58

------- ----         ---------

All points- 6        Caracas- 2

                     Maracaibo- 61



Yugoslavia- 38

----------

Belgrade- 11

Zagreb- 41

























































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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



                    **************************************

                    *                                    *

                    *           MAX ACCESS PORTS         *

                    *                                    *

                    *        (LEXITEL CORPORATION)       *

                    *                                    *

                    *   WORD PROCESSED BY THE DAGDA MOR  *

                    *                                    *

                    **************************************



ADRIAN,MI............313-263-0191  LIVONIA, MI..........313-261-6970

AKRON,OH.............216-275-9814  LOS ANGELES, CA......213-624-9041

ANN ARBOR, MI........313-451-2121  LOUISVILLE, KY.......502-568-6204

ATLANTA, GA..........404-525-1769  MARION, OH...........614-387-1011

AVON LAKE, OH........216-933-2823  MCKEESPORT, PA.......412-664-4870

BADEN, PA............412-869-1360  MENTOR, OH...........216-255-1645

BALTIMORE, MD........301-444-7280  MIDDLETOWN, OH.......513-423-1066

BEAVER FALLS, PA.....412-847-3640  MILWAUKEE, WI........414-933-1880

BIRMINGHAM, MI.......313-649-0730  MINNEAPOLIS, MN......612-375-0280

BOSTON, MA...........617-267-9134  MONESSEN, PA.........412-684-8710

BUFFALO, NY..........716-854-0802  MORTON GROVE,IL......312-950-1066

BUTLER, PA...........412-285-9081  NEWARK, NJ...........201-624-5040

CANTON, OH...........216-455-1425  NEWARK, OH...........614-349-8754

CHICAGO, IL..........312-950-1066  NEW CASTLE, PA.......412-656-9420

CHILLICOTHE, OH......614-772-1066  NEW YORK, NY.........212-950-1066

CINCINNATI, OH.......513-421-1880  OAK LAWN, IL.........312-950-1066

CLEVELAND, OH........216-771-6614  PHILADELPHIA, PA.....215-751-9711

COLUMBUS, OH.........614-950-1066  PITTSBURG, PA........412-391-9532

DALLAS, TX...........214-653-1047  PLYMOUTH, MI.........313-451-2121

DAYTON, OH...........513-223-0366  PONTIAC, MI..........313-332-0500

DETROIT, MI..........313-950-1066  PORT HURON, MI.......313-982-7115

ELK GROVE, IL........312-950-1066  PHOENIX, AZ..........602-242-0252

ELYRIA, OH...........419-323-4431  QUEENS, NY...........718-204-7330

FINDLAY, OH..........419-424-5934  SANDUSKY, OH.........419-625-1289

GLEENSHAW, PA........412-486-7394  SHARON, PA...........412-983-0100

GRAND RAPIDS, MI.....616-456-7925  SPRINGFIELD, OH......513-950-1066

GREENSBURG, PA.......412-836-8110  STEUBENVILLE, OH.....614-283-1756

HACKENSACK, NJ.......201-342-2815  ST. LOUIS, MO........314-289-9100

HOUSTON, TX..........713-224-0982  ST. PAUL, WI.........612-375-0280

INDIANA, PA..........412-349-8760  TOLEDO, OH...........419-255-1316

INDIANAPOLIS, IN.....317-638-4442  TROY, OH.............513-335-2303

KALAMAZOO, MI........616-342-0266  TURTLE CREEK, PA.....412-823-1500

KANSAS CITY, MO......816-474-6193  WASHINGTON, DC.......202-479-4411

KOKOMO, IN...........317-453-9932  WASHINGTON, PA.......412-225-1800

LA GRANGE, IL........312-950-1066  WARREN, MI...........313-268-9120

LANCASTER, OH........614-687-0159  XENIA, OH............513-376-2991

LANSING, MI..........517-950-1066  YOUNGSTOWN, OH.......216-746-2021

LAFAYETTE, IN........317-423-5492  ZANESVILLE, OH.......614-454-6815























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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



