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 [Phile 1.1]
                      [#                              #]
                      [#  THE PHREAKER'S HANDBOOK #1  #]   
                      [#                              #]
                  **** An Official Phortune 500 Product ****
                a useful source for the phreaker covering both
                     the basics and advances of phreaking
                                 GENERAL NOTE
         The purpose of this newsletter is purely educational. It has
         been released in order to teach and advance the knowledge of
         today's declining phreaks. However, the author does not take
         any responsibility over the  misuse of  the herein contained
         information, and the newsletter itself does not encourage or
         support the  above type of  activity. Also, any wrong or old
         information in this document is not to the responsibility of
         the  author, and the  reader accepts any consequences due to
               information that may be mistaken in this manner.
                                NOTE TO ABUSERS
          All information contained within this document was intended
          towards educational purposes. Any  misuse or illegal use of
          the information  contained in  this document is strictly at
          the  misuser's risk. The  author assumes  NO responsibility
          of the reader's actions following the release this document
            (in otherwords, you're on your own if you get nailed!)
        TPH Issue #1, Volume 1               Release Date::July 3, 1989
                        WRITTEN BY::DOCTOR DISSECTOR
 [Phile 1.2]
                           TPH #1 Table Of Contents:
        Title Page & Disclaimer Notes............................. 1.1
        Table Of Contents & Introduction.......................... 1.2
        The Phreak's Vitals....................................... 1.3
            True Definition Of The Phreaker
            The Phone Phreak's Ten Commandments
        The Phreaker's Glossary................................... 1.4
        Other Fone Information.................................... 1.5
            Voltages & Technical Stuff
            Scanning Phun Fone Stuff
        References & Suggested Reading............................ 1.6
                            Introduction To TPH #1
      This  phile  was  written  for  beginning  as  well as those uninformed 
 "advanced"  phreaks  who  need  something  as  a  reference  when reading or 
 writing  philes concerning phreaking or fone phraud. Of course, you could be 
 a  beginning  phreak and use this phile to B.S. your way into a big group by 
 acting  like  you know a lot, or something, but that is up to you. Anyway, I 
 compiled  this  listing  phrom  various  sources,  the majority is listed as 
 references at the end of this phile.
      This  phile's  only  goal  is  to  educate  and  inform. Any illegal or 
 fraudulent  activity  is  neither  encouraged nor supported by the author of 
 this  phile,  not  by  the  majority  of the >TRUE< phreaking community. The 
 author assumes NO responsibility for the actions of the reader.
      Also,  I  know  that  some  of the stuff covered in this release of TPH 
 will  be  old and outdated; however, I will try to clean that up by the next 
 release  of  TPH,  and  will  notify  you, the reader, of the changes due to 
 these revisions.
 [Phile 1.3]
                             The Phreak's Vitals:
                        True Definition Of The Phreaker
      "Many  people  think of phone phreaks as slime, out to rip off Bell for 
 all  she  is  worth. Nothing could be further from the truth! Granted, there 
 are  some  who  get  their kicks by making free calls; however, they are not 
 true  phone  phreaks.  Real phone phreaks are 'telecommunications hobbyists' 
 who  experiment,  play  with, and learn from the phone system. Occasionally, 
 this  experimenting  and  a  need to communicate with other phreaks, without 
 going  broke,  leads to free calls. The free calls are but a small subset of 
 a >TRUE< phone phreak's activities."
                                           - Wise Words Of The Magician
                      The Phone Phreak's Ten Commandments
      I.  Box  thou  not over thine home telephone wires, for those who doest 
 will surely bring the wrath of the Chief Special Agent down upon thy head.
      II.  Speakest  thou  not of important matters over thine home telephone 
 wires, for to do so is to risk thine right of freedom.
      III.  Use  not  thine own name when speaking to other phreaks, for that 
 every third phreak is an FBI agent is well known.
      IV.  Let  not overly many people know that thy be a phreak, as to do so 
 is to use thine own self as a sacrificial lamb.
      V.  If thou be in school, strive to get thine self good grades, for the 
 authorities well know that scholars never break the law.
      VI.  If  thou  workest, try to be an employee and impressest thine boss 
 with  thine enthusiasm, for important employees are often saved by their own 
      VII.  Storest thou not thine stolen goodes in thine own home, for those 
 who  do are surely non-believers in the Bell System Security Forces, and are 
 not long for this world.
      VIII.  Attractest  thou  not  the  attention of the authorities, as the 
 less noticeable thou art, the better.
      IX.  Makest  sure  thine  friends  are instant amnesiacs and willst not 
 remember  thou  hast  called  illegally,  for  their  cooperation  with  the 
 authorities willst surely lessen thine time for freedom on this earth.
      X.  Supportest thou TAP, as it is thine newsletter, and without it, thy 
 work would be far more limited.
 [Phile 1.4]
                            The Phreaker's Glossary
      1XB - No.1 Crossbar system. See XBAR for more information.
      2600   -  A  hack/phreak  oriented  newsletter  that  periodically  was 
 released  and still is being released. See Phile 1.6 for more information on 
 the magazine and ordering.
      4XB - No.4 Crossbar system. See XBAR for more information.
      5XB  -  No.5  Crossbar  system.  The  primary end office switch of Bell 
 since the 60's and still in wide use. See XBAR for more detail.
      700  Services  -  These services are reserved as an advanced forwarding 
 system,  where the forwarding is advanced to a user-programed location which 
 could be changed by the user.
      800  Exceptional  Calling  Report  - System set up by ESS that will log 
 any  caller  that excessively dials 800 numbers or directory assistance. See 
 ESS for more information.
      800  Services  -  Also known as WATS. These services often contain WATS 
 extenders  which,  when  used  with  a code, may be used to call LD. Many LD 
 companies  use  these services because they are toll-free to customers. Most 
 800  extenders  are  considered  dangerous  because most have the ability to 
      900  Services  -  Numbers  in  the  900 SAC usually are used as special 
 services,  such  as  TV polls and such. These usually are $.50 for the first 
 minute  and  $.35 for each additional minute. Dial (900)555-1212 to find out 
 what the 900 services currently have to offer.
      950  -  A  nationwide  access exchange in most areas. Many LD companies 
 have  extenders located somewhere on this exchange; however, all services on 
 this  exchange  are  considered dangerous due to the fact that they ALL have 
 the ability to trace. Most 950 services have crystal clear connections.
      ACCS  -  Automated  Calling  Card  Service.  The typical 0+NPA+Nxx+xxxx 
 method  of  inputting  calling cards and then you input the calling card via 
 touch tones. This would not be possible without ACTS.
      ACD - Automatic Call Distributor.
      ACD  Testing Mode - Automatic Call Distributor Test Mode. This level of 
 phreaking  can  be  obtained  by pressing the "D" key down after calling DA. 
 This  can  only  be done in areas that have the ACD. The ACD Testing Mode is 
 characterized  by  a pulsing dial tone. From here, you can get one side of a 
 loop  by  dialing  6,  the  other side is 7. You may also be able to REMOB a 
 line.  All  possibilities  of  the ACD Test have not been experimented with. 
 See silver box for more details.
      ACTS  -  Automated  Coin  Toll  Service. This is a computer system that 
 automates  phortress  fone  service by listening for red box tones and takes 
 appropriate  action.  It is this service that is commonly heard saying, "Two 
 dollars  please.  Please  deposit  two  dollars for the next three minutes." 
 Also,  if  you  talk for more than three minutes and then hang up, ACTS will 
 call back and demand your money. ACTS is also responsible for ACCS.
      Alliance  -  A  teleconferencing  system  that is apart from AT&T which 
 allows  the general public to access and use its conferencing equipment. The 
 equipment   allows  group  conversations  with  members  participating  from 
 throughout  the United States. The fone number to Alliance generally follows 
 the  format  of 0-700-456-x00x depending on the location the call originates 
 from and is not accessible direct by all cities/states.
      AMA  -  Automated  Message  Accounting. Similar to the CAMA system; see 
 CAMA for more info.
      analog  -  As  used  for  a  word  or data transmission, a continuously 
 varying electrical signal in the shape of a wave.
      ANI  -  Automatic  Number  Identification  - This is the system you can 
 call,  usually  a  three digit number or one in the 99xx's of your exchange, 
 and  have  the  originating  number  you  are  calling from read to you by a 
 computer.  This is useful if you don't know the number you are calling from, 
 for  finding  diverters,  and  when  you  are playing around with other fone 
 equipment  like  cans  or  beige boxes. The ANI system is often incorporated 
 into  other  fone  companies  such as Sprint and MCI in order to trace those 
 big bad phreaks that abuze codez.
      ANIF  - Automatic Number Identification Failure. When the ANI system of 
 a particular office fails. 
      APF  -  All  PINs Fail. This is a security measure which is designed to 
 frustrate attempts at discovering valid PINs by a hacking method.
      aqua  box  -  A  box  designed to drain the voltage of the FBI lock-in-
 trace/trap-trace  so  you  can  hang  up  your  fone  in  an  emergency  and 
 phrustrate  the  Pheds  some more. The apparatus is simple, just connect the 
 two  middle wires of a phone wire and plug, which would be the red and green 
 wires  if  in  the jack, to the cord of some electrical appliance; ie, light 
 bulb  or  radio.  KEEP  THE  APPLIANCE  OFF.  Then,  get  one  of those line 
 splitters  that  will  let  you hook two phone plugs into one jack. Plug the 
 end  of  the  modified  cord into one jack and your fone into the other. THE 
 APPLIANCE  MUST  BE  OFF! Then, when the Pheds turn their lame tracer on and 
 you  find  that  you  can't hang up, remove your fone from the jack and turn 
 the  appliance ON and keep it ON until you feel safe; it may be awhile. Then 
 turn  it  off,  plug  your fone back in, and start phreaking again. Invented 
 by: Captain Xerox and The Traveler.
      BAUDOT - 45.5 baud. Also known as the Apple Cat Can.
      BEF  - Band Elimination Filter. A muting system that will mute the 2600 
 Hz tone which signals hang-up when you hang up.
      beige  box  - An apparatus that is a home-made lineman's handset. It is 
 a  regular  fone  that  has  clips  where  the  red and green wires normally 
 connect  to  in  a  fone jack. These clips will attach to the rings and tips 
 found  in  many  of  MA's output devices. These are highly portable and VERY 
 useful  when  messing  around  with  cans  and other output devices the fone 
 company has around. Invented by: The Exterminator and The Terminal Man.
      BITNET  -  Nationwide  system for colleges and schools which accesses a 
 large  base  of  education-oriented information. Access ports are always via 
      bit  stream  -  Refers  to  a continuous series of bits, binary digits, 
 being transmitted on a transmission line.
      black  box  -  The infamous box that allows the calling party to not be 
 billed  for  the call placed. We won't go in depth right now, most plans can 
 be  found on many phreak oriented BBS's. The telco can detect black boxes if 
 they suspect one on the line. Also, these will not work under ESS.
      bleeper  boxes  -  The  United  Kingdom's  own version of the blue box, 
 modified  to  work  with the UK's fone system. Based on the same principles. 
 However, they use two sets of frequencies, foreword and backwards.
      Blotto  box  -  This  box  supposedly  shorts  every  fone  out  in the 
 immediate  area,  and  I  don't  doubt  it. It should kill every fone in the 
 immediate  area,  until  the  voltage reaches the fone company, and the fone 
 company  filters  it.  I  won't  cover  this  one  in  this issue, cuz it is 
 dangerous,  and  phreaks shouldn't destroy MA's equipment, just phuck it up. 
 Look  for  this  on your phavorite BBS or ask your phavorite phreak for info 
 if you really are serious about seriously phucking some fones in some area.
      blue  box  -  An  old  piece of equipment that emulated a true operator 
 placing  calls,  and  operators  get  calls for free. The blue box seizes an 
 open  trunk  by  blasting  a  2600  Hz tone through the line after dialing a 
 party  that  is  local  or in the 800 NPA so calls will be local or free for 
 the  blue boxer. Then, when the blue boxer has seized a trunk, the boxer may 
 then,  within the next 10-15 seconds, dial another fone number via MF tones. 
 These  MF  tones  must be preceded by a KP tone and followed with a ST tone. 
 All of these tones are standardized by Bell. The tones as well as the inter-
 digit  intervals  are around 75ms. It may vary with the equipment used since 
 ESS  can  handle higher speeds and doesn't need inter-digit intervals. There 
 are  many  uses to a blue box, and we will not cover any more here. See your 
 local  phreak or phreak oriented BBS for in depth info concerning blue boxes 
 and  blue  boxing.  Incidentally, blue boxes are not considered safe anymore 
 because  ESS  detects  "foreign"  tones,  such as the 2600 Hz tone, but this 
 detection  may  be  delayed  by  mixing pink noise of above 3000 Hz with the 
 2600  Hz  tone. To hang up, the 2600 Hz tone is played again. Also, all blue 
 boxes  are  green  boxes because MF "2" corresponds to the Coin Collect tone 
 on  the  green box, and the "KP" tone corresponds to the Coin Return tone on 
 the  green  box.  See  green  box  for  more  information.  Blue  boxing  is 
 IMPOSSIBLE  under  the new CCIS system slowly being integrated into the Bell 
      blue  box  tones  -  The MF tones generated by the blue box in order to 
 place  calls,  emulating  a  true operator. These dual tones must be entered 
 during  the  10-15 second period after you have seized a trunk with the 2600 
 Hz tone.                                                                   
                         700:  1 :  2 :  4 :  7 : 11 :    KP= Key Pulse     
  Parallel Frequencies   900: ** :  3 :  5 :  8 : 12 :    ST= STop          
    2= Coin Collect     1100: ** : ** :  6 :  9 : KP :   KP2= Key Pulse 2   
   KP= Coin Return      1300: ** : ** : ** : 10 :KP2 :    **= None          
   (green box tones)    1500: ** : ** : ** : ** : ST :                      
                            : 900:1100:1300:1500:1700:   75ms pulse/pause   
      BLV  -  Busy  Line  Verification.  Allows  a TSPS operator to process a 
 customer's  request  for  a  confirmation  of  a  repeatedly busy line. This 
 service is used in conjunction with emergency break-ins.