      ******************** METROFONE ACCESS NUMBERS ********************



ANAHEIM, CA          (714)527-7055  LOS ANGELES, CA      (213)992-8282

ATLANTA, GA          (404)223-1000  LOS ANGELES, CA      (213)202-6117

AUSTIN, TX           (512)474-6057  MIAMI, FL            (305)326-3300

BALTIMORE, MD        (301)659-7700  MILWAUKEE, WI        (414)277-1805

BEAUMONT, TX         (713)833-9331  MINNEAPOLIS, MN      (612)370-9000

BOSTON, MA           (617)482-3222  NEW ORLEANS, LA      (504)566-8500

BUFFALO, NY          (716)852-9200  NEW YORK, NY         (212)732-7430

CHICAGO, IL          (312)853-4700  NEWARK, NJ           (201)645-9220

CINCINNATI, OH       (513)241-1747  OAKLAND, CA          (415)836-6900

CLEVELAND, OH        (216)861-5163  OKLAHOMA CITY, OK    (405)232-9011

COLUMBUS, OH         (614)224-0577  OMAHA, NE            (402)422-1120

CULVER CITY, CA      (213)410-0078  PHILADELPHIA, PA     (215)351-0100

DALLAS, TX           (214)742-4500  PITTSBURGH, PA       (412)261-5720

DAYTON, OH           (513)228-1576  RENO, NV             (702)329-1025

DENVER, CO           (303)623-5326  RICHMOND, VA         (804)225-1920

DETROIT, MI          (313)963-4847  ST. LOUIS, MO        (314)342-1130

EL MONTE, CA         (213)350-1028  SACRAMENTO, CA       (916)443-6921

ELK GROVE, IL        (312)981-8870  SAN ANTONIO, TX      (512)224-9600

FT. LAUDERDALE, FL   (305)462-3530  SAN DIEGO, CA        (714)233-0327

FT. WORTH, TX        (817)338-1639  SAN FRANCISCO, CA    (415)956-0162

HACKENSACK, NJ       (201)487-3155  SAN JOSE, CA         (408)947-7606

HARTFORD, CT         (203)522-0003  SAN MATEO, CA        (415)579-6001

HAWTHORNE, NJ        (201)427-1100  SANTA ANA, CA        (714)972-9515

HINSDALE, IL         (312)986-0566  SEATTLE, WA          (206)382-0910

HOUSTON, TX          (713)224-9417  SKOKIE, IL           (312)679-8120

HUNTINGTON BEACH, CA (714)972-8515  SYRACUSE, NY         (315)474-3911

INDIANAPOLIS, IN     (317)635-6284  TOLEDO, OH           (419)243-1046

KANSAS CITY, KS      (913)621-3186  WASHINGTON, DC       (202)737-2051

LONG ISLAND, NY      (516)443-5402

LOS ANGELES, CA      (213)629-1026























































                                    Page 182









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



                 Area Codes In Numerical Order, by The Jammer

______________________________________________________________________



201 Newark           New Jersey    519 London           Ontario

202 Washington D.C   (all)         601 Mississippi      (all)

203 Connecticut      (all)         602 Arizona          (all)

205 Alabama          (all)         603 New Hampshire    (all)

206 Seattle          Washington    605 South Dakota     (all)

207 Maine            (all)         606 Winchester       Kentucky

208 Idaho            (all)         607 Binghamton       New York

212 Bronx            Nyc, New York 608 Madison          Wisconsin

212 Manhattan        Nyc, New York 609 Trenton          New Jersey

213 Los Angeles      California    612 St. Paul         Minnesota

214 Dallas           Texas         613 Ottawa           Ontario

215 Philadelphia     Pennsylvania  614 Columbus         Ohio

216 Cleveland        Ohio          615 Nashville        Tennessee

217 Springfield      Illinois      616 Grand Rapids     Michigan

218 Duluth           Minnesota     617 Boston           Massachusetts

219 Gary             Indiana       618 Alton            Illinois

301 Maryland         (all)         619 San Diego        California

303 Colorado         (all)         700 Teleconference   (all)

304 West Virginia    (all)         701 North Dakota     (all)

305 Miami            Florida       702 Nevada           (all)

305 Orlando          Florida       703 Alexandria       Virginia

307 Wyoming          (all)         704 Charlotte        North Carolina

308 Abott            Nebraska      705 North Bay        Ontario

309 Peoria           Illinois      712 Councilbluffs    Iowa

312 Chicago          Illinois      713 Houston          Texas

313 Detroit          Michigan      714 Anaheim          California

314 St. Louis        Missouri      715 Bay City         Wisconsin

315 Syracuse         New York      716 Buffalo          New York

316 Wichita          Kansas        716 Rochester        New York

317 Indinapolis      Illinois      717 Harrisburg       Pennsylvania

318 Lake charles     Lousiana      800 Toll Free        (all)

319 Davenport        Iowa          801 Utah             (all)

401 Rhode Island     (all)         802 Vermont          (all)

402 Omaha            Nebraska      803 South Carolina   (all)

404 Atlanta          Georgia       804 Richmond         Virgina

405 Oklahoma City    Oklahoma      805 Bakersfield      California

406 Montana          (all)         806 Amarillo         Texas

408 San Jose         California    807 Thunder Bay      Ontario

412 Pittsburg        Pennsylvania  808 Hawaii           (all)

413 Springfield      Massachusetts 809 Bermuda          (all)

414 Milwaukee        Wisconsin     809 Bahamas          (all)

415 San Francisco    California    809 Puerto Rico      (all)

416 Toronto          Onterio       809 Virgin Islands   (all)

417 Joplin           Missouri      812 Evansville       Indiana

418 Quebec           Quebec        812 Dade park        Kentucky

419 Toledo           Ohio          814 Johnston         Pennsylvania

501 Arkansas         (all)         815 Rockford         Illinois

502 Frankfort        Kentucky      816 Independence     Missouri

503 Oregon           (all)         817 Fort Worth       Texas

504 New Orleans      Louisiana     818 Burbank          California

504 Baton Rouge      Louisiana     819 Trois Riv.       Quebec

505 New Mexico       (all)         900 Dial-it          (all)

507 Rochester        Minnesota     901 Memphis          Tennessee

509 Pullman          Washington    904 Talahassee       Florida

512 Austin           Texas         906 Escanaba         Michigan



                                    Page 183









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



513 Cincinnati       Ohio          907 Alaska           (all)

514 Montreal         Quebec        912 Savannah         Georgia

515 Des Moines       Iowa          913 Kansas  City     Kansas

516 Hempstead        New York      915 El Paso          Texas

517 Lansing          Michigan      916 Sacramento       California

518 Albany           New York      918 Tulsa            Oklahoma

                                   919 Raleigh          North Carolina









































































































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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