      BNS - Billed Number Screening.
      break  period  -  Time  when  the  circuit during pulse dialing is left 
 open.  In  the  US,  this period is 40ms; foreign nations may use 33ms break 
      break  ratio  -  The  interval  pulse dialing breaks and makes the loop 
 when  dialing.  The US standard is 10 pulses per second. When the circuit is 
 opened,  it  is called the break interval. When the circuit is closed, it is 
 called  the make interval. In the US, there is a 60ms make period and a 40ms 
 break  period.  This  is  often  referred  to  as  a 60% make interval. Many 
 foreign nations have a 67% make interval.
      bridge - I don't really understand  this  one, but  these  are important
phreak toys. I'll cover them more in the next issue of TPH.

      British Post Office - The United Kingdom's equivalent to Ma Bell.
      busy  box  - Box that will cause the fone to be busy, without taking it 
 OFF-HOOK.  Just  get a piece of fone wire with a plug on the end, cut it off 
 so  there  is a plug and about two inches of fone line. Then, strip the wire 
 so  the  two middle wires, the tip and the ring, are exposed. Then, wrap the 
 ring  and  the  tip  together,  tape with electrical tape, and plug into the 
 fone jack. The fone will be busy until the box is removed.
      cans  -  Cans  are  those  big  silver  boxes  on  top of or around the 
 telephone  poles. When opened, the lines can be manipulated with a beige box 
 or whatever phun you have in mind.
      calling  card  -  Another  form of the LD service used by many major LD 
 companies  that  composes of the customers fone number and a PIN number. The 
 most  important  thing  to  know when questioned about calling cards are the 
 area code and the city where the calling card customer originated from.
      CAMA  -  Centralized  Automatic Message Accounting. System that records 
 the  numbers called by fones and other LD systems. The recording can be used 
 as evidence in court.
      CC - Calling Card.
      CC - Credit Card.
      CCIS   -  Common  Channel  Inter-office  Signaling.  New  method  being 
 incorporated  under  Bell  that will send all the signaling information over 
 separate data lines. Blue boxing is IMPOSSIBLE under this system.
      CCITT  -  The  initials  of  the  name  in  French of the International 
 Telegraph  and Telephone Consultative Committee. At CCITT representatives of 
 telecommunications  authorities,  operators  of  public  networks  and other 
 interested  bodies  meet  to  agree  on  standards  needed for international 
 intermarrying of telecommunications services.
      CCS - Calling Card Service.
      CCSS   -  Common  Channel  Signalling  System.  A  system  whereby  all 
 signalling  for a number of voice paths are carried over one common channel, 
 instead of within each individual channel.
      CDA - Coin Detection and Announcement.
      CF  -  Coin First. A type of fortress fone that wants your money before 
 you receive a dial tone.
      Channel  - A means of one-way transmission or a UCA path for electrical 
 transmission  between  two  or  more points without common carrier, provided 
 terminal equipment. Also called a circuit, line, link, path, or facility.
      cheese  box  -  Another  type  of  box  which,  when  coupled with call 
 forwarding  services, will allow one to place free fone calls. The safety of 
 this  box  is unknown. See references for information concerning text philes 
 on this box.
      clear  box  - Piece of equipment that compromises of a telephone pickup 
 coil  and  a  small  amp. This works on the principal that all receivers are 
 also  weak  transmitters.  So,  you amplify your signal on PP fortress fones 
 and spare yourself some change.
      CN/A  -  Customer  Name  And  Address.  Systems  where  authorized Bell 
 employees  can  find  out  the  name and address of any customer in the Bell 
 System.  All  fone  numbers  are listed on file, including unlisted numbers. 
 Some  CN/A  services ask for ID#'s when you make a request. To use, call the 
 CN/A  office  during  normal  business hours, and say that you are so and so 
 from  a  certain  business or office, related to customers or something like 
 that,  and  you  need the customer's name and address at (NPA)Nxx-xxxx. That 
 should  work.  The  operators  to  these  services usually know more than DA 
 operators  do  and  are  also  susceptible  to  "social  engineering." It is 
 possible  to  bullshit  a CN/A operator for the NON PUB DA number and policy 
 changes in the CN/A system.
      CO  Code  - Central Office code which is also the Nxx code. See Nxx for 
 more details. Sometimes known as the local end office.
      conference  calls  - To have multiple lines inter-connected in order to 
 have  many  people talking in the same conversation on the fone at once. See 
 Alliance and switch crashing for more information.
      credit  operator - Same as TSPS operator. The operator you get when you 
 dial "0" on your fone and phortress fones. See TSPS for more information.
      CSDC  -  Circuit Switched Digital Capability. Another USDN service that 
 has no ISDN counterpart.
      DA - Directory Assistance. See directory assistance.
      DAO - Directory Assistance Operator. See directory assistance.
      data   communications   -   In   telefone   company  terminology,  data 
 communications   refers  to  an  end-to-end  transmission  of  any  kind  of 
 information  other  than  sound, including voice, or video. Data sources may 
 be either digital or analog.
      data  rate - The rate at which a channel carries data, measured in bits 
 per second, bit/s, also known as "data signalling rate."
      data signalling rate - Same as "data rate." See data rate.
      DCO-CS - Digital Central Office-Carrier Switch.
      DDD - Direct Distance Dialed.
      Dial-It Services - See 900 Services.
      digital  -  A  method  to  represent  information  to  be  discrete  or 
 individually  distinct  signals,  such as bits, as opposed to a continuously 
 variable analog signal.
      digital  transmission - A mode of transmission in which all information 
 to  be  transmitted  is first converted to digital form and then transmitted 
 as  a  serial  stream of pulses. Any signal, voice, data, television, can be 
 converted to digital form.
      Dimension 2000 - Another LD service located at (800)848-9000.
      directory  assistance  -  Operator  that  you  get when you call 411 or   
 NPA-555-1212.  This call will cost $.50 per call. These won't know where you 
 are  calling from, unless you annoy them, and do not have access to unlisted 
 numbers.  There  are  also  directory assistance operators for the deaf that 
 transfer  BAUDOT. You can call these and have interesting conversations. The 
 fone  number is 800-855-1155, are free, and use standard Telex abbreviations 
 such  as  GA  for  Go  Ahead. These are nicer than normal operators, and are 
 often   subject   to   "social  engineering"  skills  (bullshitting).  Other 
 operators   also   have   access   to  their  own  directory  assistance  at 
      diverter  - This is a nice phreak tool. What a diverter is is a type of 
 call  forwarding  system done externally, apart from the fone company, which 
 is  a piece of hardware that will foreword the call to somewhere else. These 
 can  be  found  on  many  24 hour plumbers, doctors, etc. When you call, you 
 will  often  hear  a  click  and then ringing, or a ring, then a click, then 
 another  ring,  the second ring often sounds different from the first. Then, 
 the  other  side  picks  the  fone  up  and  you  ask about their company or 
 something  stupid, but DO NOT ANNOY them. Then eventually, let them hang up, 
 DO  NOT  HANG  UP  YOURSELF.  Wait  for the dial tone, then dial ANI. If the 
 number  ANI  reads  is different from the one you are calling from, then you 
 have  a  diverter.  Call  anywhere you want, for all calls will be billed to 
 the  diverter.  Also,  if  someone uses a tracer on you, then they trace the 
 diverter  and  you  are safe. Diverters can, however, hang up on you after a 
 period  of  time; some companies make diverters that can be set to clear the 
 line  after  a  set period of time, or click every once in a while, which is 
 super  annoying, but it will still work. Diverters are usually safer than LD 
 extenders,  but  there are no guarantees. Diverters can also be accessed via 
 phortress  fones.  Dial  the  credit  operator  and  ask for the AT&T CREDIT 
 OPERATOR.  They  will  put on some lame recording that is pretty long. Don't 
 say  anything  and  the  recording will hang up. LET IT HANG UP, DO NOT HANG 
 UP.  Then  the  line will clear and you will get a dial tone. Place any call 
 you  want  with  the following format: 9+1+NPA+Nxx+xxxx, or for local calls, 
 just  9+Nxx+xxxx. I'd advise that you call ANI first as a local call to make 
 sure you have a diverter.