==Phrack Inc.==

Volume One, Issue Two, Phile #5 of 9



Updated from November 26, 1985

Tac Dialups taken from Arpanet

by Phantom Phreaker



                   TAC DIALUPS SORTED BY LOCATION 26-NOV-85



State/Country         300 Baud             1200 Baud              1200 Type

-------------      ---------------       -----------------        ---------



  ALABAMA

   Anniston Army Depot [M]

   (ANNIS-MIL-TAC)   (205) 235-6285 (R4)    (205) 235-7650               B/V

                     (205) 237-5731 (R8)    (205) 237-5731 (R8)          B/V

                     (205) 237-5770 (R8)    (205) 237-5779 (R8)          B/V

                     (205) 237-5805 (R8)    (205) 237-5805 (R8)          B/V



   *Please note:  When accessing the Anniston TAC you must first enter a

   <RETURN>, then enter DDN <RETURN>.  After you receive CLASS DDN START,

   proceed as normal.



   Gunter AFS [M]



   (GUNTER-TAC)      (205) 279-3576

                     (205) 279-4682



   Redstone Arsenal [M]

   (MICOM-TAC)       [none known]



  ARIZONA

   Ft. Huachuca [M]

   (HUAC-MIL-TAC)    [none known]



   Yuma [M]

   (YUMA-TAC)        (602) 328-2186         (602) 328-2186               B/V

                     (602) 328-2187         (602) 328-2187               B/V

                     (602) 328-2188         (602) 328-2188               B/V



  CALIFORNIA (NORTHERN)

   Alameda [M]

   (ALAMEDA-MIL-TAC)     [none known]



   Menlo Park [M]

   (SRI-MIL-TAC)     (415) 327-5440 (R3)    (415) 327-5440 (R3)          B



   (USGS3-TAC) [M]   [no dialups]



   Moffett Field [M]

   (AMES-TAC)        [no dialups; contact NSC for access]

                     William Jones - (415) 694-6482

                                     (FTS) 494-6482

                                      (AV) 359-6482



   Monterey [M]

   (NPS-TAC)         [none known]





                                    Page 185









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



   Sacsamento [M]

   (MCCLELLAN1-MIL-TAC)   [none known]

   (MCCLELLAN2-MIL-TAC)   [none known]



   Stanford [A]

   (SU-TAC)          (415) 327-5220



  CALIFORNIA (SOUTHERN)

   China Lake [M]

   (NWC-TAC)         [none known]





   Edwards AFB [M]

   (EDWARD-MIL-TAC)  [none known]



   El Segundo [M]

   (AFSC-SD-TAC)     (213) 643-9204     (213) 643-9204                  B/V



   Los Angeles [A]

   (USC-TAC)         (213) 749-5436



   Los Angeles [A]

   (USC-ARPA-TAC)    [none known]



   San Diego [M]

   (ACCAT-TAC)   (619) 225-1641 (R4)    (619) 225-6903                  V

                 (619) 225-6946 (R3)

                                        (619) 223-2148                  V

                 (619) 226-7884 (R2)



   Santa Monica

   (RAND-ARPA-TAC) [A]

                 (213) 393-9230

                 (213) 393-9237

                 (213) 393-9238

                 (213) 393-9239



   (RAND2-MIL-TAC) [M]   [none known]



  COLORADO

   Denver Fed Ctr [M]

   (USGS2-TAC)       (303) 232-0206         (303) 232-0206              B/V



   Lowry Air Force Base [M]

   (LOWRY-MIL-TAC)   [none known]



  D.C.

   Washington

    [Andrews AFB] [M]

   (AFSC-HQ-TAC)  (301) 967-7930 (R16)     (301) 967-7930 (R16)         B

                  (301) 736-2990 (R4)      (301) 736-2990 (R4)          B

                  (301) 736-2998 (R2)      (301) 736-2998 (R2)          B



   (PENTAGON-TAC) (202) 553-0229 (R14)  (202) 553-0229 (R14)            B



  FLORIDA

   Eglin AFB [M]

   (AFSC-AD-TAC)     (904) 882-8202         (904) 882-8202              B/V



                                    Page 186









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



                     (904) 882-8201         (904) 882-8201              V



   MacDill AFB [M]

   (MACDILL-MIL-TAC)  [none known]



   Naval Air Station - Jacksonville [M]

    (JAX1-MIL-TAC)    [none known]