      DLS - Dial Line Service.
      DNR - Also known as pen register. See pen register.
      DOV - Data-Over-Voice.
      DSI  -  Data  Subscriber  Interface.  Unit in the LADT system that will 
 concentrate  data  from  123  subscribers  to a 56k or a 9.6k bit-per-second 
 trunk to a packet network.
      DT - Dial tone.
      DTF  -  Dial Tone First. This is a type of fortress fone that gives you 
 a dial tone first.
      DTI - Digital Trunk Interface.
      DTMF  - Dual-Tone-Multi-Frequency, the generic term for the touch tone. 
 These  include  0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9  as  well as A,B,C,D. See silver box for 
 more details.
      DVM  -  Data  Voice  Multiplexor.  A system that squeezes more out of a 
 transmission  medium  and  allows  a  customer  to  transmit  voice and data 
 simultaneously to more than one receiver over the existing telefone line.
      emergency  break-in  -  Name given to the art of "breaking" into a busy 
 number  which  will  usually  result  in  becoming a third party in the call 
 taking place.
      end office - Any class 5 switching office in North America.
      end-to-end  signalling  -  A  mode  of  network  operation in which the 
 originating   central  office,  or  station,  retains  control  and  signals 
 directly  to  each successive central office, or PBX, as trunks are added to 
 the connection.
      ESS  - Electronic Switching System. "The phreak's nightmare come true." 
 With  ESS,  EVERY  SINGLE  digit  you  dial  is recorded, even mistakes. The 
 system  records  who  you  call, when you call, how long you talked, and, in 
 some  cases,  what  you  talked  about.  ESS  is programed to make a list of 
 people  who make excessive 800 calls or directory assistance. This is called 
 the  "800  Exceptional  Calling  Report."  ESS can be programed to print out 
 logs  of  who called certain numbers, such as a bookie, a known communist, a 
 BBS,  etc.  ESS is a series of programs working together; these programs can 
 be  very  easily  changed  to  do whatever the fone company wants ESS to do. 
 With  ESS,  tracing  is  done in MILLISECONDS and will pick up any "foreign" 
 tones  on the line, such as 2600 Hz. Bell predicts the whole country will be 
 on  ESS  by  1990!  You can identify an ESS office by the functions, such as 
 dialing  911  for  help, fortress fones with DT first, special services such 
 as  call forwarding, speed dialing, call waiting, etc., and ANI on LD calls. 
 Also, black boxes and Infinity transmitters will NOT work under ESS.
      extender  -  A  fone  line  that serves as a middleman for a fone call, 
 such  as  the  800  or 950 extenders. These systems usually require a multi-
 digit code and have some sort of ANI to trace suspicious calls with.
      facsimile  -  A  system  for  the  transmission of images. The image is 
 scanned  at  the  transmitter,  reconstructed  at the receiving station, and 
 duplicated on some form of paper. Also known as a FAX.
      FAX - See facsimile for details.
      FiRM - A large cracking group who is slowly taking the place of PTL and
the endangered cracking groups at the time of this writing.

      fortress  phone  - Today's modern, armor plated, pay fone. These may be 
 the  older,  3  coin/coin  first  fones or the newer, 1 coin/DT first fones. 
 There  are  also  others, see CF, DTF, and PP. Most phortresses can be found 
 in the 9xxx or 98xx series of your local Nxx.
      gateway city - See ISC.
      Gestapo  - The telefone company's security force. These nasties are the 
 ones  that  stake  out  misused  phortresses  as  well as go after those bad 
 phreaks that might be phucking with the fone system.
      green  base - A type of output device used by the fone company. Usually 
 light  green  in  color  and stick up a few feet from the ground. See output 
 device for more information.
      green  box - Equipment that will emulate the Coin Collect, Coin Return, 
 and  Ringback  tones.  This  means  that if you call someone with a fortress 
 fone  and  they  have  a  green  box,  by  activating it, your money will be 
 returned.   The   tones   are,   in   hertz,   Coin  Collect=700+1100,  Coin 
 Return=1100+1700,  and  Ringback=700+1700.  However,  before these tones are 
 sent,  the  MF  detectors  at  the  CO  must be alerted, this can be done by 
 sending  a  900+1500  Hz  or  single 2600 Hz wink of 90ms followed by a 60ms 
 gap, and then the appropriate signal for at least 900ms.
      gold  box  -  This  box  will  trace  calls,  tell if the call is being 
 traced, and can change a trace. 
      grey box - Also known as a silver box. See silver box.
      group  chief  -  The  name  of the highest ranking official in any fone 
 office. Ask to speak to these if an operator is giving you trouble.
      high-speed  data  -  A rate of data transfer ranging upward from 10,000 
 bits per second.
      H/M - Hotel/Motel.
      ICH - International Call Handling. Used for overseas calls.
      ICVT - InComing Verification Trunk.
      IDA  -  Integrated  Digital  Access. The United Kingdom's equivalent of 
      IDDD  -  International  Direct  Distance Dialing - The ability to place 
 international  calls  direct  without processing through a station. Usually, 
 one  would  have to place the call through a 011, station, or a 01, operator 
 assisted, type of setup.
      IDN  -  Integrated  Digital  Networks.  Networks  which provide digital 
 access and transmission, in both circuit switched and packet modes.
      in-band  -  The  method of sending signaling information along with the 
 conversion using tones to represent digits.
      INS - Information Network System. Japan's equivalent of ISDN.
      Intercept  -  The  intercept  operator  is the one you get connected to 
 when  there  are not enough recordings available to tell you that the number 
 has  been  disconnected  or  changed.  These usually ask what number you are 
 calling and are the lowest form of the operator.
      intermediate  point  -  Any class 4X switching office in North America. 
 Also known as an RSU.
      international  dialing  -  In order to call across country borders, one 
 must  use  the  format PREFIX + COUNTRY CODE + NATION #. The prefix in North 
 America  is  usually  011  for  station-to-station calls or 01 for operator-
 assisted calls. If you have IDDD, you don't need to place this prefix in.
      INTT - Incoming No Test Trunks.
      INWARD  -  An  operator  that  assists  your local TSPS '0' operator in 
 connecting  calls.  These  won't  question you as long as the call is within 
 their  service  area. The operator can ONLY be reached by other operators or 
 a  blue  box.  The  blue box number is KP+NPA+121+ST for the INWARD operator 
 that will help you connect to any calls in that area ONLY. 
      INWATS  -  Inward  Wide  Area Telecommunications Service. These are the 
 800  numbers  we  are all familiar with. These are set up in bands; 6 total. 