   Naval Air Station - Orlando [M]

    (ORLANDO-MIL-TAC) [none known]



  GEORGIA

   Robins AFB [M]

   (ROBINS-TAC)      (912) 926-2725         (912) 926-2725              B/V

                     (912) 926-2726

                     (912) 926-3231

                     (912) 926-3232

                     (912) 926-2204         (912) 926-2204              B/V

   HAWAII

   Camp H.M. Smith [M]

   (HAWAII2-TAC)     (808) 487-5545         (808) 487-5545              B



  ILLINOIS

   Scott AFB [M]

   (SCOTT-TAC)       [none known]



   (SCOTT2-MIL-TAC)  [none known]



  KANSAS

   Ft. Leavenworth [M]

   (LVN-MIL-TAC)     (913) 651-7041 (R8)  (913) 651-7041 (R8)           B



  LOUISIANA

   Navy Regional Data Automation Center [M]

   (NORL-MIL-TAC)    (504) 944-7940       (504) 944-7940                B

                     (504) 944-7948 (R2)  (504) 944-7948 (R2)           B

                     (504) 944-7951 (R5)  (504) 944-7951 (R5)           B

                     (504) 944-8702 (R8)  (504) 944-8702 (R8)           B



  MARYLAND

   Aberdeen Proving Ground [M]

   (BRL-TAC)      (301) 278-6916 (R4)   (301) 278-6916 (R4)             B/V



   Bethesda [M]

   (DAVID-TAC)    (202) 227-3526 (R16)  (202) 227-3526 (R16)            B/V



   Patuxent River [M]

   (PAX-RV-TAC)      (301) 863-4815        (301) 863-4815               B/V

                     (301) 863-4816        (301) 863-4816               B/V

                     (301) 863-5750 (R6)   (301) 863-5750 (R6)          B/V



   Silver Spring [M]

   (WHITEOAK-MIL-TAC)   (301) 572-5960 (R10)   (301) 572-5960 (R10)     B

                        (301) 572-5970 (R10)   (301) 572-5970 (R10)     B



  MASSACHUSETTS

   Hanscom AFB [M]

   (AFGL-TAC)     (617) 861-3000 (R8)   (617) 861-3000 (R8)             B



                                    Page 187









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



                  (617) 861-4965 (R8)   (617) 861-4965 (R8)



   Cambridge

   (BBN-MIL-TAC) [M]   [none known]



   (BBN-ARPA-TAC) [A]  [no dialup capability]



   (CCA-ARP-TAC) [A]   [none known]



   (MIT-TAC) [A]

                        (617) 491-5669        (617) 258-6224            V

                        (617) 491-5708        (617) 258-6225            V

                        (617) 491-5734        (617) 258-6227            V

                        (617) 491-5819        (617) 258-6248            V

                        (617) 491-5826

                        (617) 491-5841

                        (617) 491-5849

                        (617) 491-6769

                        (617) 491-6772

                        (617) 491-6937

                        (617) 258-6241

                        (617) 258-6242

                        (617) 258-6243



  MICHIGAN

   U.S. Army Tank Automotive Command (TACOM) - Warren [M]

   (TACOM-TAC)       [none known]



  MISSOURI

   St. Louis [M]

   (STLA-TAC)        [none known]



  NEBRASKA

   Offutt AFB [M]

   (SAC1-MIL-TAC)    [none known]



   (SAC2-MIL-TAC)    (402) 292-4638 (R10)   (402) 292-4638 (R10)         B



   (SAC-ARPA-TAC) [A]

                     (402) 294-2398         (402) 294-2398               B

                     (402) 291-2018         (402) 291-2018               B

                     (402) 292-7054         (402) 292-7054               B



  NEW JERSEY

   Dover [M]

   (ARDC-TAC)        (201) 724-6731         (201) 724-6731               B/V

                     (201) 724-6732         (201) 724-6732               B/V

                     (201) 724-6733         (201) 724-6733               B/V

                     (201) 724-6734         (201) 724-6734               B/V



   Fort Monmouth [M]

   (FTMONMOUTH1-MIL-TAC)   (201) 544-2052         (201) 544-2052         B/V

                           (201) 544-2062         (201) 544-2062         B/V

                           (201) 544-2072         (201) 544-2072         B/V

                           (201) 544-2396         (201) 544-2396         B/V

                           (201) 544-2430         (201) 544-2430         B/V



   (FTMONMOUTH2-MIL-TAC)   (201) 544-4254 (R3)    (201) 544-2430         B



                                    Page 188









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



                                                  (201) 544-2636         B

                                                  (201) 544-2638         B

          (201) 544-2777         B



  NEW MEXICO

   Albuquerque [M]

   (AFWL-TAC)        [none known]



  White Sands [M]

   (WSMR-TAC)       [no dialups; contact NSC for access]

                    Claude (Skeet) Steffey - (505) 678-1271

                                             (FTS) 898-1271

                                              (AV) 258-1271



  NEW YORK

   Griffiss AFB

   (RADC-ARPA-TAC) [A] [no dialup capability]