 Band  6  is the largest, and you can call band 6 INWATS from anywhere in the 
 US  except  the  state  where  the call is terminated. This is also why some 
 companies  have  a  separate 800 number for their state. Band 5 includes the 
 48  contiguous  states.  All the way down to band 1, which only includes the 
 states  contiguous to that one. Understand? That means more people can reach 
 a band 6 INWATS as compared to the people that can access a band 1 INWATS.
      IOCC  -  International  Overseas Completion Centre. A system which must 
 be  dialed  in  order  to  re-route fone calls to countries inaccessible via 
 dialing  direct.  To  route a call via IOCC with a blue box, pad the country 
 code  to  the RIGHT with zeroes until it is 3 digits. Then KP+160 is dialed, 
 plus the padded country code, plus ST.
      IPM  -  Interruptions  Per  Minute.  The number of times a certain tone 
 sounds during a minute.
      ISC  -  Inter-Nation  Switching  Centers.  Most  outgoing  calls from a 
 certain  numbering  system  will be routed through these "gateway cities" in 
 order to reach a foreign country. 
      ISDN   -  Integrated  Services  Digital  Network.  ISDN  is  a  planned 
 hierarchy  of  digital  switching  and transmission systems. Synchronized so 
 that  all  digital elements speak the same "language" at the same speed, the 
 ISDN would provide voice, data, and video in a unified manner.
      ITT  -  This  is  another large LD service. The extenders owned by this 
 company    are    usually    considered    dangerous.    The    format    is
      KP  -  Key  Pulse.  Tone that must be generated before inputting a fone 
 number using a blue box. This tone is, in hertz, 1100+1700.
      KP2  - Key Pulse 2. Tone that is used by the CCITT SYSTEM 5 for special 
 international calling. This tone is, in hertz, 1300+1700.
      LADT  -  Local Area Data Transport. LADT is a method by which customers 
 will send and receive digital data over existing customer loop wiring. Dial-
 Up  LADT  will  let  customers use their lines for occasional data services; 
 direct  access LADT will transmit simultaneous voice and data traffic on the 
 same line.
      LAN - Local Area Network.
      LAPB - Link Access Protocol Balanced. 
      LD - Long Distance
      Leave Word And Call Back - Another new type of operator.
      local  loop  -  When  a loop is connected between you and your CO. This 
 occurs when you pick the fone up or have a fone OFF-HOOK.
      loop  -  A  pair  or group of fone lines. When people call these lines, 
 they  can  talk  to  each  other. Loops consist of two or more numbers, they 
 usually  are  grouped  close  together somewhere in the Nxx-99xx portions of 
 your  exchange.  The lower number in a loop is the tone side of the loop, or 
 the  singing switch. The higher number is always silent. The tone disappears 
 on  the  lower  #  when someone dials the other side of the loop. If you are 
 the  higher  #,  you  will  have  to  listen to the clicks to see if someone 
 dialed  into  the  loop. There also are such things as Non-Supervised loops, 
 where  the call is toll-free to the caller. Most loops will be muted or have 
 annoying  clicks  at  connection, but otherwise, you might find these useful 
 goodies  scanning  the  99xx's in your exchange. Some loops allow multi-user 
 capability;  thus,  many  people  can talk to each other at the same time, a 
 conference  of  sorts.  Since loops are genuine test functions for the telco 
 during the day, most phreaks scan and use them at night. 
      MA  -  Ma  Bell,  the Bell Telesys Company. Telco, etc. See Ma Bell for 
 more information.
      Ma  Bell  -  The telephone company. The Bell Telesys Phone Company. The 
 company  you  phreak  and  hack  with. The company that doesn't like you too 
 much.  The company you often phuck with, and sometimes phuck up. The company 
 that can phuck u up if u aren't careful.
      make  period  -  The  time  when,  during pulse dialing, the circuit is 
 closed.  In  the US, this period is 60ms; however, foreign nations may use a 
 67ms  make  period.  Make  periods are also referred to in percentages, so a 
 60ms make period would be 60%, a 67ms as 67%.
      marine verify - Another type of operator.
      MCI  -  Yet  another  LD service that owns many dial-ups in most areas. 
 However,  the  codes from various areas may not be interchangeable. Not much 
 is  known  about  MCI;  however,  MCI  probably has some sophisticated anti-
 phreak equipment. The format is ACC-ESS#,12345,(NPA)Nxx-xxxx.
      MCI  Execunet  -  The  calling  card  equivalent  of the regular MCI LD 
 service,  but the codes are longer and interchangeable. For the local access 
 port  near  you,  call  (800)555-1212.  The  format  for  the  port  will be       
      Metrofone  -  Owned  by Western Union. A very popular system among fone 
 phreaks.  Call  Metrofone's  operator and ask for the local access number at 
 (800)325-1403.  The  format  is  ACC-ESS#,CODE,(NPA)Nxx-xxxx.  Metrofone  is 
 alleged to place trap codes on phreak BBS's. 
      MF  - Multi-Frequency. These are the operator and blue box tones. An MF 
 tone  consists  of  two  tones  from  a  set  of  six master tones which are 
 combined  to  produce  12  separate  tones.  These are NOT the same as touch 
 tones. See blue box tones for frequencies.
      mobile - A type of operator.
      NAP/PA - North American Pirate/Phreak Association. A large group of bbs
boards which include a lot of pirates/phreakers. I'm not quite sure where the
group will go from here.

      NON  PUB  DA  - A reverse type of CN/A bureau. You tell the service the 
 name  and the locality, they will supply the fone number. However, they will 
 ask  for  you  name,  supervisor's  name,  etc.  Use your social engineering 
 skills  here  (aka,  bullshitting skills). You also can get detailed billing 
 information from these bureaus.
      NPA  -  Numbering Plan Area. The area code of a certain city/state. For 
 example,  on  the  number  (111)222-3333,  the  NPA would be 111. Area codes 
 never  cross state boundaries sans the 800, 700, 900, and special exchanges. 
      Nxx  -  The exchange or prefix of the area to be dialed. For example of 
 the number (111)222-3333, the Nxx would be 222.
      OGVT - OutGoing Verification Trunk.
      OFF-HOOK  -  To  be  on-line,  to  have  the switchhook down. To have a 
 closed connection. At this point, you also have a local loop.
      ON-HOOK  -  To  be off-line, to have the switchhook up. To have an open 
      ONI  -  Operator Number Identification. Identifies calling numbers when 
 an   office   is   not  equipped  with  CAMA,  the  calling  number  is  not 
 automatically recorded by CAMA, or has equipment failures, such as ANIF.
      OPCR  -  Operator  Actions  Program.  Standard  TBOC  or equivalent "0" 
      OPEN  -  Northern  Telecom's  Open  Protocol  Enhanced  Networks  World 
      OSI   -   Open   System   Interconnection.  Form  of  telecommunication 
 architechture which will probobly fail to SNA.
      OST - Originating Station Treatment.
      OTC - Operating Telefone Company.
      out-of-band  -  Type  of signaling which sends all of the signaling and 
 supervisory  informations,  such  as  ON  and  OFF  HOOK, over separate data 
      output  device  -  Any  type  of interface such as cans, terminal sets, 
 remote  switching centers, bridging heads, etc., where the fone lines of the 
 immediate  area are relayed to before going to the fone company. These often 
 are  those  cases  painted light green and stand up from the ground. Most of 
 these  can  be  opened  with a 7/16 hex driver, turning the security bolt(s) 
 1/8  of  an  inch  counter-clockwise,  and  opening. Terminals on the inside 
 might  be  labeled "T" for tip and "R" for ring. Otherwise, the ring side is 
 usually on the right and the tip side is on the left.
      OUTWATS  - Outward Wide Area Telecommunications Service. These are WATS 
 that are used to make outgoing calls ONLY. 
      Paper  Clip  Method  -  This method of phreaking was illustrated in the 
 movie  War Games. What a phortress fone does to make sure money is in a fone 
 is  send  an  electrical  pulse  to  notify  the  fone  that a coin has been 
 deposited,  for  the  first  coin  only.  However,  by  simply grounding the 
 positive  end  of  the microphone, enough current and voltage is deferred to 
 the  ground  to  simulate  the first quarter in the coin box. An easy way to 
 accomplish  this is to connect the center of the mouthpiece to the coin box, 
 touch  tone  pad,  or anything that looks like metal with a piece of wire. A 
 most  convenient  piece  of wire is a bend out of a paper clip. Then you can 
 send  red  box  tones  through the line and get free fone calls! Also, telco 
 modified  fones  may  require  you  to  push  the  clip  harder  against the 
 mouthpiece,  or  connect  the mouthpiece to the earpiece. If pressing harder 
 against the mouthpiece becomes a problem, pins may be an easier solution.
      PBX  -  Private Branch eXchange. A private switchboard used by some big 
 companies  that  allow  access  to  the  OUTWATS line by dialing  a 8 or a 9 
 after inputting a code.
      PCM - Pulse Code-Modulated trunks. 
      PC  Pursuit  -  A  computer  oriented LD system, comparable to Telenet, 
 which  offers low access rates to 2400 baud users. Hacking on this system is 
 virtually impossible due to the new password format.
      pen  register  -  A  device  that the fone company puts on your line if 
 they  suspect  you  are fraudulently using your fone. This will record EVERY 
 SINGLE  digit/rotary  pulse  you  enter  into  the  fone  as  well  as other 
 pertinent  information,  which  may  include a bit of tapping. Also known as 
      Phortune 500 - An elite  group  of  users  currently paving the way for
 better quality in their trade.

      PHRACK   -  Another  phreak/hack  oriented  newsletter.  See  reference 
 section, phile 1.6 for more information.
      PHUN  -  Phreakers and Hackers Underground Network. They also release a 
 newsletter  that  is up to #4 at the time of this writing. See phile 1.6 for 
 more information on finding this phile.
      PIN  -  Personal  Identification  Number  -  The  last four digits on a 
 calling card that adds to the security of calling cards.
      plant  tests  -  test  numbers  which include ANI, ringback, touch tone 
 tests, and other tests the telco uses.
      Post Office Engineers - The United Kingdom's fone workers.
      PP  -  Dial  Post-Pay  Service. On phortress fones, you are prompted to 
 pay  for the call after the called party answers. You can use a clear box to 
 get around this.
      PPS - Pulses Per Second.
      printmeter  -  The  United  Kingdom's equivalent of a pen register. See 
 pen register for more info.
      PTE - Packet Transport Equipment.
      PTL - One of the bigger cracking groups  of all time. However, the group
has been dying off and only has a few nodes as of this writing.

      PTS - Position and Trunk Scanner.
      PTT - Postal Telephone Telegraph.
      pulse - See rotary phones.
      purple  box  -  This one would be nice. Free calls to anywhere via blue 
 boxing,  become  an  operator  via  blue box, conference calling, disconnect 
 fone  line(s),  tap  fones,  detect  traces,  intercept directory assistance 
 calls. Has all red box tones. This one may not be available under ESS.
      rainbow  box  -  An  ultimate  box. You can become an operator. You get 
 free  calls,  blue  box. You can set up conference calls. You can forcefully 
 disconnect  lines.  You can tap lines. You can detect traces, change traces, 
 and  trace as well. All incoming calls are free. You can intercept directory 
 assistance.  You have a generator for all MF tones. You can mute and redial. 
 You  have  all  the  red-box tones. This is an awesome box. However, it does 
 not exist under ESS.
      RAO  -  Revenue  Accounting Office. The three digit code that sometimes 
 replaces the NPA of some calling cards.
      RBOC - Regional Bell Operating Company.
      red  box  -  Equipment that will emulate the red box tone generated for 
 coin recognition in all phortress fones.
      red  box  tones - Tones that tell the phortress fone how much money was 
 inserted  in  the  fone  to make the required call. In one slot fones, these 
 are  beeps in pulses; the pulse is a 2200+1700 Hz tone. For quarters, 5 beep 
 tones  at 12-17 PPS, for dimes it is 2 beep tones at 5-8.5 PPS, and a nickel 
 causes  1  beep  tone  at  5-8.5  PPS.  For  three slot fones, the tones are 
 different.  Instead of beeps, they are straight dual tones. For a nickel, it 
 is  one  bell  at 1050-1100 Hz, two bells for a dime, and one gong at 800 Hz 
 for  a  quarter.  When  using  red  box  tones, you must insert at least one 
 nickel  before playing the tones, cuz a ground test takes place to make sure 
 some  money  has  been  inserted. The ground test may be fooled by the Paper 
 Clip  Method.  Also,  it has been known that TSPS can detect certain red box 
 tones, and will record all data on AMA or CAMA of fraudulent activity.
      regional center - Any class 1 switching office in North America.
      REMOB  -  Method  of  tapping  into  lines by entering a code and the 7 
 digit  number you want to monitor, from ACD Test Mode. A possibility of this 
 may be mass conferencing.
      ring  -  The  red wire found in fone jacks and most fone equipment. The 
 ring  also is less positive than the tip. When looking at a fone plug on the 
 end  of typical 4 wire fone line from the top, let's say the top is the side 
 with  the  hook,  the ring will be the middle-right wire. Remember, the ring 
 is red, and to the right. The three "R's" revived!
      ring-around-the-rosy  -  9  connections  in tandem which would cause an 
 endless loop connection and has never occurred in fone history.
      ringback  -  A  testing  number that the fone company uses to have your 
 fone  ring  back  after  you  hang  up.  You  usually  input the three digit 
 ringback  number  and  then  the last four digits to the fone number you are 
 calling from. 
      ring  trip  -  The  CO  process  involved  with stopping the AC ringing 
 signal when a fone goes OFF-HOOK.
      rotary  phone  -  The dial or pulse phone that works by hooking and un-
 hooking  the  fone  rapidly  in  secession  that  is directly related to the 
 number  you  dialed.  These  will  not  work  if another phone with the same 
 number is off-hook at the time of dialing.
      Rout  & Rate - Yet another type of operator; assists your TSPS operator 
 with rates and routings. This once can be reached at KP+800+141+1212+ST.
      RPE - Remote Peripheral Equipment.
      RQS  -  The  Rate  Quote System. This is the TSPS operator's rate/quote 
 system.  This  is  a  method your '0' operator gets info without dialing the 
 rate and route operator. The number is KP+009+ST.