   (RADC-TAC) [M]

                     (315) 339-4913 (R5)

                     (315) 337-2004           (315) 337-2004              B/V

                     (315) 337-2005           (315) 337-2005              B/V



                     (315) 330-2294           (315) 330-2294  (FTS) 952   B/V



                     (315) 330-3587           (315) 330-3587  (FTS) 952   B/V



  NORTH CAROLINA

   Ft. Bragg [A]

   (BRAGG-ARPA-TAC)  (919) 396-1131 (R10)     (919) 396-1426  (R5)        B/V

                                              (919) 396-1491  (R8)        B/V

   Ft. Bragg [M]

   (BRAGG-MIL-TAC)   [none known]



  OHIO

   Wright-Patterson AFB [M]

   (WPAFB-TAC)       (513) 258-4218

                     (513) 258-4219

                     (513) 258-4987

                     (513) 258-4988

                     (513) 258-4989

                     (513) 258-4990



   (WPAFB2-MIL-TAC)  (513) 257-2172 (R8)     (513) 257-2172 (R8)        B

                     (513) 257-2690 (R8)     (513) 257-2690 (R8)        B

                     (513) 257-3625 (R8)     (513) 257-3625 (R8)        B



  OKLAHOMA

   Tinker AFB [M]

   (TINKER-MIL-TAC)  [none known]





  PENNSYLVANIA

   New Cumberland Army Depot [M]

   (NCAD-MIL-TAC)    [none known]



   (NCAD2-MIL-TAC)   [none known]





                                    Page 189









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



  TEXAS

   Brooks AFB [M]

   (BROOKS-AFB-TAC)  (512) 536-3081 (R6)  (512) 536-3081 (R6)              B/V



   Richardson [A]

   (COLLINS-TAC)     (214) 235-2131       (214) 235-2131                   B

                     (214) 235-2143       (214) 235-2143                   B

                     (214) 235-2178       (214) 235-2178                   B

                     (214) 235-2204       (214) 235-2204                   B

                     (214) 235-2251       (214) 235-2251                   B

                     (214) 235-2278       (214) 235-2278                   B



  UTAH

   Dugway Proving Ground [M]

   (DUGWAY-MIL-TAC)  [none known]



   Salt Lake City (University of Utah) [A]

   (UTAH-TAC)        (801) 581-3486       (801) 581-3486                   B/V



  VIRGINIA

   Alexandria [M]

   (DARCOM-TAC)      (202) 274-5300       (202) 274-5300                   B

                     (202) 274-5320 (R6)  (202) 274-5320 (R6)              B



   Arlington

   (ARPA1-MIL-TAC) [M]   [none known]



   (ARPA2-MIL-TAC) [M]   [none known]



   (ARPA3-TAC) [A]   [no dialup capability]



   Dahlgren [M]

   (NSWC-TAC)        (703) 663-2162 (R8)     (703) 663-2162 (R8)          B



   Langley Air Force Base [M]

   (LANGLEY-MIL-TAC) [none known]



   McLean [M]

   (DDN-PMO-MIL-TAC) [none known]





   (MITRE-TAC) [M]

                     (703) 442-8020 (R15)

                     (703) 893-0330 (R10)    (703) 893-0330 (R10)         B/V



   Norfolk [M]

   (NORFOLK-MILTAC)  (804) 423-0241 (R2)     (804) 423-0241 (R2)          B

                     (804) 423-0247 (R2)     (804) 423-0247 (R2)          B

                     (804) 423-0346 (R4)     (804) 423-0346 (R4)          B

                     (804) 423-0480          (804) 423-0480               B

                     (804) 423-0486 (R2)     (804) 423-0486 (R2)          B

                     (804) 423-0489          (804) 423-0489               B

                     (804) 423-0570          (804) 423-0570               B

                     (804) 423-0572 (R2)     (804) 423-0572 (R2)          B

                     (804) 423-0577 (R2)     (804) 423-0577 (R2)          B

                     (804) 423-0651          (804) 423-0651               B

                     (804) 423-0654 (R3)     (804) 423-0654 (R3)          B

                     (804) 423-0841 (R2)     (804) 423-0841 (R2)          B



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                     (804) 423-0845          (804) 423-0845               B

                     (804) 423-0849          (804) 423-0849               B

                     (804) 423-0858          (804) 423-0858               B

                     (804) 423-0950          (804) 423-0950               B

                     (804) 423-0952          (804) 423-0952               B

                     (804) 423-0955 (R3)     (804) 423-0955 (R3)          B

                     (804) 423-0959          (804) 423-0959               B



   Reston

   (DCEC-ARPA-TAC) [A]   [no dialups available]



   (DCEC-MIL-TAC) [M]

                     (703) 437-2892 (R5)     (703) 437-2928               B

                     (703) 437-2925          (703) 437-2929               B

                     (703) 437-2926

                     (703) 437-2927



  WASHINGTON

   Seattle [A]

   (WASHINGTON-TAC)  [no dialup capability]



  ENGLAND [M]

   (CROUGHTON-MIL-TAC)   [none known]