      RSU  -  Remote  Switching  Unit.  The  class 4X office that can have an 
 unattended exchange attached to it.
      RTA - Remote Trunk Arrangement.
      SAC  -  Special  Area Code. Separate listing of area codes, usually for 
 special services such as TWX's, WATS, or DIAL-IT services.
      SCC  -  Specialized  Common  Carriers.  Common  Nxx  numbers  that  are 
 specialized for a certain purpose. An example is the 950 exchange.
      sectional center - Any class 2 switching office in North America.
      service monitoring - This is the technical name of phone tapping.
      SF  -  Supervision Control Frequency. The 2600 Hz tone which seizes any 
 open trunk, which can be blue boxed off of.
      short-haul - Also known as a local call.
      signalling  -  The  process  by  which  a  caller  or  equipment on the 
 transmitting  end of a line in: forms a particular party or equipment at the 
 receiving  end  that a message is to be communicated. Signalling is also the 
 supervisory  information  which  lets  the  caller  know the called know the 
 called  party  is  ready  to talk, the line is busy, or the called party has 
 hung up.
      silver  box  -  Equipment that will allow you to emulate the DTMF tones 
 A,B,C,D.  The  MF  tones  are, in hertz, A=697+1633, B=770+1633, C=852+1633, 
 D=941+1633.  These  allow  special functions from regular fones, such as ACD 
 Testing Mode.
      Skyline  -  Service  owned  by  IBM,  Comsat, and AEtna. It has a local 
 access  number in the 950 exchange. The fone number is 950-1088. The code is 
 either a 6 or 8 digit number. This company is alleged to be VERY dangerous.
      SNA  - System Network Architechture, by IBM. A possible future standard 
 of architechture only competed by OSI.
      SOST  -  Special  Operator Service Treatment. These include calls which 
 must  be  transferred  to  a  SOST switchboard before they can be processed; 
 services such as conferences, appointments, mobile, etc.
      SPC  -  Stored  Program  Control.  Form of switching the US has heavily 
 invested in.
      Sprint  -  One of the first LD services, also known as SPC. Sprint owns 
 many  extender  services  and is not considered safe. It is common knowledge 
 that Sprint has declared war on fone phreakers.
      SSAS  -  Station  Signaling  and  Announcement  System.  System on most 
 fortress  fones  that will prompt caller for money after the number, usually 
 LD  numbers,  has  been  dialed,  or the balance due before the call will be 
 allowed to connect.
      stacking  tandems  -  The  art  of  busying  out all trunks between two 
 points. This one is very amusing.
      STart  -  Pulse  that  is transmitted after the KP+NPA+Nxx+xxxx through 
 operator or blue boxed calls. This pulse is, in hertz, 1500+1700.
      station # - The last four digits in any seven digit fone number.
      STD  -  Subscriber Trunk Dialing. Mechanism in the United Kingdom which 
 takes  a  call from the local lines and legimately elevates it to a trunk or 
 international level.
      step  crashing  -  Method  of  using a rotary fone to break into a busy 
 line.  Example,  you  use  a rotary fone to dial Nxx-xxx8 and you get a busy 
 signal.  Hang  up  and  dial  Nxx-xxx7 and in between the last pulse of your 
 rotary  dial  and  before  the  fone would begin to ring, you can flash your 
 switchhook  extremely  fast.  If  you do it right, you will hear an enormous 
 "CLICK" and all of a sudden, you will cut into your party's conversation.
      STPS  -  Signal  Transfer  PointS.  Associated  with  various switching 
 machines and the new CCIS system.
      switchhook  -  The  button on your fone that, when depressed, hangs the 
 fone up. These can be used to emulate rotary dial fones if used correctly.
      SxS  -  Step-By-Step.  Also  known  as  the Strowger Switch or the two-
 motion  switch.  This  is  the switching equipment Bell began using in 1918. 
 However,  because  of  its  limitations,  such  as no direct use of DTMF and 
 maintenance  problems,  the  fone  company has been upgrading since. You can 
 identify  SxS  switching  offices  by  lack  of DTMF or pulsing digits after 
 dialing  DTMF, if you go near the CO it will sound like a typewriter testing 
 factory,  lack  of  speed  calling,  lack  of  special  services  like  call 
 forwarding  and  call  waiting,  and  fortress  fones want your money first, 
 before the dial tone.
      TAP - The "official" phone phreak's newsletter. Previously YIPL.
      T&C - Time and Charge.
      tapping  -  To listen in to a phone call taking place. The fone company 
 calls this "service monitoring." 
      TASI  - Time Assignment Speech Interpolation. This is used on satellite 
 trunks,  and basically allows more than one person to use a trunk by putting 
 them on while the other person isn't talking.
      Telenet  -  A  computer-oriented  system  of relay stations which relay 
 computer  calls  to  LD  numbers.  Telenet  has a vast array of access ports 
 accessible at certain baud rates.
      Tel-Tec  -  Another LD company that usually give out a weak connection. 
 The format is (800)323-3026,123456,(NPA)Nxx-xxxx.
      Tel-Tex  -  A  subsidiary  of  Tel-Tec,  but is only used in Texas. The 
 number is *800)432-2071 and the format is the same as above.
      terminal   -   A   point   where  information  may  enter  or  leave  a 
 communication  network.  Also,  any device that is capable of sending and/or 
 receiving data over a communication channel.
      tip  -  The green wire found in fone jacks and most fone equipment. The 
 tip  is  the more positive wire compared to the ring. When looking at a fone 
 plug  from  the  top, lets say the hook side is the top, the tip will be the 
 middle wire on the left.
      toll center - Any class 4 switching office located in North America.
      toll point - Any class 4P switching office in North America.
      Toll LIB - Reverse CN/A bureau. See NON PUB DA for more info.
      touch tone phone - A phone that uses the DTMF system to place calls.
      touch  tone  test  - This is another test number the fone company uses. 
 You  dial  the  ringback  number and have the fone ring back. Then, when you 
 pick  it up, you will hear a tone. Press your touch-tone digits 1-0. If they 
 are correct, the fone will beep twice.
      trace  -  Something  you don't want any fone company to do to you. This 
 is  when the fone company you are phucking with flips a switch and they find 
 the  number you are calling from. Sometimes the fone company will use ANI or 
 trap  and  trace  methods  to locate you. Then the local Gestapo home in and 
 terminate the caller if discovered.
      trap  and  trace  - A method used by the FBI and some step offices that 
 forces  a  voltage  through  the  line and traces simultaneously, which mean 
 that  you  can't  hang  up  unless the Pheds do, and pray you aren't calling 
 from your own house. Trap and trace is also known as the lock-in-trace.
      trap  codes  -  Working  codes owned by the LD company, not a customer, 
 that,  when  used,  will  send  a  "trouble card" to Ma Bell, no matter what 
 company  the  card  is coming from, and ESS will immediately trace the call. 
 Trap  codes  have  been in use for some time now, and it is considered safer 
 to  self-hack  codes  opposed  to  leeching them off of BBS's, since some LD 
 companies post these codes on phreak oriented BBS's.
      Travelnet  - Service owned by GM that uses WATS as well as local access 
 numbers. Travelnet also accepts voice validation for its LD codes.