  GERMANY [M]

   (FRANKFURT-MIL-TAC)

                     (M) 2311-5641 (R8)                                   B



   (RAMSTEIN2-MIL-TAC) [none known]



  ITALY [M]

   (AGNANO-MIL-TAC)



  JAPAN [M]

   (BUCKNER-MIL-TAC)



   (ZAMA-MIL-TAC)



  KOREA [M]

   (KOREA-TAC)       (M) 264-4951 (R8)                                    B



  PHILIPPINES [M]

   (CLARK-MIL-TAC)



  SPAIN [M]

   (MILNET-TJN-TAC)  [none known]



   (ROTA-MIL-TAC)    [none known]



  Notes:



  1.  "(R10)" following phone number indicates a rotary with 10 lines.



  2.  For alternate phone numbers, FTS=Federal Telephone System.

  3.  (M)=Military DoD Telephone System.



  4.  [M] denotes a MILNET TAC and [A] denotes an ARPANET TAC.





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  5.  "1200 Type" refers to the modem compatibility for 1200 baud only:

       B/V =  Bell and Vadic

       B   =  Bell 212A only

       V   =  Vadic 3400 only



  6.  This list is contained in the file NETINFO:TAC-PHONES.LIST at

      SRI-NIC.









































































































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                        >>==========================<<

                        >>==> TELCO TEST NUMBERS <==<<

                        >>====> as of 5/16/85 <=====<<

                        >>=> compiled and updated <=<<

                        >>====> by Shadow 2600 <====<<

                        >>==========================<<



011-44-61-2468011 : US dial tone then "When this system changes, this is the

new dial tone you hear" (UK is changing dialtone)



201-226-0709 : alternating tones, then "warble"

201-267-9922 : sweep tone

201-267-9966 : 600 ohm termination

201-232-9924 : (tone 1,2,5-beep, bleep; 9,#- 1200 baud static, beep, bleep;

6-tone, higher tone, bleep)

201-232-9959 : tone 11 sec. silence, repeats...

201-233-9972 : multitude of clicks

201-233-9974 : busy 15 sec. then tone w/ clicks

201-241-9916 : hissing with clicks

201-328-9971 : 1000 hrtz tone

201-376-9907 : "is being checked for trouble.  Please try again later"

201-464-9915 : low tone 15 sec, silence

201-464-9916 : low tone 2 sec, silence

201-464-9963 : buzz

201-464-9974 : busy 15 sec, low tone

201-543-9902 : "If you'd like to make a call, hang up and try it again."

201-543-9903 : "We're sorry, your call did not go through."

201-543-9904 : "the number you have dialed requires a .20 cents deposit."

201-655-9900 : "cannot be completed as dialed from the phone you are using"

201-769-0205 : People's Express Reservation system

203-771-4920 : telephone company employee newsline

207-866-4411 : 1000 hrtz tone

212-233-9980 : (tone 1,2,3,*-tone, higher tone, bloop; 5-tone, bloop; 9,#-

static,beep,bloop)

212-369-7003 : "you have reached 212-369-7003 in zone 3" (?)

212-799-5017 : ABC New York feed line

213-621-4141 : telephone employee newsline

213-935-1111 : sweep tone with echo at top of range (?)

215-489-0036 : tone, bloop (1,2,5-tone bloop, 3,6,9-tone, higher tone,tone)

215-489-0040 : "please check your instruction manual or call repair service for

assistance"

215-489-0042 : "if you like to make a call please hang up and try again"

215-489-0043 : "We're sorry, your call did not go through."

215-489-0044 : "The call you have made requires a 25 cent deposit"

215-489-0045 : "You must first dial a 1 when dialing this number."

215-489-0074 : LOUD tone, stops, repeats

215-489-0075 : 600 ohm termination (silence)

215-489-0078 : tone, silence

215-489-0080 : 600 ohm termination

215-489-0097 : tone, (lower pitched than -0078) silence (also at -0098)

215-489-0104 : 1000 hrtz tone

216-861-8300 : tone, then higher tone

301-256-9987 : 1000 hertz

301-546-7777 : "Due to Telephone Company facility trouble your call cannot be

completed at this time"

301-725-9904 : "deposit .20"

305-263-0000 : repeating bloop (keypress 2 : slow reorder w/ bloops, clicks)

305-994-9963 : pay fone instructions



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305-994-9966 : "telephone you are calling from is not in service"

312-222-9948 : tone (keypress 1,2,3,6,7,*-tone, high tone, bleep,

4-tone,bloop,9, #-static,beep,bloop)

312-222-9954 : "Test Center"

312-222-9990 : clicks, ticking like

312-222-9996 : LOUD tone, repeats

312-368-8000 : Illinois Bell Communicator (employee newsline)

312-592-0000 : tone (keypress 2222, then other digits, at re-order type * to

restart) (?)

313-223-7223 : telephone employee newsline

313-333-9981 : LOUD tone, silence

313-333-9989 : high tone (enter touchtones for a while, eventually get

"metallic" echo, then 5-high pitched tone, random re-orders)

313-333-9990 : beep, click repeats, with "winks"

313-333-9994 : tone bloop (keypress in 2-tone,bloop, 3-tone, higher tone,tone,

9-static, beep,bloop)

313-333-9995 : 600 ohm termination (silence)

313-333-9996 : weird siren/sweep tone, multi-frequency

313-430-4300 : beep, beep, beep, then reorder

313-698-9998 : sweep tone

314-247-5511 : Southwestern Bell Telenews (employee newsline)

315-471-9934 : "deposit 5 cents for next five minutes"

408-255-0081 : (any two 2,4,8,0-tone)

408-294-6969 : beep, click, computer voice repeats number

408-395-1110 : (tone 2-bleep,glitch; 3-beep,higher beep;#then number-loud

tone,bleep)

408-738-8190 : (tone 1,3,6,7,*-tone, high tone, tone;2-beep,cluck;9,#-

static,tone,beep)

408-745-6060 : high pitched tone, low tone then repeats

408-994-0044 : tone end of loop

412-633-3333 : telephone company employee newsline

414-628-0001 : continuous tone

414-628-0002 : continuous tone (higher pitched, sounds like muted dial)

414-628-0004 : high pitched tone, bloop, silence

414-628-0006 : brief very high tone (also -0007) (multiple keypresses of

2,5,8,0 tone repeats)

414-628-0010 : loud tone, stops, repeats...

414-628-0011 : loud tone, stops

414-628-0013 : 600 ohm termination (silence) (also -0017, two in an exchange?)

414-628-0014 : continuous tone (sounds like weird dial), eventually stops

414-628-0015 : LOUD tone, repeats

414-628-0028 : "Your call cannot be completed as dialed

414-678-3511 : Wisconsin Bell Newsline

414-781-0004 : high tone, silence (keypress 2,5-beep,bleep, 3,6-beep,longbeep,

bloop, 9-static,bloop)

415-284-1111 : one sweep, then silence

415-327-0046 : sweep tone

415-388-0037 : tone,bloop (keypress 2-tone,bloop, 3-tone,high tone,tone,

9-static,beep,bloop)

415-472-0046 : sweep w/ glitch at top

415-545-8800 : Pacific Bell Newsline

415-467-0097 : fast DTMF tones, keypress to repeat

415-777-0020 : 1000 hrtz tone

415-777-0037 : tone, bloop (keypress 2-beep,bloop, 3,6-tone,higher tone,

9-static,beep,bloop)

415-777-0046 : sweep tone with echo

415-777-0105 : tone,bloop (keypress 2-beep,bleep, 3,6-tone, higher tone,

tone,9-static,beep,bloop



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415-826-0022 : tone, click, tone (sounds like a busy)

415-994-0710 : multitude of clicks

512-472-2181 : "if you would like to make a call, please hang up and try

again"

512-472-4263 : garbled recording (?)

512-472-9833 : "you must first dial a 1 or 0 before calling this number"

512-472-9936 : "please check your instructions or call your business office for

assistance"

512-472-9941 : "insert 25 cents"

516-222-3825 : LOUD tone

516-234-9914 : New York Telephone Newsline

518-471-2272 : New York Telephone Newsline

518-789-3299 : weird busy, multitude of clicks

609-267-9966 : busy with clicks in background

609-267-9967 : 600 ohm termination (silence)

609-267-9968 : 1000 hrtz tone

609-267-9971 : LOUD tone, stops, repeats

609-267-9972 : rings with clicks in background (also -9973 and -9974)

609-877-9924 : high tone (tone in 1,2,5-tone, bloop; 3,6,*-tone, higher tone,

bleep; #-static, beep, bleep)

609-877-9929 : 1000 hrz tone

617-553-9953 : tone end of loop

617-890-9900 : sweep tone

617-955-1111 : telephone company employee newsline

619-748-0002 : tone increases in pitch, silence, repeats in monotone

619-748-0003 : sweep, repeat, hangs up

702-789-6711 : Nevada Bell Newsline

713-354-0000 : touch tone in #, then new #, then 5 - listed, 9 - unlisted)

713-482-3199 : "We're sorry, all circuit are busy now."

713-652-5111 : touch tones echo back "metallic", something about "drivers

licence number" replys in a female recorded voice

717-255-5555 : Bell of Pennsylvania "Inside Line" (employee newsline)

718-429-9900 : "Please slide a valid credit card through the slot now"

800-221-5959 : tone (# makes it ring)

800-228-8466 : Sensaphone (tm) demo (time etc. (EST) (wait 7+ rings))

800-321-3048 : non-connecting loop with 800-321-3049

800-321-3052 : loop (don't know where other end is)

800-321-6366 : Centagram's Voice Memo System (extension 100 for demo)

800-323-6321 : tone, stops, bloop repeats

800-327-0000 : "Announcement three, Dallas" (changes sometimes)

800-344-4001 : non-connecting loop with 800-344-4002

800-524-0000 : "Announcement 1 Atlanta"

800-554-5924 : Cable News Network audio feed

800-824-8274 : "Enter your password service code"

802-955-1111 : telephone company newsline

808-533-4426 : Hawaiian Telephone Newsline

816-391-1122 : recorder (keypress 1-toggle on/off, 3-rewind, 4-stop, 7-play)

907-269-0955 : tone (sounds like extender, doesn't take touch tone (?))