      TSPS  -  Traffic  Service Position System. Operator that usually is the 
 one  that  obtains billing information for Calling Card or 3rd number calls, 
 identifies  called customer on person-to-person calls, obtains acceptance of 
 charges  on  collect  calls,  or identifies calling numbers. These operators 
 have an ANI board and are the most dangerous type of operator.
      TWX  -  Telex  II  consisting of 5 teletypewriter area codes. These are 
 owned  by  Western  Union.  These  may  be  reached  via another TWX machine 
 running at 110 baud. You can send TWX messages via Easylink (800)325-4122.
      USDN  -  United  States  Digital  Network. The US's version of the ISDN 
      videotext  -  Generic  term  for  a  class of two-way, interactive data 
 distribution  systems  with  output typically handled as in teletext systems 
 and input typically accepted through the telephone or public data network.
      WATS  -  Wide  Area Telecommunications Service. These can be IN or OUT, 
 see the appropriate sections.
      WATS  Extender  - These are the LD companies everyone hacks and phreaks 
 off of in the 800 NPA. Remember, INWATS + OUTWATS = WATS Extender.
      white box - This is a portable DTMF keypad.
      XBAR  -  Crossbar.  Crossbar is another type of switching equipment the 
 fone  company  uses  in  some areas. There are three major types of Crossbar 
 systems  called  No.1 Crossbar (1XB), No.4 Crossbar (4XB), and No.5 Crossbar 
 (5XB).  5XB  has been the primary end office switch of MA since the 60's and 
 is  still  in  wide  use. There is also Crossbar Tandem (XBT) used for toll-
      XBT - Crossbar Tandem. Used for toll-switching. See XBAR.
      YIPL - The classic "official" phreak's magazine. Now TAP.
 [Phile 1.5]
                            Other Fone Information
                          Voltages & Technical Stuff
      When  your telephone is ON-HOOK, there is 48 volts of DC across the tip 
 and  the  ring.  When  the  handset of a fone is lifted a few switches close 
 which  cause a loop to become connected between you and the fone company, or 
 OFF-HOOK.  This  is  also known as the local loop. Once this happens, the DC 
 current  is able to flow through your fone with less resistance. This causes 
 a  relay  to  energize  which  causes other CO equipment to realize that you 
 want  service.  Eventually,  you  will  end  up  with a dial tone. This also 
 causes  the 48 VDC to drop down to around 12 VDC. The resistance of the loop 
 also  drops  below the 2500 ohm level; FCC licensed telephone equipment must 
 have an OFF-HOOK impedance of 600 ohms.
      When  your  fone rings, the telco sends 90 volts of pulsing AC down the 
 line  at  around 15-60 Hz, usually 20 Hz. In most cases, this causes a metal 
 armature  to  be attracted alternately between two electromagnets; thus, the 
 armature  often  ends up striking two bells of some sort, the ring you often 
 hear  when  non-electronic  fones  receive  a  call. Today, these mechanical 
 ringers  can  be  replaced  with  more  modern  electronic  bells  and other 
 annoying  signaling  devices,  which  also explains why deaf people can have 
 lights and other equipment attached to their fones instead of ringers.
      When  you  dial on a fone, there are two common types of dialing, pulse 
 and  DTMF.  If  you  are like me, you probably don't like either and thought 
 about  using  MF  or  blue  box  tones.  Dialing  rotary  breaks  and  makes 
 connections  in  the  fone  loop, and the telco uses this to signal to their 
 equipment  that  you  are  placing  a  call.  Since  it  is one fone that is 
 disconnecting  and  reconnecting  the  fone  line,  if someone else picks up 
 another  fone on the same extension, both cannot make pulse fone calls until 
 one  hangs  up. DTMF, on the other hand, is a more modern piece of equipment 
 and  relies  on tones generated by a keypad, which can be characterized by a 
 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9/A,B,C,D   keypad.  Most  fones  don't  have  an  A,B,C,D 
 keypad,  for  these  frequencies  are  used  by the telco for test and other 
                           Scanning Phun Fone Stuff
      Scanning  is  the  act  of either randomly or sequentially dialing fone 
 numbers  in  a  certain  exchange when you are looking for several different 
 things.  These  things  could  be  carriers,  extenders, ANI, "bug tracers," 
 loops,  as  well  as  many other interesting "goodies" the fone company uses 
 for test purposes.
      When  scanning  for carriers, your local BBS probably has some scanning 
 programs,  as  these became popular after the movie WARGAMES, but what these 
 do  are  to  call  every  fone  in an exchange, or a specified range of fone 
 numbers  in  certain  exchanges  to  look  for  possible  carriers and other 
 interesting  computer  equipment.  So,  if your computer finds a carrier, or 
 what  seems  like  a carrier, it will either print it out or save it in some 
 file  for  later  reference.  With  these carriers one finds, one can either 
 call  them  and find out what each is or, if one of them is interesting, one 
 can  hack  or  attempt to break into some interesting systems available, not 
 to the general public, of course.
      Scanning  telephone "goodies" requires time and patience. These goodies 
 usually  cannot  be traced by most unmodified modems, as the frequencies and 
 voice  transmissions  cannot be differentiated from other disturbances, such 
 as  the  annoying  operator saying, "We're sorry... blah blah..". Anyway, to 
 scan  these,  you  usually get a regular carrier scanner and, with the modem 
 speaker  on,  sit  by  your wonderful computer and listen in on the scanning 
 for  any  interesting  tones, voices, or silences, which could be telco fone 
 phun  numbers,  for  us  of  course!  Then write these down, and spread them 
 around,  use,  abuze,  etc.  if  you dare. Anyway, most telefone goodies are 
 located  in  the 99xx suffixes of any fone exchange. If you found everything 
 you  think in the exchanges you have scanned, try the 0xxx and 1xxx suffixes 
 in  that order. You might even find loops, ANI, and other phun things if you 
 mess around enough.
 [Phile 1.6]
                        References & Suggested Reading
      The  following  is  a  list of references and suggested reading for the 
 beginning,  as well as advanced phreak. See you local fone phreak for these, 
 or  call  your  local  phreak  oriented  BBS for information regarding these 
 2600 Magazine
 Aqua Box, The
      By Captain Xerox & The Traveler
 Basic Alliance Teleconferencing
      By The Trooper
 Bell Hell
      By The Dutchman & The Neon Knights
 Better Homes And Blue Boxing
      By Mark Tabas
 BIOC Agent 003's Course In Basic Telecommunications
      By BIOC Agent 003
 History Of British Phreaking, The
      By Lex Luthor & The Legion Of Doom
 Home Phone Tips
      By 13th Floor Enterprises
 How To Build A Blotto Box
      By The Traveler
 How To Build A Cheese Box
      By Mother Phucker
 Introducing The Beige Box - Construction & Use
      By The Exterminator and The Terminal Man
 Integrated Services Digital Network [ISDN]
      By Zander Zan
 LOD/H Technical Journal
 Loops I've Known And Loved
      By Phred Phreak
 PHRACK Magazine
      Edited By Taran King and Knight Lightning UMCVMB
 Phreakers And Hackers Underground Network [PHUN]
      Edited By Red Knight 
      The Toll Center Bulletin Board System (718)358-9209
 TAP - The Official Phreak Newsletter
      Room 603
      147 West 42nd Street
      New York, NY 10036

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