914-232-9901 : "Daytona, New York DMS-100 verification"

914-268-9901 : "Congers DMS 100 Verification"

914-268-9903 : "your call cannot be completed as dialed"

914-268-9968 : (keypress 2-high tone, 3-high, higher tone, 6,0-click, 7- hangs

up, sometimes 0,#,*-harmony)

914-359-9901 : repeats the number dialed ("914-359-9901")

914-359-9960 : weird tone, stops, clicks, repeats

914-623-9968 : (keypress 2,5-beep glitch, 3,6-tone highertone)

916-480-8000 : Pacific Bell Newsline





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                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



                        WHAT A TSPS CONSOLE LOOKS LIKE



--- NON/COIN ---- ------------- COIN ------------- --------- HOTEL ---------



 ----   ----   ----   ----   ----    ----   -----   ---       ---    ----

!VFY ! !OVER! !SCRN! !INWD! !EMER!  !STA ! ! 0+ ! !DIAL!     !STA ! ! 0+ !

!DIAL! !POST! !TONE! !STA ! ! 0+ !  !DIAL! !QST ! !    !     !    ! !    !

 ----   ----   ----   ----   ----    ----   ----   ----       ----   ----



----- OUTGOING TRUNKS -----    RING RELEASE



 ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   -----   ----   ----   ----   ----

! DA ! !R&R ! !SWB ! !OGT ! !BACK! ! FWD ! !CALL! !T&C ! !NFY ! !CHG !

 ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   -----   ----   ----   ----  ! DUE!

                                                                 ----

 ---    ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   ----

!KEY ! !BACK! !FWD ! ! SR ! !MAKE! !MTCE! !POS ! !BACK! !    ! !    !

!CLG ! !    ! !    ! !    ! !BUSY! !TRFR!  ----   ----   ----   ----

 ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   ----



              ----------------- AMA -----------------

              ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   ----

STATION -----!PAID! !COL ! !SPL ! !SPL ! !AUTO! !DDD !

             !    ! !    ! !CLG ! !CLD ! !COL ! !    !

              ----   ----   ----   ----   ----   ----



              ----   ----   ----   ----          ----

PERSON ----- !PAID! !COL ! !SPL ! !SPL !        ! NO !

             !    ! !    ! !CLG ! !CLD !        !AMA !

              ----   ----   ----   ----          ----



               ----         ----         ----

              !CLG !       !CLG !       !CLG !

              !    !       !    !       !    !

               ----         ----         ----

















































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                                   Box Plans



   Hmm...  I wonder!  This is still under construction (Ha Ha).

















































































































                                    Page 197









                        The Official Phreaker's Manual



                           THE INFINITY TRANSMITTER



                            TYPED BY THE GHOST WIND



                         FROM THE BOOK BUILD YOUR OWN

         LASER, PHASER, ION RAY GUN & OTHER WORKING SPACE-AGE PROJECTS

                       BY ROBERT IANNINI (TAB BOOKS INC)



Description:  Briefly, the Infinity Transmitter is a device which activates a

microphone via a phone call.  It is plugged into the phone line, and when the

phone rings, it  will immediately intercept the ring and broadcast into the

phone any sound that is in the room. This device was originally made by

Information Unlimited, and had a touch tone decoder to prevent all who did not

know the code from being able to use the phone in its normal way.  This

version, however, will activate the microphone for anyone who calls while it is

in operation.

NOTE:  It is illegal to use this device to try to bug someone. It is also

pretty stupid because they are fairly noticeable.

Parts List:

Pretend that uF means micro Farad, cap= capacitor



Part           #          Description

----           -          -----------

R1,4,8         3         390 k 1/4 watt resistor

R2             1         5.6 M 1/4 watt resistor

R3,5,6         3         6.8 k 1/4 watt resistor

R9,16          2         100 k 1/4 watt resistor

R10            1         2.2 k 1/4 watt resistor

R13,18         2         1 k 1/4 watt resistor

R14            1         470 ohm 1/4 watt resistor

R15            1         10 k 1/4 watt resistor

R17            1         1 M 1/4 watt resistor

C1             1         .05 uF/25 V disc cap

C2,3,5,6,7     5         1 uF 50 V electrolytic cap or tant

                          (preferably non-polarized)

C4,11,12       3         .01 uF/50 V disc cap

C8,10          2         100 uF @ 25 V electrolytic cap

C9             1         5 uF @ 150 V electrolytic cap

C13            1         10 uF @ 25 V electrolytic cap

TM1            1         555 timer dip

A1             1         CA3018 amp array in can

Q1,2           2         PN2222 npn sil transistor

Q3             1         D4OD5 npn pwr tab transistor

D1,2           2         50 V 1 amp react. 1N4002

T1             1         1.5 k/500 matching transformer

M1             1         lar